Types and Processes Gallery

Volcanoes and Humans
Volcanoes and humans have an uneasy coexistence. Volcanic eruptions can cause severe destruction. More than three dozen historical eruptions have caused more than 1000 fatalities. The heavy weight of ashfall can demolish the roofs of houses and buildings. Lahars, debris avalanches, and tsunamis can extend the devastating effects of an eruption well beyond the volcano. The beneficial aspects of volcanoes, in contrast, are less well known. Volcanoes provide essential soil nutrients for agriculture; volcanic soils cover more than 1.5 million sq km and form a significant component of the surface area in countries along the Pacific Rim of Fire. It is no accident that some of the most densely populated areas on Earth are in proximity to volcanoes. Volcanic materials are a source of aggregate for construction and additives used in a wide variety of commercial products. Geothermal heat is a major source of electrical power. Volcanoes provide spectacular scenic destinations that are featured in many national parks and whose aesthetic attractions are of great economic benefit to surrounding communities.

Banda Api
Residents of Neira moved to the west side of the island on May 9, 1988, at the onset of the eruption of Banda Api, and began evacuating. Residents of nearby Gunung Api Island, where the eruption occurred, had been evacuated the previous two days. As many as 10,000 persons were evacuated during the eruption; the only people to lose their lives were four persons who disregarded evacuation orders.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1988 (U.S. Geological Survey).


Crater Lake
Volcanoes form some of Earth's most spectacular scenery and have been designated as national parks in many countries. The natural landscapes in these parks are a source of visual inspiration and varied recreational opportunities and can also provide economic benefit to surrounding communities. Crater Lake National Park in the Oregon Cascade Range was established in 1902. This image looks across to Wizard Island and the western caldera rim from near the park visitor center and the Crater Lake Lodge.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1997 (Smithsonian Institution)


Dieng Volcanic Complex
A stone monument is inscribed with a list of eruptions from the Dieng volcanic complex in central Java. The second column from the right lists fatalities (most recently 149 in 1979), which have occurred many times as a result of phreatic explosions and toxic gas emissions. The designers of the monument have somewhat ominously left abundant space to record future events.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1986 (U.S. Geological Survey).


Fujisan
Mount Fuji provides a backdrop to a fireworks display at Lake Yamanaka, one of five lakes at the northern base of the volcano. Resort towns around the volcano sponsor summer festivals featuring elaborate displays of "hanabi" (fireworks). The line of diagonal lights extending up the right-hand side of Fuji-san are mountain huts along the ten stations of the Fuji-Yoshida climbing route, the most popular of the six major summer ascent routes.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1963 (Smithsonian Institution).


Galunggung
Heavy ashfall from explosive eruptions from Galunggung volcano damaged or destroyed hundreds of houses, including these in a village near Kadong. The eruptions forced evacuation of 62,000 persons living in densely populated areas near the volcano.

Photo by Jack Lockwood, 1982 (U.S. Geological Survey).


Ibusuki Volcanic Field
Weathering of volcanic ash deposits can produce rich volcanic soils that are fertile nutrients for agriculture, such as these fields at the foot of Kaimon volcano in southern Kyushu. It is no accident that population density is high near volcanoes--although volcanic ash soils underlie less than 1% of the Earth's land surface, they support 10% of the world's population. Volcanic soils support crops such as rice fields in Indonesia, the Philippines, and Japan, sugar cane in Hawaii and Central America, and vineyards in Italy.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1988 (Smithsonian Institution).


Ijen
A sulfur miner carries baskets of elementally pure sulfur from a hydrothermal area near the shore of Kawah Ijen lake in eastern Java. Large blocks of sulfur are broken off with hammers and carried laboriously out of the crater in baskets before being transported to a sulfur mill on the SE flank of the Ijen caldera. The disorientating perspective in this view from near the SE crater lake rim looks down on the multi-hued surface of the crater lake.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 2000 (Smithsonian Institution).


Kilauea
The inexorable forces of nature often bring human efforts to a halt. Lava flows from the current east rift zone eruption of Hawaii's Kilauea volcano frequently overran the coastal highway, enveloping traffic signs such as this one. Efforts to reconstruct the highway were eventually abandoned in the face of continued vigorous production of lava flows that reached the coast over a broad area.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1987 (Smithsonian Institution).


Pinatubo
Heavy ashfall from the June 15, 1991, eruption of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines caused this World Airways DC-10 to set on its tail. About 4 cu km of ash was erupted on June 15. It accumulated to depths of 10-15 cm at this airfield at the Cubi Point Naval Air Station, 40 km SSW of Pinatubo.

Photo by R.L. Rieger, 1991 (U.S. Navy).


Rainier
New housing is under construction on a mudflow deposit that originated from Mount Rainier, partially obscured by clouds in the center background. The tree stump in the foreground, left for landscaping purposes at the entrance to the housing development, was buried by the Electron mudflow about 500 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1994 (Smithsonian Institution).