Volcanoes of the World (VOTW) - Manam (251020) Citation
When the new website was launched in May 2013 following three years of database conversion and restructuring, this catalog of Holocene volcanoes and eruptions was renamed "Volcanoes of the World" with an initial version of 4.0, in recognition of the three previous editions of the book published by Smithsonian scientists (in 1981, 1994, and 2010) with the same title.
General Database Citation:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.8.1. Venzke, E (ed.). Smithsonian Institution. Downloaded 15 Jul 2019. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013
Specific Volcano Profile Citation:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Manam (251020) in Volcanoes of the World, v. 4.8.1. Venzke, E (ed.). Smithsonian Institution. Downloaded 15 Jul 2019 (https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=251020). https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.VOTW4-2013
Only a major change to the database structure will trigger a change to the top version number. Second-level updates will be incremented following the completion of updates to a calendar year of current eruptions. The 4.0 version had eruptions updated through 2010, so 4.4.0 was complete (to the best of our knowledge) through 2014. Minor third-level updates will be done for all other reasons, including general updates from work with the professional literature, current eruptions based on Weekly or Bulletin reports, and minor database schema changes.
Improvements to the functionality, content, or appearance of the website are not logged as part of the database versions. Previous versions are not available, so any use of content from the website should include the database version number and download date as shown above.
|4.8.1||11 July 2019||Current eruptions updated through 11 July 2019.|
|4.8.0||17 May 2019||Completed review of 2018 eruptions. Current eruptions updated through 17 May 2019. General updates to volcano data. As of this update we list 1,430 volcanoes thought to have erupted or been otherwise volcanically active during the Holocene, and 1,241 on the Pleistocene list; confirmed eruptions total 9,885.|
|4.7.7||12 Apr 2019||Current eruptions updated through 12 April 2019. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.7.6||15 Feb 2019||Current eruptions updated through 15 February 2019. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.7.5||21 Dec 2018||Current eruptions updated through 20 December 2018. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.7.4||28 Sep 2018||Current eruptions updated through 27 September 2018. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.7.3||24 Aug 2018||Current eruptions updated through 22 August 2018. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.7.2||07 Aug 2018||Added a new information tab on volcano profile pages for GVP map holdings, and made over 3,000 scanned maps available for viewing. Added an FAQ and profile page text noting what Holocene volcanoes are located within UNESCO properties. Minor updates to volcano data. Current eruptions not updated.|
|4.7.1||13 Jul 2018||Current eruptions updated through 13 Jul 2018. General updates to volcano data. Since the last update there have been some frequently asked questions posted, including some that provide summary data about the number of reccent and ongoing eruptions.|
|4.7.0||01 Jun 2018||Completed review of 2017 eruptions. Current eruptions updated through 24 May 2018. General updates to volcano data. As of this update we list 1,436 volcanoes thought to have erupted or been otherwise volcanically active during the Holocene, and 1,237 on the Pleistocene list; confirmed eruptions total 9,843.|
|4.6.7||20 Mar 2018||Current eruptions updated through 16 March 2018. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.6.6||13 Feb 2018||General updates to volcano data. Many updates to the Pleistocene volcano list, which is now available to download as a spreadsheet; they are also now included in the KML placemark file.|
|4.6.5||19 Jan 2018||Current eruptions updated through 19 January 2018. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.6.4||29 Dec 2017||Current eruptions updated through 29 December 2017. General updates to volcano data; four volcanoes moved from Holocene to Pleistocene list.|
|4.6.3||17 Nov 2017||Current eruptions updated through 31 October 2017. General updates to volcano data.|
|4.6.2||28 Sep 2017||General updates to volcano data.|
|4.6.1||7 Aug 2017||Current eruptions updated through 30 July 2017. General updates to volcano data, lists, and eruption histories. Volcanoes with known Pleistocene eruptions and current unrest (usually geothermal activity), but no Holocene eruptions, have been removed from the list of Holocene volcanoes. Information about those volcanoes is still available because of the website expansion to show Pleistocene volcanoes in 2016 (see v. 4.4.2 update). The Holocene list is now restricted to those volcanoes thought to have actually erupted in that time period.|
|4.6.0||15 Jun 2017||Completed review of 2016 eruptions. Current eruptions updated through 31 May 2017. General updates to volcano data, lists, and eruption histories. Completed audit of missing elevation data for Holocene volcanoes. As of this update we list 1,495 volcanoes thought to have erupted or been otherwise volcanically active during the Holocene, and 1,179 on the Pleistocene list.|
|4.5.6||8 May 2017||Current eruptions updated through at least 1 March. Deformation Activity data revised, with images and references added. General updates to volcano lists and eruptions.|
|4.5.5||31 Mar 2017||Added Deformation Activity data, available through a database search and on 198 volcano profiles.|
|4.5.4||15 Feb 2017||Added Emission Activity data, available through a database search and on 118 volcano profiles. Updated Smithsonian Samples data, including new fields.|
|4.5.3||16 Dec 2016||Current eruptions updated through 14 December 2016. General updates.|
|4.5.2||9 Nov 2016||General updates.|
|4.5.1||27 Sep 2016||Current eruptions updated through 23 September 2016.
Many corrections to volcanic feature locations. More than 2/3 of the geologic summary remarks have now been reviewed and edited in the past 3 years. Removed 19 volcanoes from the Holocene list and added 8 to the Pleistocene list since the June update.
|4.5.0||14 Jun 2016||Completed review of 2015 eruptions. Current eruptions updated through 31 May 2016.
General updates. Corrections to Pleistocene list. All recent eruptions have a VEI assigned. As of this update we list 1,532 volcanoes thought to have erupted or been otherwise volcanically active during the Holocene, and 1,158 on the Pleistocene list.
|4.4.3||3 Mar 2016||Current eruptions updated through 1 March 2016.
General updates. Corrections to Pleistocene list and feature locations.
|4.4.2||19 Feb 2016||Current eruptions updated through 15 January.
General updates. Added list of Pleistocene volcanoes to the website. Audited and corrected subfeature locations; website updated to include features in individual volcano Google Earth placemarks. Added volcano-specific citation format and link.
|4.4.1||16 Sep 2015||Current eruptions updated through 26 August.
General updates. Added data table with sample information from the Smithsonian collections, which is listed on volcano profile pages.
|4.4.0||9 Jul 2015||Completed review of 2014 eruptions. Current eruptions updated through 30 June.
General updates with a focus on reviewing inclusion of volcanoes with uncertain evidence and timing of last eruption when it is undated. Changed Holocene Evidence categories to merge Uncertain Evidence and Uncertain Observations into Evidence Uncertain; renamed Evidence Undated to Evidence Credible. As of this update we list 1,540 volcanoes thought to have erupted or been otherwise volcanically active during the Holocene.
|4.3.4||9 April 2015||Current eruptions updated through 7 April. General updates. Restricted the term Somma to a feature type rather than a general volcano type.|
|4.3.3||15 December 2014||Current eruptions updated through 2 December. General updates. Fixed coordinates for map search. Now displaying the "Unknown Source" volcano as a holder for eruptions not assigned to a specific volcano.|
|4.3.2||14 November 2014||Current eruptions updated through 11 November. General updates.|
|4.3.1||30 September 2014||Current eruptions updated through late September.
General updates. All Bulletin reports are now being served from the database. Condensed the volcano type and features types of "Cinder Cone," "Scoria Cone," and "Pumice Cone" into "Pyroclstic Cone." Changed all "Volcanic neck" and "Volcanic plug" to "Volcanic remnant."
|4.3.0||3 July 2014||Completed review of 2013 eruptions. Current eruptions updated through June 2014.
The Holocene volcano list now includes those with known Pleistocene eruptions but exhibiting current volcanic unrest; note that the website prior to 2013 included these as well, listed as "Pleistocene with thermal activity." Renamed the categories used to show the evidence (previously called the "Status") for inclusion in the Holocene list: Eruption Observed, Eruption Dated, Undated Evidence, Unrest / Holocene, Uncertain Evidence, Uncertain Observation, and Unrest / Pleistocene. Audited the "Uncertain Observation" category (48 entries), resulting in the removal of 20 entries and changing another 14 to a different category. Audited "Unrest / Pleistocene" category (42 entries). Reviewed all Greater Caucasus volcanoes. Reviewed volcanoes with volcano type of "Hydrothermal field" (15) and reclassified; removed HTF as a morphology type. With those changes, as of this update we list 1,559 volcanoes thought to have erupted or been otherwise volcanically active during the Holocene.
|4.2.5||12 May 2014||Changed Tectonic Settings descriptions.|
|4.2.4||24 April 2014||Audited and corrected eruption dates of +/- 1000 years. Merged South Sister and North Sister to make Three Sisters. Merged Lomonosov Group into Chikurachki.|
|4.2.3||14 February 2014||Completed updates based on VAAC requests. Japanese volcano name changes. Argentina review.|
|4.2.2||December 2013||Variety of general updates. Current eruptions through October 2013.|
|4.2.1||30 September 2013||Eruptions updated through July 2013 based on available Weekly and Bulletin reports.|
|4.2.0||30 September 2013||Completed adding 2012 eruptions.|
|4.1.0||30 September 2013||Completed adding 2011 eruptions.|
|4.0||20 May 2013||Completed conversion to SQL Server from the Volcano Reference File (VRF) database in Paradox as used in the Volcanoes of the World (3rd ed) book. Eruption data complete through 2010.|