Volcano Data Criteria




Contents


Volcano Name

With few exceptions, we have used the names listed by the compilers of the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW), the contributors to the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior (IAVCEI) post-Miocene data sheets, and individual volcanologists reporting on additional volcanoes. In the case of volcanoes that comprise islands, we have preferred broader island names, locatable on standard maps, rather than crater names locally used to identify the full island volcano, and we have dropped modifiers, such as "Mount," when they seemed unnecessary. We have used square brackets, however, to indicate alternative names that are widely encountered in the literature (e.g. "Cerro Azul [Quizapu]" in Chile). For Japanese volcanoes we have listed the more widely used Hepburn style of spelling. Readers familiar with older spellings of Indonesian names will note that newer official names are used here, so that "TJ", "DJ", "J" and "OE" appear as "C", "J", "Y", and "U", respectively. Diacritical marks have recently been added to mixed-case volcano names. Because of software issues, however, they have not been added to volcano names, synonyms, or subsidiary feature names in all caps.

A few names have also been changed from the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World to reflect the broader time coverage of this compilation. Historically active features that are clearly part of a larger feature active in Holocene time have been listed under the larger feature. For example, the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World lists volcano number 0603-31= as Bromo; however, Bromo is but one of several youthful features in Tengger caldera, so we have used the caldera name and listed Bromo as a subsidiary feature. An extension of the time-coverage problem is the grouping problem mentioned above. Amboy, a solitary cinder cone 200 km east of Los Angeles, is entered as a single volcano, and so is the Michoacán-Guanajuato Field, made up of nearly 1,000 cinder cones dotting a 200 x 200 km area in Mexico. Clearly not all "volcanoes" are equal, and caution must be used in any serious counting of them.


Country / Location

Scientists typically view volcanoes in their geologic context, but their political setting is also significant. Although the hazards posed by volcanoes do not respect political boundaries, the attention devoted to mitigating those hazards is a function both of national priorities and the availability of economic resources. In this field we list the country with political jurisdiction for each volcano. In some cases these may be territories. For example, one of the world's most active volcanoes, Piton de la Fournaise, is under the administration of France, although it is located on island of Reunion in the Indian Ocean. It should be noted that although we make an attempt to be current, country names periodically change, and we are not an official source of country names. In some cases a volcano's summit will straddle political boundaries; in this situation both countries will be listed. Some volcanoes lie outside the jurisdiction of any country. In these cases a general location or subregion name will be listed and identified as a location rather than a country.


Volcano Number

The volcano numbering system, developed by the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World in the late 1930s and used in all their volumes, is geographic and hierarchical. The Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW) is a regional series of publications by IAVCEI. The first (Indonesia) was published in 1951, and the current set of 22 volumes has been an invaluable reference source for all volcanologists as well as the initial source of information for our data file. Volumes for Alaska and Iceland will soon complete the first editions of the CAVW. Although seriously dated, the catalogs remain an valuable source for maps, photographs, early bibliographies, and the petrochemistry of eruptive products.

The first two numerals identify region, the next two identify subregion, and the last two or three (after the hyphen) identify individual volcanoes in that subregion. Original CAVW volcano numbers have been retained, where possible, to aid cross-referencing, but this has required, for the many volcanoes added since CAVW publication, the interpolation of 3-digit volcano numbers between 2-digit CAVW numbers. Volcanoes bearing numbers identical to those used by the CAVW carry an "=" symbol at the end of the number to facilitate reference to the CAVW for fuller descriptions.

When we have added a volcano between those already numbered, we have added a third numeral. Thus Lipari, between Stromboli (0101-04=) and Vulcano (0101-05-), is given the number 0101-041 rather than the next available two-digit number at the end of the Italian subregion. This scheme permits natural geographic sequencing of volcanoes while retaining original CAVW numbering.

When adding numbers in regions not previously numbered by the CAVW, and when renumbering in regions such as the Canary Islands and the western United States, we have used only two numerals for the individual volcano number but have designated the fact that it cannot be found under this number in the CAVW by adding a "-" in the last place. Crater Lake, in the Cascade Range of Oregon, for example, is numbered 1202-16- here, but was not included in the CAVW.


Volcano Type (Morphology)

Volcanoes come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Under the heading of type, we have attempted to characterize the morphology of each volcano. An individual volcano may be composed of a variety of landforms, such as when a stratovolcano is truncated by a caldera that is itself filled by lava domes and pyroclastic cones--but we show only the most common feature on the main volcano page and in the One-Line Summary section. Additional landform types, generally listed in order of decreasing size, can be found following the volcano name after clicking on the Synonyms and Subsidiary Features button on the main volcano page. We have followed the CAVW entry in most cases, although little attempt has been made to standardize usage. Profiles are illustrated here, but the reader should consult a volcanological textbook for further description (and recognize that different volcanologists have used different terms for the same features). Interest in the landforms of other planets has prompted a more quantitative approach to the morphology of Earth's volcanoes. Lacking a standardized nomenclature, however, we have generally listed the volcano types as given in the various sources used in our compilation.

Types of volcanoes (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). Schematic profiles are vertically exaggerated by 2:1 (shaded) and 4:1 (dark) from the data of Pike (1978). Relative sizes are only approximate, as dimensions vary within each group.


Volcano Status

This element states, essentially, the most persuasive reason for including each volcano in this compilation. A "Historical" eruption, documented during or shortly after observation, is the best evidence for inclusion. We list more than 540 volcanoes with historical eruptions, the criterion used by many people terming a volcano "active." However, we have tried to provide more even coverage of the globe's volcanoes, many of which carry no written record until 80 centuries after the first historically documented eruption in our file (Central Turkey, in 6200 BC). To do this we have included 183 volcanoes with dated eruptions during the last 10,000 years, as determined by techniques such as "Radiocarbon" dating. For volcanoes with different eruptions dated by different techniques, we have entered the technique that seemed to confirm Holocene activity most certainly. We should mention, however, that the "Anthropology" status covers volcanoes with undated (but recent) activity described in native legends as well as activity dated by buried artifacts.

The remaining categories cover the many volcanoes (about half of our file) for which Holocene eruptions have not been dated, but are either likely or possible. These categories will be discussed in order of decreasing certainty.

Holocene

First in certainty for undated eruptions comes the variety of general evidence lumped together under "Holocene" status. These locations, though without dated products, are virtually certain to have been active in postglacial time. Evidence includes: (1) volcanic products overlying latest Pleistocene glacial debris, (2) youthful volcanic landforms in areas where erosion should have been pronounced in many thousands of years, and (3) vegetation patterns that would have been far richer if the volcanic substrates were more than a few thousand (or hundred) years old. We have included in this category volcanoes mapped by original authors simply as "Holocene" or "postglacial." Some subjectivity is involved in this assignment, and the compiler is dependent upon the field experience of the original author. Many early investigators, unaware of slow erosion rates in arid regions, described lava flows as "extremely fresh, probably erupted within the last few hundred or few thousand years," but later radiometric dating has shown them to be Pleistocene or even older. Capulin volcano in New Mexico (part of the Raton-Clayton volcanic field) and the Lunar Crater volcanic field in Nevada, for example, were once thought to be Holocene, but now have been dated at about 59,000 and 18,000 years before present, respectively.

We have generally required strong evidence for "Holocene" age assignments, but nearly 500 volcanoes have this status in our file, and roughly another 170 (with distinctly less certainty) are identified as "Holocene?" (marked with a query symbol). We have similarly required strong evidence such as explicit Pleistocene age dates for removal of volcanoes from our Holocene file; we have reclassified volcanoes as "Holocene?" where age criteria are more ambiguous.

The "Holocene?" group includes locations for which equally reliable sources disagree over the existence of Holocene volcanism. Also included are those for which uncertainty is expressed by the original author (e.g., "perhaps Holocene age"), and line straddlers (e.g., "late Pleistocene or early Holocene").

The Pleistocene/Holocene boundary was defined as 10,000 years BP (before present) at the 1969 INQUA Congress. More recent work with precise tree-ring chronologies has confirmed the 14C 10,000-year boundary and we use it as the time period covered by our data file.

Thermal Features

Many volcanoes with obviously recent, but undated, eruptions are still visibly hot, as evidenced by surface thermal features. "Fumarolic" locations are those characterized by steam and volcanic gas, or fume, reaching the surface. Temperatures are near the boiling point of water and a substantial supply of groundwater is necessary. Previously we used the word "Solfataric" when sulfur dominated the volcanic gases, but we have since encountered inconsistencies with this usage and have combined it with "Fumarolic" here. When the volume of water is large compared to steam and gas, however, the words "Hot springs" are used. A "Fumarolic" or "Hot springs" status is assigned, however, only where we have seen no explicit evidence for Holocene eruptive activity.

N.H. Fisher, in the introduction to his 1957 CAVW Melanesia catalog, described difficulty in distinguishing between "fumarolic" and "solfataric" on the basis of temperature or gases, but felt that the former indicated a higher degree of activity and closer association with magma. Other workers have noted strong fluctuation in sulfur production through time. We believe that usage has been too inconsistent to merit retaining the two terms. "Solfatara" is the name of a tuff ring at Campi Flegrei that erupted in 1198.

Three deep-sea sites with "Hot springs" status were included in an earlier compilation. These sea-floor springs, which reached temperatures of 350°C, were on oceanic rift zones at the divergence of lithospheric plates. As marine exploration has continued, however, these hot springs are found to be common, and we now restrict our inclusion of deep-sea centers to those with dated eruptive activity.

Uncertain

Our least certain category, "Uncertain," is used for volcanoes with possible Holocene activity, but with sufficiently questionable documentation that we wanted to draw attention to that uncertainty. These entries include mariner's equivocal reports of submarine volcanism and volcanoes known only by uncertain reports of historical activity (with no other evidence of Holocene eruptions).

Pleistocene

One additional element must also be mentioned here as uncertain. We have followed the CAVW in including some thermal features, such as fumarolic fields, despite absence of other evidence for their Holocene volcanism. In fact, some areas, such as the Valles and Long Valley calderas in the western United States, show good evidence precluding eruptions in the last 10,000 years (but equally good evidence of still-molten magma below the surface). For about two dozen such volcanoes the word "Pleistocene-" precedes the appropriate thermal feature listed above, including the designation "Pleistocene-Geysers" used to identify uncommon variations of hot springs from which steam and water are periodically erupted. Although many thermal features require only a high local heat flow and groundwater, we have not included such features unless they are clearly related to volcanism.

There are some "youthful" volcanoes that we have not included. A volcano mapped as "Quaternary" would not be entered unless more specific Holocene age data were available. When a group of volcanoes is listed in a region of "Pleistocene-Holocene volcanism", we have entered only those for which Holocene evidence is available. Volcanoes listed as Holocene, or "active", in previous compilations, but later found to be Pleistocene or older, have also been excluded, as have a few "volcanoes", well established in the literature, but later found to be misidentifications.

Pleistocene time, covering the recent ice ages, is the geologic epoch starting roughly 1.6 million years ago and ending at the start of the Holocene, or "post-glacial time," around 10,000 years ago. The larger time unit, the Quaternary period, includes both Pleistocene and Holocene epochs.

Summary of Status Categories

In summary, the Status category conveys the following hierarchical progression from high to low certainty of Holocene volcanism: (1) "Historical," (2) dated eruptions based on a spectrum of techniques from "Hydrophonic" through "Radiocarbon" to "Anthropology", which is transitional to (3) "Holocene," (4) thermal features such as "Fumarolic", (5) "Uncertain", and (6) thermal features preceded by the word "Pleistocene-." Any entry can (and probably does) carry evidence to be found under lower levels of this hierarchy, but we have entered the highest Status category indicated by the data known to us. Furthermore, the Status listed is that of the most recent eruptive activity. A major Pleistocene center with only a single Holocene flank vent, for example, would have a "Holocene" status.


Last Known Eruption

The date of the last known confirmed eruption is listed here as a quick reference. Many additional details about this and other eruptions are provided in the Eruptive History section for the volcano. Discredited or uncertain eruptions are not shown here but are included in the complete Eruptive History list for each volcano. Note that eruptions are updated annually, and new eruptions may have occurred after this list was generated.


Elevation

Elevation of each volcano's highest point is listed in meters above or below sea level. Elevation for the same volcano may differ because of different surveying techniques or because of volcanological changes (e.g. the 400-m change in Mount St. Helens' summit height in 1980). As with latitude and longitude, when separate values for the same feature appear in different references we display here the one that seems to be most reliable. When unable to resolve a difference any other way, we normally display the more recent figure. Some topographic maps do not list spot elevations for the summits of volcanoes; in this case the elevation of the last contour is used, followed by a "+". Most elevations, both in the CAVW and original references, are given in meters, but when we have had to convert from other units we have attempted to retain a measure of the original's accuracy by rounding the conversion to the same number of significant figures as in the original. Thus a 2,600 ft elevation, apparently rounded to the nearest 100 ft, is listed here as 790 m rather than the 792 m figure that is the exact metric equivalent (but implies more accuracy than in the original measurement). Volcano elevations in feet displayed to the right of the elevation in meters are calculated from data rounded to the nearest meter and thus have an accuracy of ± 2 feet.

Less than 4% of the listed volcanoes, most of them submarine, have elevations unknown to us. Submarine volcano elevations (or depths) are particularly unreliable because changes are often rapid, dramatic, and unrecorded. We normally list the most recent elevation when several are given, but caution should be used with all submarine volcano elevations.

Roughly 30% of the volcanoes in our list are within 1,000 m of sea level, roughly 60% are within 2,000 m and about four-fifths are within 3,000 m of sea level. Less than 100 volcanoes have elevations above 5,000 m (16,400 ft): most of these are in the South American Andes and nearly two-thirds of the total are in that chain's central segment (15-28°S).

The highest volcano with historical eruptions is Llullaillaco in the northern Chilean Andes. Its elevation is 6,739 m and three eruptions were recorded there in the second half of the last century. Active fumaroles, however, mark the summit crater of Nevado Ojos del Salado, 267 km to the south of, and 148 m higher than, Llullaillaco. The youthful nature of Nevado Ojos del Salado suggests that its lack of historical eruptions stems only from its remote location, and it is rightfully the world's highest volcano. The only higher mountain in the Americas, Argentina's Aconcagua at 7,021 m, was listed as active by Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle, but Chilean colleagues tell us that the mountain is not a volcano and its height results from imbricate thrust faulting.

The deepest submarine volcano in our list has less significance because the record is so poor. Seawater not only hides eruptions from view, but its weight also provides enormous pressure on the deep-sea floor, inhibiting (and often prohibiting) the explosive release of volcanic gases that frequently calls attention to shallow submarine eruptions. A few historical reports, however, give some credence to explosive volcanism on the deep-sea floor: 1955 activity at 4,000 m near Hawaii, 1865 activity at 4,200 m west of the Azores, uncertain 1852 activity at 5,300 m in the central mid-Atlantic, and an 1850 event at about 6,000 m depth off Taiwan. Non-explosive volcanism regularly takes place at great depths on the ocean floor, as shown by photography of fresh volcanic features at depths of ~5 km in the Cayman Trough, Caribbean Sea, but our record of it is exceedingly scanty.


Latitude and Longitude

Geographic coordinates are listed in decimal parts of a degree. This facilitates both computer manipulation of data and rapid estimation of distances between points (one degree of latitude being equal to 111 km). To retain some indication of the accuracy of original locations, when converting from minutes and seconds we have listed three digits to the right of the decimal point only where seconds were originally specified. We list two digits if only degrees and minutes were given in the original (e.g., 71°41' = 71.68° whereas 71°41' 01" = 71.684°). Readers should also beware of obviously generalized locations such as X.00° or Y.50°. When different references give different positions for the same volcano, we attempt to determine which is most reliable, and list that location here. For some regions, where our archive of topographic maps permits, we have obtained more precise locations than given in older sources. Maps for the Kurils and Kamchatka, for example, have permitted correction of deliberately mislocated volcano positions that were a cold war artifact. Note that some locations are the center point of broad volcanic fields; these are flagged by an "*" after the latitude. Furthermore, even at individual volcanoes the coordinates given do not necessarily match the eruption site. Tens of kilometers may separate eruptive centers of a single volcano, particularly in large caldera complexes and rift settings.

Distribution of the world's volcanoes with respect to latitude has gained wide interest because of the relationship between large volcanic eruptions and climate. Major explosive eruptions drive volcanic ash and gas tens of kilometers into the stratosphere where, because fine ash and aerosol particles settle slowly and are not washed out by rain, they may be distributed around the globe by stratospheric circulation. For months or years before settling back to Earth, then, this layer of volcanic aerosol acts as a solar radiation filter, lowering temperatures on the Earth below it. The extent to which this process has affected global climate in the past is a matter of considerable scientific debate, but the fact that individual eruptions can affect climate is established (the catastrophic eruption of Indonesia's Tambora in 1815, for example, contributed to a lowering of global temperatures that brought June snow-storms to New England and widespread crop failure to northern latitudes). The Earth's rotation strongly influences stratospheric circulation patterns and therefore any concentration of the world's volcanoes by latitude is important in assessing their effect on global climate.

Two thirds of the volcanoes are in the northern hemisphere and only about one fifth are between 10°S and the South Pole. The northern hemisphere concentration reflects the fact that two-thirds of the world's land area is also north of the equator, but nevertheless indicates the greater vulnerability of the northern hemisphere to volcanically induced climate change.

The most northerly volcano in our list is an unnamed submarine volcano in the Arctic Ocean only 192 km from the North Pole. Three eruptions have been attributed to this site. The next most northerly volcano, on Jan Mayen island and 2,104 km from the pole, has been recently quite active with vigorous eruptions in 1970 and early 1985.

The southernmost historically active volcano is Mount Erebus, 1,387 km from the South Pole on Ross Island, Antarctica. This volcano was erupting violently when first seen by Ross, in 1841, and is active today with a molten lava lake that has been circulating in its summit crater since at least 1972. The many young cinder cones of the Royal Society Range, 80 km closer to the pole are probably Holocene, and local ash layers have been found in glaciers, but no eruptions have been dated.

No significant concentration of volcanoes by longitude is obvious, but over 1,000 volcanoes (or two-thirds of those listed) lie around the Pacific Ocean margin forming the well known "Ring of Fire." Linear belts of volcanoes are a striking feature of the planet and they reflect, in most cases, convergence of the major tectonic plates that make up the Earth's outer shell.

Plate Tectonics: schematic cross-section illustrating processes (Simkin and others, 1994). Artist José F. Vigil.

These vast plates, moving at speeds of only a few centimeters per year, form a shifting jig-saw puzzle with the major earthquake and volcano belts marking the unrest at plate boundaries. Where plates converge, with the thinner plate normally being thrust down under the thicker, a line of volcanoes grows above (and as a result of) the under-thrusting. Because this type of volcanism is normally both explosive and near (if not on) land, we have a reasonably complete listing of these volcanoes (approximately two-thirds of this file). The spreading apart of major plates, however, is characterized by the relatively nonexplosive outpouring of fluid lava and commonly takes place one or more kilometers below the surface of the ocean. Consequently we have a very incomplete record of this important type of volcanism. Rift volcanism forms only 5% of our eruption file and is dominated by those few regions, such as East Africa and Iceland, where the spreading apart of plates takes place above sea level. The remainder of our file--less than a tenth of the total--represents volcanism within major plates rather than at their boundaries. This takes place when deep "hot spots" penetrate the overlying crust and old volcanic products are carried slowly away from the volcanic center by the moving plate. Although our record of intraplate volcanism is probably better than that for the volcanism of spreading ocean ridges, we no doubt miss many examples, particularly from the sea floor.

Pie diagrams contrasting the volcanism that we see with that we don't (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). Left diagram shows proportion of documented historical eruptions from subduction zones (black), mid-ocean ridges (stipple), and hotspot settings (white). Right diagram shows proportion of annual magma budget in the same settings (with same symbols).


Geological Summaries

A brief background paragraph summarizes the geological history of each volcano. The text length was designed to fit in a single on-screen display in the interactive computer program in the Natural History Museum's Geology, Gems, and Minerals exhibit hall. References thus are kept to a minimum and are usually restricted to those pertinent to the volcano's age assignment (Status). Complete references for the volcano and eruption data in the Volcanoes of the World portion of this website can be found under "Data Sources."


Synonyms and Subsidiary Features

Synonym names appearing here may include older terms that are no longer in use. Subsidiary features of a volcano are divided into four categories: Cones (constructional features that can range in size from cinder cones to stratovolcanoes or shield volcanoes), Craters (vents or destructional features), Domes, and Thermal Features. There is obvious overlap between Cones and Craters, but a single entry appears under the topographically dominant feature. Two names may appear on the same line; the first name is a synonym of the name in brackets. Alternatively, a second name in parentheses is an alternate spelling of the first name. We caution users that subsidiary feature listings may be far from comprehensive, but we considered the inclusion of available data to be potentially useful despite its incompleteness.

In recent years we have begun adding location coordinates and elevation data to subsidiary feature data, but note that this remains incomplete for most earlier entries. Latitude-Longitude data mirror those for the volcano itself in that the presence of 1-2 decimal places indicates data accurate to the nearest degree and minute, while 3 decimal places marks entries with data to the nearest degree, minute, and second. Note, however, that some 3-decimal entries represent data rounded to the nearest 30 seconds (half minute).


Data Sources

The volcano and eruption data of this digital version of Volcanoes of the World (Siebert and Simkin, 2002-) are updated from its hardcopy predecessor (Simkin and Siebert, 1994) and originate from more than 3500 references. These references are accessible in this website through both regional and volcano-specific listings. The basic building block of the Smithsonian's volcano database is the Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World (CAVW), a series of regional volcano catalogs published by IAVCEI beginning in 1951. In order to more easily locate these important compilations (which contain many primary references not listed in our compilation), these IAVCEI regional catalog references are bolded in our regional and volcano-specific listings.

The listings appearing here are not intended to be a comprehensive bibliography of references for a particular volcano or region, but represent those references that are cited as the sources of the volcano and eruption data in Volcanoes of the World. Several other global compilations have been helpful: among them are IAVCEI data sheets of post-Miocene volcanoes (1975-80), Volcano Letter reports of the U S Geological Survey from 1926-1955 (compiled in Fiske et al., 1987), independent compilations by Latter (1975) and Gushchenko (1979), and a caldera compilation by Newhall and Dzurisin (1988). Major sources of eruption data subsequent to or supplementing the CAVW can be found in a series of annual summaries by Gustav Hantke published between 1939 and 1962 (mostly in the IAVCEI publication Bulletin of Volcanology), and annual eruption compilations by the Volcanological Society of Japan (1960-96) and Smithsonian Institution reports (since 1968) in various formats, compiled in McClelland et al., (1985) and in the Activity Reports section of this website (Venzke et al., 2002-). The data sources referenced focus almost exclusively on Holocene volcanism and emphasize papers on volcanic stratigraphy and physical volcanology. Abstracts are typically not referenced unless they contain significant data not in other sources. As with the Georef bibliographic database, diacritical marks are not used.

References are linked directly to data in our Volcano Reference File. This sometimes results in apparently incorrect citations in lists of data sources for a volcano or a region. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Alert readers will note a backlog of uncited references for publications in recent years, which we will continue to address.


Regional Maps

Volcano locations are shown in two symbol sizes, with the smaller triangles representing volcanoes with uncertain Holocene eruptions. Red triangles on each map mark volcanoes of that region; yellow triangles indicate volcanoes of other regions. The physiology of the world and regional maps on this web site originates from two data sets, plotted using ER Mapper. Subaerial topography uses the GTOPO30 data set of the U S Geological Survey, and submarine topography originates from satellite altimetry data (Smith and Sandwell, 1997) of sea-surface topography, which mimics that of the sea floor.


Volcano Images

Volcano photos by Smithsonian scientists are supplemented by many other images by volcanologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and other organizations around the world. Photographers are acknowledged with individual photo credits, and their collective contributions have greatly helped to give a visual footprint to the world's volcanoes and their eruptions. Photo galleries for volcanoes show volcano morphology images first, followed by eruption images linked to the start date of the eruption. For each eruption (which may have lasted for multiple years), an image with a summary caption appears first, followed by additional images for that eruption in chronological order.


References

CAVW Editors (1951-1975). Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World. Rome: International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, 22 volumes.

Fiske R S, Simkin T, Nielsen E A (eds) (1987). The Volcano Letter. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Inst Press, 1536 p (Reprinting of 1926-1955 issues of the U S Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory).

Gushchenko I I (1979). Eruptions of Volcanoes of the World: A Catalog. Moscow: Nauka Pub, Acad Sci USSR Far Eastern Sci Center, 474 p (in Russian).

Hantke G (1939-62). Übersicht über die Vulkanische Tätigkeit. Eruption summaries published in the Zeitschrift Deutsche Geologie Gesellschafft in 1939 and the Bulletin of Volcanology in 1951, 1953, 1955, 1959, and 1962.

IAVCEI (1973-80). Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI data sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chem Earth's Interior.

Latter J H (1975). The history and geography of active and dormant volcanoes. A worldwide catalogue and index of active and potentially active volcanoes, with an outline of their eruptions. Unpublished manuscript.

McClelland L, Simkin T, Summers M, Nielsen E, and Stein T C (eds.) (1989). Global Volcanism 1975-1985. Prentice-Hall and American Geophysical Union, 653 p.

Newhall C G, and Dzurisin D (1988). Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1855: 1108 p, 2 vol.

Pike R J (1978). Volcanoes on the inner planets: some preliminary comparisons of gross topography. Proc 9th Lunar Planet Sci Conf, p 3239-3273.

Siebert L, and Simkin T (2002-). Volcanoes of the World: an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes and their Eruptions. Smithsonian Institution. Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3, (http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/).

Simkin T, and Siebert L (1994). Volcanoes of the World, 2nd edition. Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Simkin T, Unger J D, Tilling R I, Vogt P R, and Spall H (1994). This Dynamic Planet, 1 x 1.5 m wall map, 2nd edition, SI, USGS, and NRL.

Smith W H F, and Sandwell D T (1997). Global seafloor topography from satellite altimetry and ship depth soundings. Science, 277: 1957-1962.

U S Geological Survey (2002). GTOPO30. Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), U S Geol Surv EROS Data Center http://edcdaac.usgs.gov.

Venzke E, Wunderman R W, McClelland L, Simkin, T, Luhr, J F, Siebert L, and Mayberry G (eds.) (2002-). Global Volcanism, 1968 to the Present. Smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-4 (http://www.volcano.si.edu/reports/).

Volcanological Society of Japan (1960-96). Bulletin of Volcanic Eruptions, no 1-33 [Annual reports issued 1 to 3 years after event year, published since 1986 in the Bulletin of Volcanology].