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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake persists during July 2017-April 2018

Chillan, Nevados de (Chile) Hundreds of ash-bearing explosions; dome appears in crater in mid-December 2017

Marapi (Indonesia) Two explosions during April-May 2018 cause ashfall to the southeast

Nyiragongo (DR Congo) Thermal anomalies show that lava lake remains active through May 2018

Ebeko (Russia) Ash explosions remained frequent through May 2018, with plumes typically rising more than 1 km

Langila (Papua New Guinea) Gradual decline in activity after July 2017, but continuing through May 2018

Pacaya (Guatemala) Pyroclastic cone fills MacKenney crater; lava flows emerge from fissures around the crater rim

Reventador (Ecuador) Near-daily explosions produce 1-km-high ash plumes and incandescent blocks on all flanks, October 2017-March 2018.

Santa Maria (Guatemala) Daily explosions with minor ash and block avalanches at Caliente, November 2017-April 2018

Sheveluch (Russia) Intermittent thermal anomalies along with gas and steam emissions continue through April 2018

Kikai (Japan) Elevated thermal activity during February-April 2018; one earthquake swarm in March

Dieng Volcanic Complex (Indonesia) Phreatic explosion on 1 April 2018 at Sileri Crater



Masaya (Nicaragua) — June 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake persists during July 2017-April 2018

Nicaragua's Volcan Masaya has an intermittent lava lake that has attracted visitors since the time of the Spanish Conquistadores; tephrochronology has dated eruptions back several thousand years. The unusual basaltic caldera has had historical explosive eruptions in addition to lava flows and actively circulating magma at the lava lake. An explosion in 2012 ejected ash to several hundred meters above the volcano, bombs as large as 60 cm fell around the crater, and ash fell to a thickness of 2 mm in some areas of the park. Brief incandescence and thermal anomalies of uncertain origin in April 2013 were followed by very little activity until the reemergence of the lava lake inside Santiago crater was reported in December 2015. By late March 2016 the lava lake had grown and intensified enough to generate a significant thermal anomaly signature (BGVN 41:08, figure 49) which persisted at a constant power level through April 2017 (BGVN 42:09, figure 53) with an increase in the number of thermal anomalies from November 2016 through April 2017. Although the MIROVA thermal anomaly signal decreased slightly in intensity during May 2017, INETER scientists reported continued strong convection at the lava lake. Similar activity continued throughout July 2017-April 2018 and is covered in this report with information provided by the Instituto Nicareguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and satellite thermal data.

A persistent thermal signature in the MIROVA data during July 2017-April 2018 supported the visual observations of the active lava lake at the summit throughout this period (figure 58). MODVOLC thermal alerts were also issued every month, with the number of alerts ranging from a high of 17 in November 2017 to a low of six in April 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. MIROVA thermal data for Masaya for the year ending on 11 May 2018 showed a persistent and steady level of heat flow consistent with the observations of the active lava lake inside Santiago crater. Courtesy of MIROVA.

INETER made regular visits to the summit most months in coordination with specialists from several universities to gather SO2 data; CO2, H2S and gravity measurements were also taken during specific site visits. Thermal measurements around the lava lake inside Santiago crater taken on 24 February 2018 indicated temperatures ranging from 210-389°C. Seismicity remained very low throughout the period. The lava lake was actively convecting each time it was visited, and Pele's hair was abundant around the summit area (figures 59-64).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. The lava lake at Masaya was actively convecting on 22 August 2017 when observed by INETER scientists. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua. Agosto, 2017).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Pele's hair near the summit of Masaya on 22 August 2017. Scale is likely a few tens of centimeters. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua. Agosto, 2017).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. The summit crater (Santiago) of Masaya with an active lava lake and fumarole plume (white circle) during 8-16 January 2018. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua. Enero, 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Thermal measurements of the lava lake inside Santiago crater at the summit of Masaya on 24 February 2018 indicated temperatures in the 210-389°C range. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua. Febrero, 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Nindiri plateau, the broad, flat area inside the summit crater of Masaya, was covered with Pele's hair and basaltic tephra on 6 March 2018. Courtesy of Carsten ten Brink.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. The lava lake inside Santiago crater at Masaya was actively convecting on 1 April 2018. Courtesy of Alexander Schimmeck.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Alexander Schimmeck, flickr (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/alschim/), photo used under Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) (URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/); Carsten ten Brink, flickr (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/carsten_tb/), photo used under Creative Commons license Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0) (URL: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/).


Nevados de Chillan (Chile) — June 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevados de Chillan

Chile

36.868°S, 71.378°W; summit elev. 3180 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Hundreds of ash-bearing explosions; dome appears in crater in mid-December 2017

Nevados de Chillán is a complex of late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes constructed in the Chilean Central Andes. The Nuevo and Arrau craters are adjacent vents on the NW flank of the cone of the large stratovolcano referred to as Volcán Viejo. An eruption started with a phreatic explosion and ash emission on 8 January 2016 from a new crater on the E flank of Nuevo. Explosions continued through September 2017 with ash plumes rising several kilometers and Strombolian activity sending ejecta hundreds of meters (BGVN 42:10). This report covers continuing activity from September 2017-May 2018. Information for this report is provided by Chile's Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)-Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), and by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

About 150 ash-bearing explosions were recorded during September and October 2017, with plumes rising almost 2 km above the summit. Activity decreased during the second half of October, and no ash plumes were recorded during November. A significant increase in activity in early December led to over 200 explosions with ash emissions. An overflight on 21 December 2017 produced images of a fissure at the bottom of the new crater. The presence of a growing lava dome in the crater was confirmed in early January 2018. Frequent Strombolian explosions produced nighttime incandescence at the summit and down the flanks. Hundreds of ash-bearing explosions occurred during February 2018; the largest plume rose 2.5 km above the summit, and many smaller pulses produced ash and steam that rose 1.5 km. Sporadic incandescence at night and continued explosions of magmatic gases were typical during March 2018. A large explosion on 31 March coincided with the first appearance of a low-level MODIS thermal anomaly in the MIROVA data, and incandescence from explosions at night indicated that the dome continued to grow during April and May. SERNAGEOMIN reported that the top of the lava dome was visible from the E flank for the first time at the end of May 2018.

Activity during September-December 2017. SERNAGEOMIN reported 117 ash-bearing explosions between 16 and 30 September 2017 (figure 17). The one that released the most energy occurred on 19 September. The plumes of steam and ash rose up to 1,800 m above the crater. The Buenos Aires VAAC observed a narrow plume of ash in satellite imagery moving N at 3.9 km altitude and dissipating rapidly on 15 September, and a similar plume moving SE near the summit on 26 September 2017.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Over 100 ash-bearing explosions were reported at Nevados de Chillán during late September 2017, including ones on 15 September (upper left), 20 September (upper right), 23 September (lower left) and 24 September (lower right). Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

During the first two weeks of October 2017 there were 30 ash-bearing explosions recorded. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported small sporadic puffs of ash on 6 October 2017 that were visible in the webcam (figure 18), but not in satellite data, and a similar dense but short-lived plume on 14 October. SERNAGEOMIN reported a series of pulsating low-energy explosions visible in the webcam that drifted SW on 11 and 12 October 2017, and rose no more than 1 km above the summit.. Only two ash-bearing explosions were recorded during the second half of the month. The volcano was much quieter during November; plumes of steam were observed rising only 100 m above the summit throughout the month, with no ash-bearing plumes reported.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Ash plumes at Nevados de Chillán on 6 (left) and 11 (right) October 2017 were two of the 30 plumes recorded during the first half of October. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

A significant increase in activity in early December 2017 resulted in 245 explosions associated with ash emissions during the first two weeks, some rising as high as 3,000 m above the summit. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported a puff of ash on 1 December that rose to 3.7 km altitude and drifted S, dissipating rapidly. The next day another plume rose slightly higher, to 4.3 km. A dense emission on 4 December rose to 4.9 km and drifted SE before dissipating in a few hours and was not visible in satellite data. On 11 and 14 December, short-lived emissions rose to 4.3 km (figure 19). A yellow cloud of sulfur formed on 11 December within 300 m of the active crater. The webcams also recorded sporadic nighttime incandescence during increased explosions in the early morning of 14 December. Continuous steam emissions with pulses of minor ash were first noted on 16 December; they were visible in satellite imagery the next day at 3.9-4.3 km altitude drifting NE, and by 18 December, consisted only of water vapor.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. An increase in explosive activity at Nevados de Chillán in December 2017 resulted in numerous explosions with ash plumes including on 1 December (upper left), 2 December (upper right), 4 December (lower left), and 11 December (lower right). Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

In a special report released on 19 December, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in surface activity over the previous three days, recording minor explosions averaging four per hour, and seismic pulses lasting 5-10 minutes; they also noted harmonic tremor with the increase in explosion frequency. A detailed review of images taken during an overflight on 21 December revealed a fissure 30-40 m long trending NW at the bottom of the crater. Incandescence at night was regularly observed after 20 December (figure 20), and ash emissions rose to 3,000 m above the summit during the second half of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Phreatic explosions with steam and minor ash were common at Nevados de Chillán during the last two weeks of December 2017. Ash emissions and pyroclastic flows (top image) were noted during 12-19 December, and numerous incandescent blocks accompanied the explosions on 28 December (bottom image). Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Activity during January-April 2018. SERNAGEOMIN volcanologists identified a growing lava dome within the new crater during two overflights on 9 and 12 January 2018 (figures 21); it was emerging from the fissure first identified on 21 December. During the first two weeks of January SERNAGEOMIN reported 1,027 pulsating explosions associated primarily with magmatic gases, and very little ash that rose up to 1,000 m above the summit. Confirmed ash emissions were reported on 11 January at 4.3 km altitude faintly visible moving SE in satellite imagery, according to the Buenos Aires VAAC. Nighttime incandescence from the growing dome was periodically observed (figure 22). Based on the overflight data and satellite imagery, they calculated a growth rate for the dome of 1,360 m3 per day. They estimated the size at 37,000 m3 by mid-month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. During an overflight at Nevados de Chillán on 9 January 2018, SERNAGEOMIN scientists observed the growing dome within the crater. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Incandescence at night increased from the growing dome at Nevados de Chillán on 13 January 2018. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Overflights on 23 and 31 January measured temperatures of 305-480°C over the surface of the dome, with the highest values at the fissure. The growth rate calculated after these overflights was 2,540 m3 per day. The webcam revealed emissions of ash and water vapor during the second half of the month that rose less than 1,000 m above the summit crater.

An explosion on 2 February 2018 sent an ash plume to 2,500 m above the summit (figure 23). Vibrations from the explosion were reported in Las Trancas (10 km) and at the Gran Hotel Termas de Chillan (5 km). SERNAGEOMIN began referring to the active crater as Nicanor, and the dome was named Gil-Cruz. During the first two weeks of February, 840 explosions associated with plumes of magmatic gases were reported. The plumes generally rose as high as 1,500 m above the summit and were often accompanied by incandescence at night. Two overflights on 7 and 14 February recorded temperatures of 500 and 550°C. SERNAGEOMIN determined a dome growth rate of 1,389 m3 per day, and a total volume of 82,500 m3 by mid-month. At least four explosions on 14 February were characterized by two simultaneous plumes, one of white steam and the other darker with a higher ash content according to SERNAGEOMIN. The highest plume that day reached 1,200 m above the summit crater. The Buenos Aires VAAC also reported a small pulse of ash on 14 February that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted SE. The dome continued to grow slowly during the rest of February, with a small increase in size noted during a 22 February flyover. Plumes of mostly water vapor with minor ash rose a maximum of 1,080 m above the summit during the hundreds of small explosions that took place.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. A substantial explosion on 2 February 2018 at Nevados de Chillán sent an ash plume 2,500 m above the summit and generated vibrations that were felt 10 km from the summit. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Sporadic incandescence at night and continued explosions of magmatic gases were typical during March 2018, with plume heights reaching 2,000 m over the Nicanor crater. During an overflight on 11 March, a temperature of 330°C was measured around the Gil-Cruz dome, which had grown to a volume of about 100,000 m3 but still remained below the crater rim. Morphological changes in the still-slowly growing dome included fracture lines and unstable large vertical blocks. A significant decrease in seismic energy was noted beginning on 24 March that ended when two larger explosions occurred on 30 and 31 March (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. A substantial explosion on 31 March 2018 at Nevados de Chillán generated distinct ash and steam plumes (top) and sent several large blocks down the flanks (bottom). Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

During an overflight on 3 April 2018, scientists observed energetic pulses of steam and minor ash from the central NW-SE trending fissure inside the crater. They noted that lapilli from explosions had been ejected as far as 1 km from the fissure, and that the Gil-Cruz dome had increased in volume since 11 March; they also observed an area of subsidence on the top of the growing dome (figure 25). The dome was expanding toward the E side of the crater, and the top of the dome rose above the crater rim. They measured a maximum temperature of 670°C on the surface of the dome. The decrease in daily seismicity, the larger explosions of the previous days, and the increased size of the dome with greater risk of collapse, pyroclastic flows, and lahars, all led SERNAGEOMIN to raise the alert level at Chillan to Orange on 5 April 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. The growing lava dome at Nevados de Chillán, referred to as Gil-Cruz, had an active steam plume at the center when photographed by SERNAGEOMIN during an overflight on 3 April 2018. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emissions of steam and gas with minor ash along with a small pulse of ash on 2 April 2018. Low-altitude plumes of mostly water vapor were common throughout April 2018. Incandescence from explosions was visible on clear nights during the month, and ejecta rose as high as 250 m above the crater and was scattered around the crater rim. Seismicity remained constant at moderate levels related to the repeated explosions and the growth of the dome. A faint ash plume could be seen in visible satellite imagery on 18 April at 3.7 km altitude drifting E.

Observations reported on 1 May 2018 from the previous flyover indicated that the rate of growth of the dome had slowed to about 690 m3 per day, and the estimated volume had grown to about 150,000 m3. Activity remained at similar levels throughout May 2018. Seismic instruments recorded long-period seismicity and tremor episodes similar to previous months that corresponded with surface explosions and the extrusion of the lava dome. Seismic energy levels were moderate but fluctuated at times. Plumes of predominantly water vapor with minor gas rose a few hundred meters above the summit drifting generally S or SE before dissipating. Incandescence was often observed on clear nights, accompanied by ejection of incandescent blocks that were observed generally 100 to 150 m above the active crater. A larger explosive event took place on 7 May. Occasional plumes with minor ash were reported on 11 May. SERNAGEOMIN reported on 24 May 2018 that the top of the lava dome was visible from the E flank.

Geologic Background. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active of the Central Andes. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, Cerro Blanco (Volcán Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group. Volcán Viejo (Volcán Chillán), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcán Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcán Viejo in elevation. The Volcán Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcán Nuevo between 1973 and 1986 and eventually exceeded its height.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Beaucheff 1637/1671, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.onemi.cl/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Marapi (Indonesia) — June 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Marapi

Indonesia

0.38°S, 100.474°E; summit elev. 2885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two explosions during April-May 2018 cause ashfall to the southeast

The Marapi volcano on Sumatra (not to be confused with the better known Merapi volcano on Java) previously erupted on 4 June 2017, generating dense ash-and-steam plumes that rose as high as 700 m above the crater and caused minor ashfall in a nearby district (BGVN 42:10). The volcano is monitored by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation or CVGHM).

On 27 April 2018, a phreatic explosion produced an ash plume that rose 300 m above the crater rim (figure 8); a thin ash deposit was reported in the Cubadak area (Tanah Datar Regency), about 12 km SE. Another explosion at 0703 on 2 May 2018 (figure 9) produced a voluminous dense gray ash plume that rose 4 km above the crater rim and drifted SE; seismic data recorded by PVMBG indicated that the event lasted just over 8 minutes (485 seconds).

The Alert Level has remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), where it has been since August 2011. Residents and visitors have been advised not to enter an area within 3 km of the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Ash plume from a phreatic explosion at Marapi on 27 April 2018. Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho (BNPB).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. An explosion from Marapi on 2 May 2018 sent an ash plume to a height of 4 km. Courtesy of PVMBG.

Geologic Background. Gunung Marapi, not to be confused with the better-known Merapi volcano on Java, is Sumatra's most active volcano. This massive complex stratovolcano rises 2000 m above the Bukittinggi plain in the Padang Highlands. A broad summit contains multiple partially overlapping summit craters constructed within the small 1.4-km-wide Bancah caldera. The summit craters are located along an ENE-WSW line, with volcanism migrating to the west. More than 50 eruptions, typically consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been recorded since the end of the 18th century; no lava flows outside the summit craters have been reported in historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/).


Nyiragongo (DR Congo) — June 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyiragongo

DR Congo

1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3470 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies show that lava lake remains active through May 2018

As has been the case since at least 1971, the active lava lake in the summit crater of Nyiragongo was present during a tourist visit in June 2017, and seismicity was recorded in the crater in October 2017 (BGVN 42:11). Thermal data from satellite-based instruments shows that an open lava lake remained through 23 May 2018. MIROVA analysis of MODIS satellite thermal data (figure 64) shows nearly daily strong thermal anomalies. Similarly, MODVOLC alerts for the same time period shows a consistently frequent number of anomalies (figure 65).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. Thermal anomaly MIROVA plot of log radiative power at Nyiragongo for the year ending 23 May 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Map showing MODVOLC alert pixels at Nyiragongo, reflecting MODIS satellite thermal data, for the year ending 23 May 2018. Each pixel shows a thermal alert for a ground area of about 1.5 km2. Nyiragongo (many pixels) is in the center of the map, and Nyamuragira volcano (fewer pixels) is about 13 km to the NNW. Courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Geologic Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, 3470-m-high Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.

Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Ebeko (Russia) — June 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash explosions remained frequent through May 2018, with plumes typically rising more than 1 km

The most recent eruption at Ebeko, a remote volcano in the Kuril Islands, began in October 2016 (BGVN 42:08) with explosive eruptions accompanied by ashfall. Frequent ash explosions were observed through November 2017 and the eruption remained ongoing at that time (BGVN 43:03). Activity consisting of explosive eruptions, ash plumes, and ashfalls continued during December 2017 through May 2018 (table 6). Eruptions were observed by residents in Severo-Kurilsk (about 7 km E), by volcanologists, and based on satellite imagery. The Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) is responsible for monitoring Ebeko, and is the primary source of information. The Aviation Color Code (ACC) remained at Orange throughout this reporting period. This color is the second highest level of the four color scale.

Table 6. Summary of activity at Ebeko volcano from December 2017 to May 2018. Aviation Color Code (ACC) is a 4-color scale. Data courtesy of KVERT

Date Plume Altitude Plume Distance Plume Direction Other observations
1-4 and 7 Dec 2017 2 km -- -- ACC at Orange. Ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilisk. Explosions on 2-4 and 7 Dec.
8, 9, 11 Dec 2017 2.3 km -- -- Explosions.
16, 18-19, and 21-22 Dec 2017 3.5 km 16 km SSW Explosions. Ash plume and weak thermal anomaly on 16 Dec.
25 Dec 2017 1.5 km -- -- Explosion.
01-05 Jan 2018 -- -- -- No activity noted.
08-10 Jan 2018 2.5 km -- -- Explosions.
11-12, 14-16, and 18 Jan 2018 3.1 km -- -- Explosion. Minor ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 15,16, and 18 Jan.
22-23 Jan 2018 2 km -- -- Explosions.
26-27 and 29-31 Jan 2018 2.5 km -- -- Explosions. Ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 29 Jan.
05-08 Feb 2018 2.4 km -- -- Explosions. Ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilisk on 8 Feb.
09-10 and 14 Feb 2018 2.2 km -- -- Explosions.
17-18 and 20-21 Feb 2018 2.4 km -- -- Explosions. Ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilisk on 17-18 Feb.
23-25 and 27-28 Feb 2018 3.3 km -- -- Explosions.
06 Mar 2018 1.7 km -- -- Explosions.
12-13 Mar 2018 2.7 km -- -- Explosions.
18 and 21-22 Mar 2018 1.8 km -- -- Explosions. Ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilisk on 17 and 21 Mar.
23-25 and 28-29 Mar 2018 2.3 km -- -- Explosions.
31 Mar-06 Apr 2018 2.7 km -- -- Explosions.
07 and 11-12 Apr 2018 1.8 km -- -- Explosions. Ashfall reported in Severo-Kurilisk on 6 Apr.
15 and 17-19 Apr 2018 2.6 km -- -- Explosions.
21 and 25 Apr 2018 2.5 km -- -- Explosions.
01-03 May 2018 2.8 km -- -- Explosions.
04 and 06-10 May 2018 2.4 km -- -- Explosions.
12-14 May 2018 2.8 km 21 km SW Explosions. Ash plume drifted SW on 13 May.

Minor ash explosions were reported throughout the period from December 2017 through May 2018 (figure 17). Minor amounts of ash fell in Severo-Kurilisk at the end of 2017 and into 2018. Ash was reported on 2-4, and 7 December 2017; 15, 16, 18, and 29 January 2018; 8, 17, and18 February; 17 and 21 March; and 6 April. Ash plume altitudes during this reporting period ranged from 1.5 to 3.5 km (table 6); the summit is at 1.1 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Explosions from Ebeko sent ash up to an altitude of 1.5 km, or about 400 m above the summit, on 6 February 2018. Courtesy of T. Kotenko (IVS FEB RAS).

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/).


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — June 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Gradual decline in activity after July 2017, but continuing through May 2018

Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain (figure 7), has been intermittently ejecting ash since April 2016 (BGVN 42:09). Volcanic ash warnings continue to be issued by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). Recent ash plume altitudes (table 5) are in the range of 1.5-2.5 km, but several in mid-April to mid-May 2018 reached up to twice that level. Thermal anomaly data acquired by satellite-based MODIS instruments showed a gradual decrease in power level and occurrence through mid- to late-2017, followed by significantly fewer alerts and anomalies in the first half of 2018. Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) data indicates the activity during 2017 was primarily located in Crater 2 (northern-most crater).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Satellite imagery showing Langila volcano at the far NW end of New Britain island. The brown color of recent lava flows and other volcanic deposits are easily noticeable compared to green vegetated areas. The volcano is about 9 km due south of the community labeled Poini. Imagery in this view is from sources listed on the image; courtesy of Google Earth.

Table 5. Reported data by Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) on ash plume altitude and drift from Langila based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind model data between 21 June 2017 and 28 May 2018.

Dates Ash Plume Altitude (km) Ash Plume Drift Other Observations
07 Aug 2017 2.1 55 km NW --
09 Aug 2017 1.8 N --
16 Aug 2017 2.1 NW --
01-02 Sep 2017 1.8 N, NW --
07-08, 10-12 Sep 2017 1.8-2.4 NNW, NW, SW --
22-23 Sep 2017 2.1 NNW --
04 Oct 2017 1.8 N Minor ash emission
11, 15-16 Oct 2017 1.8-2.1 NE, NNW, NW --
17-18, 20 Oct 2017 1.5-1.8 NE, NNW, NW --
05 Nov 2017 3.7 SE, ESE --
15-16 Nov 2017 1.8-2.7 S, SW --
15 Apr 2018 3.7 S --
24 Apr 2018 4 SW Ash dissipated in 6 hours
13 May 2018 5.5 W At 0709; ash dissipated in 6 hours
17-18, 21-22 May 2018 2.1-2.4 WSW, W, WNW --
23, 26-28 May 2018 2.4-3 WSW, W, NW --

MIROVA analysis of thermal anomalies measured by MODIS satellite sensors show a gradual decline of radiative power from early June 2017 to the end of the year (figure 8). Sporadic low-power anomalies occurred in January, April, and May 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Thermal anomalies from MODIS data analyzed by MIROVA, plotted as log radiative power vs time for the year ending 6 June 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Thermal alerts from MODVOLC analyses were concentrated between early June 2017 and late September 2017 (figure 9), with only one pixel being measured in 2018 through early June, that alert being on 5 January 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Map showing thermal anomalies from MODIS data analyzed by MODVOLC for the year ending 6 June 2018. Courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea.


Pacaya (Guatemala) — May 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Pacaya

Guatemala

14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Pyroclastic cone fills MacKenney crater; lava flows emerge from fissures around the crater rim

Extensive lava flows, bomb-laden Strombolian explosions, and ash plumes emerging from MacKenney crater have characterized persistent activity at Pacaya since 1961. The latest eruptive episode began with intermittent ash plumes and incandescence in June 2015; the growth of a new pyroclastic cone inside the summit crater was confirmed in mid-December 2015. Strombolian activity from the cone continued during 2016 and it grew sporadically through September 2017 (BGVN 42:12). Lava flows first emerged from fissures around the summit during January-April 2017. Explosions from the cone summit caused growth and destruction of the top of the cone; by the end of September it was about 10 m above the elevation of the crater rim. This report describes the continued growth of the pyroclastic cone and the increasing emergence of lava flows around the summit during October 2017-March 2018. Information was provided primarily by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH) and satellite thermal data.

Thermal activity was relatively quiet at Pacaya during October and November 2017. The pyroclastic cone inside MacKenney crater continued to grow as material from Strombolian explosions sent ejecta a few tens of meters above the cone and onto its flanks, slowly filling the area within the crater. In late November, small lava flows began to emerge from the crater. Material flowed from the 2010 fissure on the NW side of the crater, and also appeared from new lateral fissures on the W and SW flanks. Multiple small short-lived lava flows traveled a few hundred meters down the flanks with increasing frequency during January through March 2018. Strombolian activity from the summit of the cone occasionally reached over 100 m; by the end of March, the summit of the cone remained about 25 m above the crater rim, and much of the crater was filled with ejecta (figure 84).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. A satellite image of Pacaya dated 7 March 2018 shows MacKenney crater at the summit nearly full of ejecta from the growing pyroclastic cone, and at least two small steam plumes on the SW flank from fissures that show dark traces of recent fresh lava. Courtesy of DigitalGlobe and Google Earth.

Activity during October-December 2017. Activity during October 2017 consisted primarily of degassing with small plumes of steam and gas rising 100 m above the summit, and weak Strombolian explosions. . By the end of the month, the cone inside MacKenney crater rose about 10 m above the crater rim. At night, incandescent ejecta could be seen 25-100 m above the summit of the cone. During the last week of October strong winds dispersed the plumes SW and SE, and ashfall was reported 2 km from the crater in El Rodeo.

Steam and gas plumes generally rose no more than 25 m above the summit for the first 20 days of November 2017. Beginning on 21 November, more substantial steam and gas plumes, rising 500 m, were observed in the webcam (figure 85). An increase in tremor activity on 28 November coincided with an increase in explosive activity, a gray ash plume, and the appearance of a small lava flow on the NW flank that extended about 30 m. By the end of the month the cone had reached about 25 m above the rim of MacKenney crater and continued to grow from the accumulation of tephra fragments ranging in size from one millimeter to 50 cm that were ejected 25-100 m above the summit (figure 86). Explosions could be heard up to 1 km from the cone.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. A steam plumes rises about 500 m above the summit of Pacaya on 21 November 2017. Courtesy of Michigan Technological University and INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, novembre 2017).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. The pyroclastic cone at Pacaya had nearly filled MacKenney Crater by 17 November 2017 (upper photo). An explosion from the summit of the cone with ash and ejecta was captured by the thermal camera on 17 November (lower image). Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, novembre 2017).

Strombolian explosions rising to 25 m continued in early December. On 10 December 2017, INSIVUMEH noted that there were two lava flows, one flowing on the SE flank with a length of 50-75 m and a second flowing NW towards Cerro Chino for 75-100 m. Strombolian explosions were reported 100 m above the summit of the cone on 15 December, and 25-50 m high on 25 December. The flow on the NW flank was about 100 m long on 26 December.

Activity during January-March 2018. Weak Strombolian activity continued from the cone during January 2018 with ejecta reaching 50 m above the summit. Small lava flows on the NW flank, generally only a few tens of meters long, were visible as incandescence at night (figure 87). While the height of the cone inside MacKenney crater remained about 25 m above the crater rim, material from the continuing low-level explosions had filled a large area of the crater by the end of the month. Blocks up to 1 m in diameter were also dislodged by the tremors and flow activity on the SW flank of MacKenney crater (figure 88). An increase in explosive activity beginning on 20 January resulted in audible explosions heard 2 km from the cone and fine ash deposited on the flanks. A new, larger flow also emerged from the crater early on 20 January and descended about 400 m down the SW flank, with material spalling off the front as it cooled. The following day, low-level Strombolian activity continued, and the flow remained active 200 m down the SW flank. During the last few days of January, the flow rate decreased, and the active flow was only 25 m long (figure 89).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. Incandescence from the summit of Pacaya on 8 January 2018, viewed from the SW flank, was caused by Strombolian activity and lava flows. Photo by Instagram user @cesiasocoy, courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, enero 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Low-level Strombolian activity sent ejecta up to 50 m above the summit of the cone at MacKenney crater on Pacaya during most of January 2018. The top of the cone inside the crater was just visible above the crater rim at the summit in this view from the NW flank taken on 17 January 2018. White blocks at the base of the SW slope on the right of the image are recently dislodged, 1-m-diameter blocks. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, enero 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Lava flows on the SW flank of Pacaya on 25 January 2018, photographed by Instagram user @Carolinegod1. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, enero 2018).

Low-level steam and occasional gas plumes rising up to 300 m above the summit were typical during February 2018 (figure 90). In addition, intermittent lava flows continued to travel tens to a few hundred meters down the S, SW, and W flanks. A 25-m-long flow was observed on the SW flank on 2 February. On 8 February, a 150-m-long flow was noted, also on the SW flank. INSIVUMEH reported a 300-m-long lava flow from the NW area of crater on 9 February in the region of the 2010 fissure; it traveled NW towards Cerro Chino crater. A flow 75-100 m long was observed on the SW flank on 10 February; the next day 150-m-long flows were visible on both the SW and W flanks. Flows on both flanks were 100 m long on 12 February. A 30-m-long flow appeared on the SW flank on 13 February. The flow on the NW flank that began on 9 February was 20-m-wide and only 50 m long during the afternoon of 14 February. A flow was also visible on 14 February extending 250 m down the SW flank (figure 91).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. A vigorous steam plume rose 300 m from the summit of the pyroclastic cone inside MacKenney crater at Pacaya during February 2018. The top of the cone was just visible above the crater rim in this view from the NW. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, febrero 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Steaming lava flowed on the SW flank of Pacaya on 14 February 2018 and dislodged loose debris on the slope. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, febrero 2018).

Multiple lava flows on the SW flank ranged from 50-200 m long during 15-20 February. A flow on the W flank grew from 25 to 150 m during 17-23 February (figure 92). A flow reached 500 m down the SW flank on 25 February and after flow-front collapses was still 300 m long by the end of the month. A new surge of lava on 27 February emerged from the fissure on the NW flank of MacKenney crater and traveled 150 m towards Cerro Chino crater. Explosive activity remained constant; weak explosions, generally 3-5 times per hour, scattered ejecta on the flanks of the cone and created incandescence at night that often reached 15-35 m above the cone. The explosions also generated weak avalanches that sent material up to 1 m in diameter down the S and SW flanks to an area frequented by park visitors. Explosions were sometimes heard up to 3 km from the crater. Strombolian explosions increased in height towards the end of the month; they were reported at 150 m above the summit on 26 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. A lava flow emerged from a fissure on the W flank of Pacaya on 18 February 2018 and was imaged with a thermal camera as it traveled 150 m down the flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, febrero 2018).

Strombolian activity and persistent lava flows throughout March 2018 resulted in continued growth of the pyroclastic cone within the MacKenney crater. Low-level steam and gas plumes generally rose a few tens of meters above the summit; occasional plumes rose as high as 500 m. Small lateral fissures near the crater rim produced repeated small lava flows that generally flowed less than 250 m SW and W. Weak explosions averaging 3-5 per hour sent ejecta 10-50 m above the pyroclastic cone.

During the first week of March, flows on the SW flank were active as far as 500 m down the flank. A flow on 4 March was 65 m long, and one on 5 March ranged from 50-200 m long (figure 93). During the second week, two flows were active to 300 m down the W flank, and two others on the SW flank were 150-200 m long. A flow was reported 200 m down the E flank on 16 March. Multiple lava flows were visible during 17-23 March; one traveled 250 m down the SW flank, two others went 150 m down the W flank and remained active through the end of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Landsat satellite imagery from 5 March 2018 shows a thermal anomaly from a SW-directed lava flow at Pacaya, about 250 m long. Landsat 8 image processed by Rudiger Escobar (Michigan Technological University), courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Departamento de Investigación y servicios Geofísicos, Informe mensual de la actividad volcánica, marzo 2018).

Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Google Earth (URL: https://www.google.com/earth/).


Reventador (Ecuador) — May 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Near-daily explosions produce 1-km-high ash plumes and incandescent blocks on all flanks, October 2017-March 2018.

Historical records of eruptions at Ecuador's Volcán El Reventador date back to 1541 and include numerous lava flows and explosive events (figure 74). The largest historical eruption took place in November 2002 and generated a 17-km-high eruption cloud, pyroclastic flows that traveled 8 km, and several lava flows. Eruptive activity has been continuous since 2008. Persistent ash emissions and incandescent block avalanches characterized activity during January-September 2017 with large pyroclastic and lava flows during June and August (BGVN 43:01). Explosions that produced ash plumes and incandescent blocks continued throughout October 2017-March 2018. Information is provided primarily by the Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Politecnicia Nacional (IG-EPN) of Ecuador, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and also from satellite-based MODIS infrared data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Aerial image of Reventador's inner caldera with its pyroclastic cone emitting a plume of steam and ash. View is looking to the W. Photograph taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.

Persistent, near-daily ash emissions were typical for Reventador during October 2017-March 2018 (figure 75). In general, the plumes drifted W and NW over sparsely populated nearby areas, but occasional wind-direction changes resulted in ashfall in larger communities within 30 km to the S and SW. The plume heights were commonly 1,000 m above the summit, with the highest plume rising 5 km (to 8.5 km altitude) in October. Most days that the summit and slopes were not obscured by weather clouds, there were observations of incandescent blocks falling at least 300-500 m down the flanks. Larger explosions generated Strombolian fountains and incandescent blocks that traveled 800 m down the flanks every week, even farther on occasion (figure 76). Heavy rains caused one lahar in late November; no damage was reported. Small pyroclastic flows on the flanks were observed once or twice each month (figure 77). The lava flows of June and August 2017 continued to cool on the flanks (figure 78). Thermal activity was somewhat higher during October 2017 with 19 MODVOLC thermal alerts issued, but it remained constant throughout the rest of the period with 8-11 alerts each month. The MIROVA radiative power data showed a similar pattern of moderate, ongoing activity during this time.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. A dense ash plume rose from Reventador during the first week of December 2017, viewed from a shelter 3.5 km E of the summit. Photograph taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Incandescent blocks rolled hundreds of meters down the flanks of Reventador during the first week of December 2017. Photograph taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. A small pyroclastic flow traveled down the flank of Reventador during the first week of December 2017 while an ash plume rose about 1 km above the summit. Photograph taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. The lava flows from June and August 2017 were still cooling on the flanks of Reventador during the first week of December 2017. Photograph taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.

Activity during October-December 2017. The Washington VAAC issued ash advisories every day but one during October 2017. IGEPN reported near-daily emissions of ash, with plumes rising over 1,000 m many days of the month and rising to 500-800 m the other days. Plume drift directions were generally W or NW. Incandescence at the summit crater was visible on most nights, and incandescent block avalanches were seen rolling 400-800 m down the flanks during 15 nights of the month. Explosive activity intensified for several days near the end of the month (figure 79). A possible pyroclastic flow traveled down the SE flank in the morning of 24 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Strombolian explosions from two vents at the summit and incandescence on the SE flank of Reventador were captured on 24 October 2017 by B. Bernard. Photo taken from the Hosteria Reventador, 7.2 km SE from the summit. Courtesy of IGEPN (Informe Especial del Volcán El Reventador – 2017 – No. 5, Actualización de la actividad del volcán, 30 de octubre del 2017).

IGEPN scientists in the field during 23-25 October 2017 noted a high level of explosive activity with loud noises and vibrations felt in the vicinity of Hostería Reventador, about 7.2 km SE of the volcano. Thermal imaging data gathered during their trip indicated that the maximum temperatures of the explosions were over 500°C and that the lava flows of June and August were much cooler with temperatures ranging between 100 and 150°C (figure 80). A dense ash plume rose to more than 2,800 m above the summit and drifted N and E on 25 October (figure 81).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Thermal imaging at Reventador on 24 October 2017 indicated that the temperatures of explosions were over 500°C, and that the lava flows of June and August 2017 were much cooler, around 100-150°C. Image taken by M. Almeida from the Hosteria Reventador, 7.2 km SE from the summit. Courtesy of IGEPN (Informe Especial del Volcán El Reventador – 2017 – No. 5, Actualización de la actividad del volcán, 30 de octubre del 2017).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. A dense ash plume rose at least 2,800 m above the summit of Reventador on 25 October 2017 and drifted NE. Photo by B Bernard, courtesy of IGEPN (Informe Especial del Volcán El Reventador – 2017 – No. 5, Actualización de la actividad del volcán, 30 de octubre del 2017).

The Washington VAAC reported numerous ash emissions during 24-26 October 2017 at altitudes of 5.8-6.1 km, drifting N and NE from the summit about 35 km. IGEPN reported continuing ash emissions beginning on 27 October that lasted for several days, including observations that day of a plume that rose to 4,900 m above the summit. The Washington VAAC reported the plume at 8.5 km altitude, the highest for the period of this report. During the last few days of October, the wind changed to the S, resulting in reports of moderate ashfall in Napo province in the towns of San Luis, San Carlos (9 km S), El Salado (14 km S), El Chaco (33 km SW), and Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda (El Bombón, 26 km SW).

Persistent ash emissions continued during November 2017 along with observations of incandescence at the summit crater. Plumes of steam, gas, and ash were reported over 600 m above the summit throughout the month; the Washington VAAC issued multiple daily aviation alerts with plume heights averaging 4.3-4.9 km altitude, usually drifting W. Higher altitude plumes over 6.0 km were reported a few times with the highest during 11-12 November rising to 6.7 km. There were reports in the morning of 1 November of ashfall in Borja and San Louis (SE) and on 4 November of minor ashfall in the communities adjacent to the volcano. Incandescent blocks were seen rolling 300 m down the flanks during 7-9 November. Heavy rains on 20 November resulted in a lahar on the E flank. During 22-27 November blocks rolled as far as 800 m down all the flanks, with many on the S and SE flanks (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Steam, gas, and ash plumes, and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks were common occurrences at Reventador throughout November 2017. Top: An ash and steam plume on 22 November 2017 rose over 600 m and drifted W. Bottom: Incandescent blocks rolled as far as 800 m down the flanks on 23 November 2017, mostly on the S and SE flanks. Courtesy of IGEPN webcam (Informe Diario del Estado del Volcán Reventador Nos. 2017-326, and 2017-327).

Although multiple daily aviation alerts continued throughout December 2017 from the Washington VAAC, weather clouds often prevented satellite observations of the ash plumes. When visible, plume heights were generally 4-5 km altitude, drifting W or NW; the highest plume on 17 December reached 5.5 km and drifted WNW before dissipating. IGEPN noted incandescence at the summit on almost all nights it was visible; incandescent blocks traveled as far as 900 m down all the flanks on 11 December, and 400-800 m most nights. They also reported ash plumes rising more than 600 m above the summit 24 days of the month. A video of typical activity at Reventador was taken by Martin Rietze during 1-7 December 2017, along with numerous excellent photographs (figures 83-85).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Strombolian explosions at Reventador during the first week of December 2017 sent showers of incandescent debris skyward (upper photo) before sending larger incandescent blocks hundreds of meters down the flanks of the cone (lower photo) while a dense ash plume rose from the summit area. Photographs taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Lightning strikes were photographed within the dense ash plumes that rose from the summit of Reventador during the first week of December 2017. Photograph copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Explosions at Reventador during the first week of December 2017 produced dense ash plumes and small pyroclastic flows down multiple flanks. The flanks were bare at the beginning of the ash emission event (upper photo) but small pyroclastic flows can be seen descending the flanks a few moments later (lower photo). Photograph taken during 1-7 December 2017, copyright by Martin Rietze and used with permission.

Activity during January-March 2018. Except for several cloudy days during the third week of January 2018 when no observations were possible, IGEPN reported recurring emissions of steam, gas, and ash rising over 600 m and drifting mostly W or NW throughout the month. During 11-12 January ash plumes briefly drifted E. Incandescent block avalanches were reported most often traveling 200-400 m down the S and SE flanks; a few times they travelled up to 800 m down all the flanks. Other than the cloudy days of 20-24 January, the Washington VAAC issued multiple daily aviation alerts. When ash plumes were visible in satellite imagery, plume altitudes ranged from 4.3-4.9 km, except for 30-31 January when they were reported at 5.2 km (figure 86).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Ash plumes and incandescent blocks were reported numerous times at Reventador during January 2018. Top left: Steam, gas, and ash were reported rising over 600 m and drifting NW and E on 2 January. Top right: on 3 January, the drift directions of the steam, gas, and ash plumes were W and NE. Lower left: Incandescent blocks were reported travelling 800 m down all the flanks on 12 January. Lower right: Ash plumes on 30 January were reported by the Washington VAAC at 5.2 km altitude, the highest during the month; they drifted N and W. Courtesy of IGEPN (Informe Diario del Estado del Volcán Reventador, Nos. 2018-2, 2018-3, 2018-12, and 2018-30).

Multiple daily aviation alerts continued from the Washington VAAC throughout February 2018. While daily plume heights mostly averaged 4.3-4.9 km altitude, there were a greater number of higher-altitude ash plumes than during recent months. A plume on 5 February was reported at 6.1 km drifting 15 km N and a plume the following day drifted 30 km ENE at 7.6 km altitude. A plume on 16 February rose to 5.5 km and drifted 55 km NW; one on 22 February rose to 7.0 km and drifted almost 100 km SE before dissipating. The next day, a plume rose to 5.5 km and drifted 35 km SE. Two separate plumes were observed in satellite imagery drifting NE on 25 February, the first rose to 5.5 km and drifted 110 km and the second rose to 6.4 km and drifted 45 km before dissipating. IGEPN reported a plume of steam, gas, and ash on 27 February that rose over 1,000 m above the summit and drifted NE. Although IGEPN only reported incandescent avalanche blocks on 11 days in February, more likely occurred because the view was obscured by weather clouds for 14 days of the month.

Minor ashfall in the vicinity of the volcano was reported by IGEPN on 1 March 2018. They also noted steam and gas plumes containing moderate amounts of ash that rose over 2,000 m above the summit and drifted SW and S that day (figure 87). IGEPN reported ash emissions around 600 m or higher above the summit on 21 days during the month. In addition to persistent incandescent activity at the summit, avalanche blocks rolled down all the flanks 800 m numerous times. A pyroclastic flow was reported 400 m down the S flank on 13 March (figure 88). Incandescent blocks rolled 1,000 m down all the flanks on 22 March. Other than a plume reported in satellite imagery at 5.8 km moving E on 26 March, all of the ash plumes reported by the Washington VAAC during March ranged from 3.9-4.9 km altitude and generally drifted NW or W.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. A plume of steam, gas, and ash rose from Reventador on 1 March 2018; IGEPN reported it as rising over 2,000 m above the summit and drifting SW and S. A small pyroclastic flow also appeared to descend the flank. Courtesy of IGEPN (Informe Diario del Estado del Volcán Reventador, No. 2018-60).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Continued explosions at Reventador during March 2018 produced abundant incandescent avalanche blocks, ash plumes, and a few pyroclastic flows. Top: Abundant incandescent blocks rolled 800 m down all the flanks on 6 March 2018. Bottom: An ash plume rose over 600 m above the summit and drifted NW while a pyroclastic flow traveled 400 m down the S flank on 13 March 2018. Courtesy of IGEPN (Informe Diario del Estado del Volcán Reventador, Nos. 2018-65 and 2018-72).

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IGEPN), Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Martin Rietze (URL: http://mrietze.com/web16/Ecuador17.htm).


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — May 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions with minor ash and block avalanches at Caliente, November 2017-April 2018

The dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex on the W flank of Guatemala's Santa María volcano has been growing since 1922. The youngest of the four vents in the complex, Caliente, has been actively erupting with ash explosions, pyroclastic, and lava flows for more than 40 years. During January-October 2017 (BGVN 42:12), daily weak ash emissions sent ash plumes to altitudes around 3.3 km, and ashfall was frequent in villages and farms within 12 km S and SW. The lava dome that appeared within the summit crater of Caliente in October 2016 continued to grow, increasing the frequency of block avalanches moving down the flanks. Several lahars affected the major drainages during May-October. Guatemala's INSIVUMEH (Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia e Hidrologia) and the Washington VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) provided regular updates on the continuing activity during the time period of this report from November 2017-April 2018.

Activity at Santa Maria was very consistent with little variation during November 2017-April 2018. Plumes of steam with minor magmatic gases rose continuously from the Caliente crater 300-500 m above the summit, drifting SW or SE before dissipating. In addition, tens of daily explosions with varying amounts of ash rose to altitudes of around 3.5-4.0 km and usually traveled short distances of 20-30 km before dissipating. The longest-lived plume, on 22 March 2018 drifted 100 km before dispersing. Almost all of the plumes drifted SW or SE; minor ashfall occurred in the mountains and was reported at the fincas up to 15 km away in those directions several times each month. Continued growth of the lava dome at Caliente resulted in block avalanches descending its flanks every day. The MIROVA plot of thermal energy during this time shows a consistent level of heat flow with minor variations. The spike of strongest heat flow in late March 2018 corresponds with the largest ash plume reported (figure 70) for the period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. MIROVA plot of thermal energy from Santa Maria for the year ending 12 July 2018 shows persistent low levels of heat flow. The spike at the end of March 2018 corresponds to the largest reported ash plume for the period. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during November 2017-January 2018. During November 2017, persistent steam plumes rose 100-500 m above the summit crater at Caliente, and generally drifted SE. Tens of weak explosions daily created ash plumes that rose to about 3.2 km altitude and drifted usually SE. These resulted in ashfall reported near Finca San José on 9, 26, and 28 November, and in the mountains around Finca la Florida on 27 November. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission seen in satellite imagery on 18 November drifting S about 15 km from the summit at 4.3 km altitude. Block avalanches were reported daily, they usually extended down the SE flank, occasionally making it to the base of the dome.

Characteristic steam plumes rising 100-500 m continued daily throughout December 2017. Numerous daily weak to moderate explosions generated ash plumes that rose to around 3.0-3.3 km altitude and drifted most often to the SW. Weak to moderate, and occasionally strong block avalanches descended the SE flank of the dome most days.

The Caliente dome maintained constant degassing with mostly steam plumes and occasional magmatic gas throughout January 2018 (figure 71). The plumes rose 50-300 m above the dome; most plumes came from the crater, but a few rose from fissures on the flanks. Explosions with ash plumes rose to 2.8-3.5 km altitude and generally drifted W or SW (figure 72). The seismic station registered 15-21 weak to moderate explosions per day. Ash generally drifted to the E or SE and caused ashfall in the regions around the fincas of San José, Patzulin, La Quina and others. Finca San José reported ashfall in the vicinity on 6, 7, and 9 January, and El Faro noted nearby ashfall on 9 January. A small plume with minor ash content was noted in satellite imagery by the Washington VAAC on 10 January drifting E at 4.3 km altitude. Ash emissions extended about 35 km SW before dissipating on 12 January, also at 4.3 km. Weak and moderate-size block avalanches occurred daily with blocks generally descending the SE or E flank of the dome.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. A typical plume of steam and magmatic gas rose from the Caliente vent at Santa Maria on 8 January 2018. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad volcánica enero 2018, Volcán Santiaguito, 1402-03).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. An explosion at the Caliente dome of Santa Maria on 7 January 2018 sent ash a few hundred meters above the summit crater. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad volcánica enero 2018, Volcán Santiaguito, 1402-03).

Activity during February-April 2018. Plumes of steam and gas continued rising daily to a few hundred meters above Caliente during February 2018. Weak and moderate explosions with steam and ash rose to 2.6-3.2 km altitude and drifted variably S, SE, W, or SW during the month (figure 73). Explosions averaged about 14 per day. Ashfall was reported in the fincas to the E and SE during the first week, including at Finca San José on 5 February, and la Florida on 10 February; they occurred in the mountainous areas W and SW during the rest of the month. Ashfall was also reported around the perimeter of the volcano several times during the last week of the month. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume at 4.6 km altitude on 12 February drifting rapidly W, and a thin veil of gas and minor ash on 28 February extending about 15 km SW from the summit at 4.3 km altitude. Observations of repeated block avalanches down the SE flank throughout the month concurred with thermal measurements on 28 February that showed the hottest areas of the dome at the summit and on the SE flank (figure 74).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. An explosion of steam and ash rose from Caliente at Santa Maria on 18 February 2018. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 17 al 23 de febrero de 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Material inside the summit crater of Caliente at Santa Maria measured about 140°C on 28 February 2018, and showed the warmest region on the SE flank where most of the block avalanches occurred. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo:, Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 24 de febrero al 02 de marzo de 2018).

Block avalanches down the SE and S flanks of Caliente from the growing summit dome persisted at weak to moderate levels throughout March 2018 (figure 75). Ten to twenty daily ash-bearing explosions usually rose to about 3.2 km altitude and drifted SW or SE causing ashfall around the perimeter. Ashfall was reported in the mountains around Finca San José on 4-6, 9, 20, and 23 March, and in the Palajunoj area on 11 March. Steam plumes rising from the summit of Caliente to 2.9-3.1 km altitude drifting SE or SW were a daily feature of activity (figure 76). The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume on 5 March that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted SW before dissipating within 15 km of the summit. On 21 March, an emission was observed in satellite imagery that extended about 35 km SW from the summit at 4.6 km altitude. Another ash plume the following day also rose to 4.6 km altitude and extended almost 100 km SW before dissipating. That same day, 22 March, MODVOLC issued four thermal alerts for Santiaguito, and the MIROVA system showed a spike in thermal activity as well (figure 70).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Block avalanches descended the SE flank of Caliente at Santa Maria on 6 March 2018. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo:, Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 03 al 09 de marzo de 2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. A typical steam plume rose from Caliente summit during the last week of March 2018. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 17 al 23 de marzo de 2018).

Multiple daily explosions with ash rose up to 3.2 km altitude during April 2018. The plumes drifted SW or SE, spreading fine-grained ash over the nearby hills. Finca San José reported ashfall on 2 April and the Palajunoj area reported ashfall on 10, 13, 15, and 17 April. Abundant degassing of mostly steam plumes at the Caliente crater continued throughout the month, as did the constant descent of block avalanches down the SE flank.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The 3772-m-high stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a large, 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/ ); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html).


Sheveluch (Russia) — May 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal anomalies along with gas and steam emissions continue through April 2018

An eruption at Sheveluch has been ongoing since 1999, and volcanic activity was previously described through January 2018 (BGVN 43:02). Ongoing activity has consisted of pyroclastic flows, explosions, and lava dome growth with a viscous lava flow in the N. According to the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), moderate emissions of gas-and-steam have continued, and ash explosions up to 10-15 km in altitude could occur at any time. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) throughout this reporting period from February through April 2018.

KVERT reported continuous moderate gas-and-steam plumes from Sheveluch during February-April 2018 (figure 49). Satellite imagery interpreted by KVERT showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 13 days during February, 21 days in March, and 15 days in April. Cloud cover obscured satellite imagery the remainder of the time during this reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Photo of the lava dome at Sheveluch on 25 March 2018. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT).

The MIROVA system detected intermittent low-power thermal anomalies from February through April 2018. Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were not detected during this period.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Kikai (Japan) — May 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Kikai

Japan

30.793°N, 130.305°E; summit elev. 704 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Elevated thermal activity during February-April 2018; one earthquake swarm in March

Heightened activity at Kikai (also known as Satsuma Iwojima) was reported during January 2013-July 2014 (BGVN 3907), which included one eruption with intermittent explosions, occasional ash and steam plumes, and sporadic weak seismic tremor. Subsequently, seismicity remained at background levels, and plume activity was low. A short-lived period of heightened activity occurred in March 2018, with increased daily plume heights, sulfur dioxide output, and seismicity. Activity returned to background levels by 26 April. This report is based on information supplied by the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA).

JMA reported that one small-amplitude short-duration volcanic tremor was detected on 16 March 2018. The number of volcanic earthquakes increased on 19 March, with 93 occurrences, prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level from 1 (active volcano) to 2 (restricted area around the crater), on a 5-level scale. The report noted increased thermal activity since February, with occasional visual observations of incandescence. Plume heights and volcanic earthquakes briefly increased during 22-23 March (figure 8, plot 4).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Plots showing multi-year records of measured plume heights (1 and 4) and volcanic earthquakes (2 and 5) during January 1998-April 2018 from Kikai. Explosive events are indicated by the small volcano icons along the top of plot 1. Plot 3 indicates measured sulfur dioxide in tons/day since 2012. The orange diamonds on plot 4 indicate observations of incandescence. Plume heights are measured in meters above the crater. This record is from a seismic station located less than 1 km from the summit. Courtesy of Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA).

The number of volcanic earthquakes was low during 27 March-2 April. A white plume at the Iwo-dake summit crater rose to 1,800 m above the crater rim in late March (figure 8, plot 4), the highest seen in many years. At the same crater a highly sensitive surveillance camera revealed incandescence at night on 27 and 28 March due to increased thermal activity. No incandescence was observed after 12 April (figure 8, plot 4).

In its report for 20-26 April, JMA noted a white plume at the Iwo-dake summit crater that rose to 700 m above the rim. A field survey conducted on 25 and 26 April confirmed the slight expansion of a thermal anomaly area when compared to 24 and 25 March, but the release amount of sulfur dioxide was slightly less than 300 tons per day (compared with 600 tons on March 24) (figure 8, plot 3).

On 27 April 2018, with volcanic earthquakes being small in number and no observed volcanic tremor, JMA determined that activity had decreased and reduced the warning level from 2 to 1.

Geologic Background. Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. Kikai was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6300 years ago. Rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred in the 20th century at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km east of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/).


Dieng Volcanic Complex (Indonesia) — May 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Dieng Volcanic Complex

Indonesia

7.2°S, 109.879°E; summit elev. 2565 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phreatic explosion on 1 April 2018 at Sileri Crater

Dieng has had a history of intermittent phreatic explosions. In 2017, explosions occurred on 30 April, 24 May, and 2 July (BGVN 42:10). Another phreatic explosion occurred on 1 April 2018. The volcano is monitored by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation or CVGHM).

PVMBG reported that a phreatic explosion at the Sileri Crater lake (Dieng Volcanic Complex) occurred at 1342 on 1 April 2018, ejecting mud and material 150 m high, and up to 200 m in multiple directions. The event was preceded by black emissions that rose 90 m, and then diffuse white emissions that rose 150 m. The report noted that few tourists were in the area due to rainy weather; visitors are not permitted within 200 m of the crater rim.

According to a news report (The Jakarta Post) that cited an official of the National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB), no toxic gases such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, or sulfur dioxide were detected in the explosion.

Geologic Background. The Dieng plateau in the highlands of central Java is renowned both for the variety of its volcanic scenery and as a sacred area housing Java's oldest Hindu temples, dating back to the 9th century CE. The Dieng volcanic complex consists of two or more stratovolcanoes and more than 20 small craters and cones of Pleistocene-to-Holocene age over a 6 x 14 km area. Prahu stratovolcano was truncated by a large Pleistocene caldera, which was subsequently filled by a series of dissected to youthful cones, lava domes, and craters, many containing lakes. Lava flows cover much of the plateau, but have not occurred in historical time, when activity has been restricted to minor phreatic eruptions. Toxic gas emissions are a hazard at several craters and have caused fatalities. The abundant thermal features and high heat flow make Dieng a major geothermal prospect.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); The Jakara Post (URL: http://www.thejakartapost.com).

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Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin - Volume 05, Number 07 (July 1980)

Managing Editor: David Squires

Aira (Japan)

More frequent explosions

Akutan (United States)

Steam and ash emission; recently-extruded lava flow

Bulusan (Philippines)

Ash eruption and earthquake swarm

Etna (Italy)

Incandescent tephra ejection; decreased gravity readings

Gorely (Russia)

Explosions and crater glow

Hood (United States)

Earthquake swarm

Karkar (Papua New Guinea)

Possible ash emission

Krafla (Iceland)

Large fissure and eruption

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Vulcanian explosions and glow

Makushin (United States)

Recently-ejected tephra; vapor emission

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Mild ash emission and occasional rumbling

Masaya (Nicaragua)

Large plume; high SO2 output

Momotombo (Nicaragua)

Fumarole temperatures measured

Negro, Cerro (Nicaragua)

New fumarolic area on Cerro La Mula

Pavlof (United States)

Steam and a little ash

Pilas, Las (Nicaragua)

Minor fumarolic activity

San Cristobal (Nicaragua)

Moderate vapor plume

St. Helens (United States)

Explosions destroy lava dome; 18 May cloud detected over Europe and Asia

Suwanosejima (Japan)

Tephra ejection

Telica (Nicaragua)

Small steam plume emission continues

Toya (Japan)

Cryptodome uplift and seismicity continue



Aira (Japan) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More frequent explosions

After a decline from 69 explosions in May to 12 in June, activity remained at a similar level until late July, when explosions became stronger and more frequent. The last July explosion was also the month's largest. A tephra cloud rose about 3 km, and [blocks fell onto] the lower half of the volcano. Ash fell to the NE, reaching [the city of] Miyakonojo, 40 km away, one hour after the explosion. No damage was reported.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.


Akutan (United States) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Akutan

United States

54.134°N, 165.986°W; summit elev. 1303 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Steam and ash emission; recently-extruded lava flow

Akutan was observed by J. Davies on 3 July and by J. Hauptmann and G. Gunther on 8 July. The volcano was not active on the 3rd, but Davies saw a fresh-looking lava flow that had moved through a breach in the NNW caldera wall. On 8 July, the volcano was emitting steam and dark brownish-grey ash.

Geologic Background. One of the most active volcanoes of the Aleutian arc, Akutan contains 2-km-wide caldera with an active intracaldera cone. An older, largely buried caldera was formed during the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Two volcanic centers are located on the NW flank. Lava Peak is of Pleistocene age, and a cinder cone lower on the flank produced a lava flow in 1852 that extended the shoreline of the island and forms Lava Point. The 60-365 m deep younger caldera was formed during a major explosive eruption about 1600 years ago and contains at least three lakes. The currently active large cinder cone in the NE part of the caldera has been the source of frequent explosive eruptions with occasional lava effusion that blankets the caldera floor. A lava flow in 1978 traveled through a narrow breach in the north caldera rim almost to the coast. Fumaroles occur at the base of the caldera cinder cone, and hot springs are located NE of the caldera at the head of Hot Springs Bay valley and along the shores of Hot Springs Bay.

Information Contacts: J. Davies, J. Hauptmann, G. Gunther, and S. McNutt, LDGO.


Bulusan (Philippines) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Bulusan

Philippines

12.769°N, 124.056°E; summit elev. 1535 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash eruption and earthquake swarm

An earthquake swarm began on 6 July, when 108 volcanic events were recorded in a 24-hour period. Six events were felt at intensities of I-IV on the MRF scale and were accompanied by rumbling. Seismicity peaked on 10 July with 189 recorded shocks, ten felt at intensities I-IV. The swarm declined gradually after the 10th.

On 19 July, ash-rich steam clouds rose about 6 km above the summit. About 3 mm of ash fell on villages to the SE. Seismicity increased again on 22 July, with 235 volcanic earthquakes recorded in 24 hours. Ten were felt at intensities up to IV. AFP reported a 24 July COMVOL announcement that persons living within 4 km of Bulusan had been instructed to evacuate because of the earthquakes. On 27 July, 323 events were recorded and eleven felt, again at intensities of as much as IV. The swarm was continuing as of 29 July.

Geologic Background. Luzon's southernmost volcano, Bulusan, was constructed along the rim of the 11-km-diameter dacitic-to-rhyolitic Irosin caldera, which was formed about 36,000 years ago. It lies at the SE end of the Bicol volcanic arc occupying the peninsula of the same name that forms the elongated SE tip of Luzon. A broad, flat moat is located below the topographically prominent SW rim of Irosin caldera; the NE rim is buried by the andesitic complex. Bulusan is flanked by several other large intracaldera lava domes and cones, including the prominent Mount Jormajan lava dome on the SW flank and Sharp Peak to the NE. The summit is unvegetated and contains a 300-m-wide, 50-m-deep crater. Three small craters are located on the SE flank. Many moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century.

Information Contacts: O. Peña, COMVOL, Quezon City; AFP.


Etna (Italy) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3295 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Incandescent tephra ejection; decreased gravity readings

Activity increased gradually between 13 and 20 July in the Southeast Crater, site of lava fountaining in late April, intermittent eruptions in May, and stronger explosions in early June. No information was available on activity between 4 June and 12 July [but explosive activity was persistent from the SE Crater and Bocca Nuova]. In mid-July, many small explosions were observed on some days, while other days were characterized by fewer but larger explosions. After a period of poor weather, renewed observations of the Southeast Crater on 31 July revealed four active vents, located 25 m below the lowest portion of the crater rim. The two larger vents steamed continuously, and exploded about every 2 seconds, ejecting incandescent tephra to heights of 25 m. At approximately 2-minute intervals, stronger explosions sent tephra upward 100 m. A small spatter cone surrounded the vents. The two smaller vents ejected juvenile material only occasionally.

Explosions from deep within Bocca Nuova were heard about every 2 seconds on 31 July. No tephra reached the rim. Since last September, Bocca Nuova's diameter [corrected from radius] has increased by as much as 80 m, bisecting a small crater formed in 1964. Most of the increase occurred during the winter, but further crater growth took place in June.

The Chasm, E of Bocca Nuova, was filled with solidified lava to within 25 m of its rim on 31 July. Large amounts of spatter and many bombs surrounded the crater as a result of activity in April (05:04).

Gravimeter readings made in late July by Tim Sanderson on the S flank yielded values that were significantly lower than in September 1979, indicating a loss of mass on that flank. July 1980 N flank gravity values were very similar to those of the previous September.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: J. Guest, J. Murray, C. Kilburn, and R. Lopes, Univ. of London; T. Sanderson, Imperial College.


Gorely (Russia) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Gorely

Russia

52.559°N, 158.03°E; summit elev. 1799 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions and crater glow

During 1978-79 large fumaroles appeared in the central crater and a lake was formed on the crater floor. In January 1980 a 1-km-high gas column was first observed over the summit. This remained throughout the spring, and gas vents appeared on the walls and floor of the crater.

In June intensive gas emission was accompanied by explosions that ejected lithic material. During this presumed phreatic eruption the crater lake disappeared. As of late July, activity was increasing and a glow was visible over the crater at night.

Further References. Gavrilov, V.A., Gordeev, E.I., and others, 1984, Volcanic tremor and the Gorely volcano earthquakes during the 1980-1981 eruption: Volcanology and Seismology, no. 6, p. 3-17.

Kirsanov, I.T., 1981, Eruption of the Gorely volcano in summer 1980: Volcanology and Seismology, no. 1, p. 70-73.

Geologic Background. Gorely volcano consists of five small overlapping stratovolcanoes constructed along a WNW-ESE line within a large 9 x 13.5 km caldera. The caldera formed about 38,000-40,000 years ago accompanied by the eruption of about 100 km3 of tephra. The massive complex includes 11 summit and 30 flank craters, some of which contain acid or freshwater crater lakes; three major rift zones cut the complex. Another Holocene stratovolcano is located on the SW flank. Activity during the Holocene was characterized by frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions along with a half dozen episodes of major lava extrusion. Early Holocene explosive activity, along with lava flows filled in much of the caldera. Quiescent periods became longer between 6000 and 2000 years ago, after which the activity was mainly explosive. About 600-650 years ago intermittent strong explosions and lava flow effusion accompanied frequent mild eruptions. Historical eruptions have consisted of moderate Vulcanian and phreatic explosions.

Information Contacts: E. Vakin and I. Kirsanov, IVP.


Hood (United States) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Hood

United States

45.374°N, 121.695°W; summit elev. 3426 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquake swarm

[Seismic data in the following report have been extensively modified using Rite and Iyer (1981).] A series of earthquakes in the vicinity of Mt. Hood, about 100 km SSE of Mt. St. Helens, began with a M [2.8] shock on 6 July at 1817. [Within 30 minutes, 7 events of M 1.6-2.8 occurred in the vicinity of the first shock. Depths were tightly clustered at 4-7 km.]

[Activity remained anomalously high for about 48 hours after the initial shock, with 40 events recorded on 3-9 stations in the first 24 hours (figure 1). Epicenters were generally on the S flank (figure 2).] A M [2.44] earthquake at 0259 and a M [2.25] event at 1315 were centered [near the summit] at [5.9 and 5.3] km depth. [Between 6-16 July, 143 small events were recorded on a single station (VHE) about 5 km SE of the summit. About 50 were correlated with nearby stump blasting, but the other 90 appeared to be swarm events, most with coda magnitudes less than 0.5.]... The swarm's total seismic energy release [was about 8 x 1015 ergs]....

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Histogram of seismic activity at Mt. Hood, 6-20 July 1980, after Rite and Iyer (1981).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Epicenters of most of the July 1980 events at Mt. Hood. Sizes of crosses are proportional to event magnitudes. After Rite and Iyer (1981).

The USGS issued a hazard watch formally notifying government officials. On 11 July, the USGS and the University of Washington installed three portable seismographs on Mt. Hood. No harmonic tremor has been recorded, and no new surface activity has been observed. Gas analyses made from aircraft on 11 July showed no increase in atmospheric SO2 or CO2 above normal levels.

Because no additional seismicity and no new eruptive activity have occurred at Mt. Hood, the USGS ended the hazard watch on 5 August.

References. Rite, A., and Iyer, H.M., 1981, July 1980 Mt. Hood earthquake swarm: USGS Open File Report 81-48, 22 p.

Geologic Background. Mount Hood, Oregon's highest peak, forms a prominent backdrop to the state's largest city, Portland. The eroded summit area consists of several andesitic or dacitic lava domes. Major Pleistocene edifice collapse produced a debris avalanche and lahar that traveled north down the Hood River valley and crossed the Columbia River. The glacially eroded volcano has had at least three major eruptive periods during the past 15,000 years. The last two occurred within the past 1800 years from the central vent high on the SW flank and produced deposits that were distributed primarily to the south and west along the Sandy and Zigzag rivers. The last major eruptive period took place beginning in 1781, when growth of the Crater Rock lava dome was accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars down the White and Sandy rivers. The Sandy River lahar deposits extended to the west as far as the Columbia River and were observed by members of the 1804-1805 Lewis and Clark expedition shortly after their emplacement. Minor 19th-century eruptions were witnessed from Portland.

Information Contacts: R. Decker, R. Tilling, and C. Zablocki, USGS; S. Malone, R. Crosson, and E. Endo, Univ. of Washington.


Karkar (Papua New Guinea) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Karkar

Papua New Guinea

4.649°S, 145.964°E; summit elev. 1839 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Possible ash emission

"Possible ash emissions were reported on 13, 14, and 15 July. However, an aerial inspection on 29 July did not detect any morphological changes to the crater that might have accompanied the reported ash emissions. Fumarolic activity inside the 1979 crater may have increased. Fumaroles on the E part of the caldera floor may have weakened while those on the W side may have intensified. White sublimates were conspicuous on Bagiai Cone. The seismic recording level was unchanged, and the seismic activity continued to consist of small, probably B-type, shocks, and periods of tremor."

Geologic Background. Karkar is a 19 x 25 km wide, forest-covered island that is truncated by two nested summit calderas. The 5.5-km-wide outer caldera was formed during one or more eruptions, the last of which occurred 9000 years ago. The eccentric 3.2-km-wide inner caldera was formed sometime between 1500 and 800 years ago. Parasitic cones are present on the N and S flanks of this basaltic-to-andesitic volcano; a linear array of small cones extends from the northern rim of the outer caldera nearly to the coast. Most historical eruptions, which date back to 1643, have originated from Bagiai cone, a pyroclastic cone constructed within the steep-walled, 300-m-deep inner caldera. The floor of the caldera is covered by young, mostly unvegetated andesitic lava flows.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Krafla (Iceland) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Krafla

Iceland

65.715°N, 16.728°W; summit elev. 800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large fissure and eruption

"By the end of May, the land level over the magma reservoirs at Krafla had regained the height reached prior to the 16 March deflation and eruption. A new event was therefore expected as tiltmeters showed continuous height increase indicating further magma inflow into the reservoirs.

"On 10 July at about 0800, the continuously recording tiltmeters started to show rapid deflation and about 1 hour later volcanic tremor was noted on the seismometers. Earthquake activity was soon seen to migrate northwards along the Krafla fault swarm. At about 1245 an eruption started about 8 km N of the magma reservoirs. At least four groups of fissures were active extending over about 4 km. Activity was greatest during the first day but then decreased and concentrated in the northernmost crater group. The eruption then continued with decreasing vigor until 18 July when activity faded away in the early morning.

"The eruption took place far away from habitation so damage was minimal. The beginning of the eruption was observed from the air and on the ground by an unsuspecting tourist.

"The eruption was accompanied by large-scale fault movements close to the eruption site. Possibly the most spectacular sight was when large volumes of lava disappeared down into one of the faults about 3 km from the crater. This lasted for a few hours and the width of the falls was about 200 m.

"The lava covers 5-6 km2 and is much thicker than in previous eruptions. Preliminary volume estimates indicate that the volume of erupted lava exceeds that which left the central magma reservoirs. This is the first time during the Krafla rifting episode when no magma appears to have been added to the rift zone.

"Inflation of the magma reservoirs started again on 16 July, before the eruption was over. Inflation now continues at a high rate so that the Krafla rifting and magmatic episode continues."

Geologic Background. The Krafla central volcano, located NE of Myvatn lake, is a topographically indistinct 10-km-wide caldera that is cut by a N-S-trending fissure system. Eruption of a rhyolitic welded tuff about 100,000 years ago was associated with formation of the caldera. Krafla has been the source of many rifting and eruptive events during the Holocene, including two in historical time, during 1724-29 and 1975-84. The prominent Hverfjall and Ludent tuff rings east of Myvatn were erupted along the 100-km-long fissure system, which extends as far as the north coast of Iceland. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed during the eruption of the older Laxarhraun lava flow from the Ketildyngja shield volcano of the Fremrinamur volcanic system about 3800 years before present (BP); its present shape is constrained by the roughly 2000 years BP younger Laxarhraun lava flow from the Krafla volcanic system. The abundant pseudocraters that form a prominent part of the Myvatn landscape were created when the younger Laxarhraun lava flow entered the lake.

Information Contacts: K. Grönvold, NVI.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vulcanian explosions and glow

"Vulcanian explosions continued in July from the active vent at Crater 3, and crater glow was seen on several nights. Eruption clouds were usually brown/grey, but otherwise emissions were white and rarely blue. Emissions from Crater 2 were usually white, but possible ash contents in the emissions were reported on several days. Weak glow from Crater 2 was reportedly observed on one occasion. The level of seismic activity remained steady, and consisted of moderate-amplitude volcanic earthquakes, probably of explosion origin."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Makushin (United States) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Makushin

United States

53.891°N, 166.923°W; summit elev. 1800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Recently-ejected tephra; vapor emission

On 8 July, J. Hauptmann, G. Gunther, and R. [Steuer] visited a seismic station on the E flank and overflew the summit. More than ten roughly circular vents emitted vapor from the summit area, a flat region about 100 m across. The largest vent was about 30 m in diameter, and others were around 10 m across. An H2S odor was detected, but no ash or incandescent material was observed.

About 60 m below the summit on the S flank, an explosion vent had recently ejected tephra ranging in size from ash to blocks, deposited in streaks aligned roughly toward the SE. Some impact craters were present in the deposit area, which extended 30-60 m from the vent.

Geologic Background. The ice-covered, 1800-m-high Makushin volcano on northern Unalaska Island west of the town of Dutch Harbor is capped by a 2.5-km-wide caldera. The broad, domical structure of Makushin contrasts with the steep-sided profiles of most other Aleutian stratovolcanoes. Much of the volcano was formed during the Pleistocene, but the caldera (which formed about 8000 years ago), Sugarloaf cone on the ENE flank, and a cluster of about a dozen explosion pits and cinder cones at Point Kadin on the WNW flank, are of Holocene age. A broad band of NE-SW-trending satellitic vents cuts across the volcano. The composite Pakushin cone, with multiple summit craters, lies 8 km to the SW of Makushin. Frequent explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 4000 years, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges. Geothermal areas are found in the summit caldera of Makushin and on the SE and eastern flanks of the volcano. They represent the largest and most investigated high-temperature geothermal resources in Alaska. Small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded at Makushin since 1786.

Information Contacts: J. Hauptmann, G. Gunther, R. Steuer, and S. McNutt, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Mild ash emission and occasional rumbling

"Manam's July activity was at a level similar to that of June, although brief periods of stronger seismicity were recorded at the beginning and end of the month. Pale grey/brown or thick white emissions from Southern crater were commonly observed, and blue vapours were occasionally seen. Main crater was often obscured but several observations of pale grey/brown emissions were made. Occasional rumbling sounds were heard, but no crater glows were seen. No trends were registered by the tiltmeters."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: C. McKee, RVO.


Masaya (Nicaragua) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large plume; high SO2 output

Emission of a very large plume continued in June. Remote sensing of SO2 gas revealed high output rates. The gas plume allowed only brief glimpses of the small pit crater in which an active lava lake had been observed on many occasions since 1970. The lake was not seen during the brief clear moments, nor did a glow appear in photographs of the pit. The lake's characteristic roaring noise, if present, was masked by the sounds created by gas emission. There were no night observations at Masaya.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: R. Stoiber and S. Williams, Dartmouth College; M. Carr and J. Walker, Rutgers Univ.; A. Creusot, INETER.


Momotombo (Nicaragua) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Momotombo

Nicaragua

12.423°N, 86.539°W; summit elev. 1270 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumarole temperatures measured

Temperatures of 465-780°C were measured in summit crater fumaroles in June. However, there was little gas emission.

Geologic Background. Momotombo is a young stratovolcano that rises prominently above the NW shore of Lake Managua, forming one of Nicaragua's most familiar landmarks. Momotombo began growing about 4500 years ago at the SE end of the Marrabios Range and consists of a somma from an older edifice that is surmounted by a symmetrical younger cone with a 150 x 250 m wide summit crater. Young lava flows extend down the NW flank into the 4-km-wide Monte Galán caldera. The youthful cone of Momotombito forms an island offshore in Lake Managua. Momotombo has a long record of Strombolian eruptions, punctuated by occasional stronger explosive activity. The latest eruption, in 1905, produced a lava flow that traveled from the summit to the lower NE base. A small black plume was seen above the crater after a 10 April 1996 earthquake, but later observations noted no significant changes in the crater. A major geothermal field is located on the south flank.

Information Contacts: R. Stoiber, S. Williams, Dartmouth College; M. Carr and J. Walker, Rutgers Univ.; A. Creusot, Instituto Nicaraguense de Energía.


Cerro Negro (Nicaragua) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Cerro Negro

Nicaragua

12.506°N, 86.702°W; summit elev. 728 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New fumarolic area on Cerro La Mula

When geologists visited Cerro Negro in June, fumaroles on the N side of the crater reached 320°C. A new, low-temperature, fumarolic area had formed 1 km N of Cerro Negro on the E flank of Cerro La Mula. A linear zone of recently-killed vegetation extended 200 m along a NNW trend. Cerro Negro last erupted in February 1971, ejecting about 4.5 x 106 m3 of tephra.

Geologic Background. Central America's youngest volcano, Cerro Negro, was born in April 1850 and has since been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Cerro Negro is the largest, southernmost, and most recent of a group of four youthful cinder cones constructed along a NNW-SSE-trending line in the central Marrabios Range 5 km NW of Las Pilas volcano. Strombolian-to-subplinian eruptions at Cerro Negro at intervals of a few years to several decades have constructed a roughly 250-m-high basaltic cone and an associated lava field that is constrained by topography to extend primarily to the NE and SW. Cone and crater morphology at Cerro Negro have varied significantly during its eruptive history. Although Cerro Negro lies in a relatively unpopulated area, its occasional heavy ashfalls have caused damage to crops and buildings in populated regions of the Nicaraguan depression.

Information Contacts: R. Stoiber, S. Williams, Dartmouth College; M. Carr and J. Walker, Rutgers Univ.; A. Creusot, Instituto Nicaraguense de Energía.


Pavlof (United States) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Pavlof

United States

55.417°N, 161.894°W; summit elev. 2493 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Steam and a little ash

Pavlof was emitting steam when viewed by J. Davies on 3 July. A few days later, according to second-hand reports, ash was present in the steam column.

Geologic Background. The most active volcano of the Aleutian arc, Pavlof is a 2519-m-high Holocene stratovolcano that was constructed along a line of vents extending NE from the Emmons Lake caldera. Pavlof and its twin volcano to the NE, 2142-m-high Pavlof Sister, form a dramatic pair of symmetrical, glacier-covered stratovolcanoes that tower above Pavlof and Volcano bays. A third cone, Little Pavlof, is a smaller volcano on the SW flank of Pavlof volcano, near the rim of Emmons Lake caldera. Unlike Pavlof Sister, Pavlof has been frequently active in historical time, typically producing Strombolian to Vulcanian explosive eruptions from the summit vents and occasional lava flows. The active vents lie near the summit on the north and east sides. The largest historical eruption took place in 1911, at the end of a 5-year-long eruptive episode, when a fissure opened on the N flank, ejecting large blocks and issuing lava flows.

Information Contacts: J. Davies and S. McNutt, LDGO.


Las Pilas (Nicaragua) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Las Pilas

Nicaragua

12.495°N, 86.688°W; summit elev. 1088 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Minor fumarolic activity

Minor fumarolic activity continued in June, and an area of recently-killed vegetation was observed on the NNE flank. The Las Pilas complex last erupted 29-31 October 1954, producing explosions from the central crater El Hoyo.

Geologic Background. Las Pilas volcanic complex, overlooking Cerro Negro volcano to the NW, includes a diverse cluster of cones around the central vent, Las Pilas. A N-S-trending fracture system cutting across 1088-m-high Las Pilas (El Hoyo) is marked by numerous well-preserved flank vents, including maars, that are part of a 30-km-long volcanic massif. The Cerro Negro chain of cinder cones is listed separately in this compilation because of its extensive historical eruptions. The lake-filled Asososca maar is located adjacent to the conical 818-m-high Cerro Asososca cone on the southern side of the fissure system, south of the axis of the Marrabios Range. Two small maars west of Lake Managua are located at the southern end of the fissure. Aside from a possible eruption in the 16th century, the only historical eruptions of Las Pilas took place in the 1950s from a fissure that cuts the eastern side of the 700-m-wide summit crater and extends down the north flank.

Information Contacts: R. Stoiber and S. Williams, Dartmouth College; M. Carr and J. Walker, Rutgers Univ.; A. Creusot, Instituto Nicaraguense de Energía.


San Cristobal (Nicaragua) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

San Cristobal

Nicaragua

12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Moderate vapor plume

A moderate vapor plume was emitted. Remote sensing showed that the SO2 content of the plume was low in comparison to recent years.

Geologic Background. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km W of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.

Information Contacts: R. Stoiber and S. Williams, Dartmouth College; M. Carr and J. Walker, Rutgers Univ.; A. Creusot, Instituto Nicaraguense de Energía.


St. Helens (United States) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

St. Helens

United States

46.2°N, 122.18°W; summit elev. 2549 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions destroy lava dome; 18 May cloud detected over Europe and Asia

An eruption similar to those of 25 May and 12 June destroyed the June dome on 22 July. After a slightly smaller eruption on 7 August, growth of a new dome began.

Activity was weak from late June through mid-July. A vapor plume rose to a maximum of 3.5-4 km altitude. SO2 emission, measured by remote sensing equipment, ranged from 1,800 to 2,600 t/d. No lava-dome growth was detected.

After several episodes of harmonic tremor on 27 June, weaker than the tremor preceding any of the eruptions, seismicity recorded by the USGS-University of Washington seismic net was limited to a few small shallow earthquakes per day. In an 11-minute period on 6 July, four earthquakes of M 2.0-3.2 occurred about 8 km below Marble Mountain, 14 km SE of Mt. St. Helens. The first of these shocks was recorded only 17 minutes after the start of an earthquake swarm beneath Mt. Hood, 100 km SSE of Mt. St. Helens (see Hood section). Six events of M 1.4-2.9, centered about 17 km SE of Mt. St. Helens, were recorded in 13.5 hours 19-20 July. A few hours later, one seismograph recorded 50 minutes of very weak harmonic tremor, the first since 27 June. On the day of the eruption, 22 July, shallow events centered under the N flank began at about 1000. Four earthquakes were recorded between 1400 and 1500, nine from 1500 to 1600, and twenty from 1600 to 1700. An increase in SO2 emission just prior to the eruption caused a sharp drop in the CO2/SO2 ratio after a steady increase over the preceding week.

The initial tephra ejection phase began at 1714 and lasted 6 minutes. NWS radar at Portland airport measured the top of the eruption cloud at slightly less than 14 km. Clear weather allowed the cloud to be seen from as far away as Seattle, Washington and Salem, Oregon, both about 150 km distant. An overflight by Donald Swanson revealed that the activity had blown a hole in the lava dome that had begun to grow in the crater shortly after the 12 June eruption, but had not destroyed it.

A second, larger, tephra cloud emerged from the volcano at 1825 and was fed vigorously for 22 minutes, destroying the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows moved down the N flank, nearly reaching Spirit Lake. A NOAA weather satellite infrared image at 1845 (2 minutes before the end of this active phase) yielded a temperature of -52°C at the top of the column, corresponding to an altitude of about 13 km (figure 12). Portland airport radar recorded a maximum cloud altitude of more than 18 km during this phase. Arthur Krueger estimates the base of the stratosphere to have been at about 16 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Series of three enhanced infrared images returned 22 July 1980 by NOAA's GOES West geostationary weather satellite. Left, image at 1845 shows the cloud from the Mt. St. Helens explosion at 1714 drifting NE as the column from the explosion that began at 1825 rises from the volcano. A temperature of -52°C at the top of the latter column was calculated from this image, corresponding to an altitude of about 13 km. Center, image 1 hour later, at 1945, shows material from the eruptive pulses that began at 1901 rising from the volcano, as two distinct earlier clouds move NE. Right, image at 2145 shows that feeding of the cloud has nearly ended, and the distal end of the plume has crossed into Canada at the NE corner of Washington. Courtesy of Arthur Krueger and Andy Horvitz.

The final series of eruptive pulses began at 1901, lasting about 2 hours and 40 minutes. The highest cloud ejected during this period reached almost 14 km at 1907 and pyroclastic flows were most numerous around that time. NOAA weather satellite images show that feeding of the eruption column had declined substantially by 2115, and that the ash plume was definitely detached from Mt. St. Helens on the next image, at 2145. The plume moved NE across Washington into British Columbia, Canada, remaining visible on the images until about 0100, when it merged with a cold front over W Alberta. Ash fell as far away as Montana and Alberta. Ashfalls were light, the thickest reported at Colville, Washington (nearly 450 km NE of Mt. St. Helens) where 1.5 mm were measured.

The USGS informed federal, state, and local government agencies of the earthquake swarm during the early afternoon of 22 July. People working on the flanks of the volcano, including about 120 USFS personnel, were evacuated before eruptive activity began. No casualties were reported.

Gary Heckman reports that a class M-8 solar flare that occurred on 22 July began 37 minutes after the volcano's first explosion (at 1751), peaked at 1803, and ended at 1909. Class M-8 flares, near the top of the intermediate intensity scale, normally occur about once a month. However, solar activity is presently near the peak of its 22-year cycle and intense flares have become more frequent.

Aerial observers reported glowing red areas in the crater during the night of 22-23 July. Overflights the next morning revealed a new crater, about 250-300 m in longest dimension and 100 m deep, in the area formerly occupied by the lava dome. A thick blanket of ash surrounded the new crater, which emitted a small vapor column similar to those of mid-July. SO2 emission dropped to about 800 t/d on 23 July, but returned to mid-July levels the following day. Temperatures of up to 705°C were measured at 1.5 m depth in the new pyroclastic flows on 24 July, while surface temperatures were 70-80°C.

On 28 July at 0608, a little ash rose slowly from the new crater to 3.5 km altitude. Harmonic tremor accompanied the activity, which lasted about 20 minutes. No unusual pre-eruption seismicity was recorded, but glow was observed a few hours earlier from a USFS monitoring aircraft.

SO2 emission dropped to 700 t/d on 28 July and did not exceed 1,100 t/d through the end of the month. Red glow continued to be visible in the crater as of early August. The USGS attributed the glow to superheated rock, not a new lava dome.

At press time, another eruption was followed by renewed lava-dome growth. At about noon on 7 August, volcanic tremor began, increasing in intensity as a M 2.3 earthquake occurred at 1238 in the vicinity of Marble Mountain, site of earthquakes in early and mid-July. Remote sensing of CO2 and SO2 gas emissions showed that the CO2/SO2 ratio had dropped from twelve to fourteen on 6 August to about three on 7 August. However, the lower ratio was caused by a decrease in CO2 rather than the increased SO2 emission that caused the similar ratio decline before the 22 July eruption. Because of the changes in seismicity and gas emission, the USGS withdrew its personnel from the area closest to the volcano and notified the USFS Emergency Coordination Center that an eruption might be imminent. Other persons working on the volcano's flanks were evacuated, including fire fighters battling persistent smoldering debris in the 18 May eruption deposits.

Tremor intensity continued to increase, and another M 2.3 earthquake was recorded in the Marble Mountain area at 1458. An eruption began at 1623, producing an ash-laden column that rose quickly to about 13.5 km. A small pyroclastic flow moved down the N flank, leaving a thin deposit, but did not reach Spirit Lake. At 1910, an increase in tremor amplitude coincided with a series of pulsating ash ejections that sent clouds to a maximum altitude of less than 7 km. Seismic and eruptive activity waned briefly about 2200, then a stronger explosion at 2232 sent tephra to 11 km altitude, accompanied by more tremor. Variable winds sent ash over a wide area, but ashfalls were very light. Ash was reported in Grays Harbor County, about 150 km NW; Mt. Vernon, 250 km N; Wenatchee, 200 km NE; and Portland, 80 km SW. Small pulses were seen on the USGS monitoring camera the next day at 0935, 1007, and 1734. Ash rose to about 3.5 km altitude as surrounding steam columns reached nearly 5 km. A new lava dome was visible in the vent on 8 August, with its top about 40 m below the vent rim. About 8 m of vertical growth appeared to have taken place by 9 August, but no further growth was evident on 11 August.

Tracking of the 18 May eruption cloud continues at several locations worldwide. Ronald Fegley reported that NOAA's lidar equipment at Mauna Loa, Hawaii (19.5°N, 155.6°W) detected a significant volcanic layer at 18.4 km altitude on 15 July. Weaker layers had been detected on 10 and 13 June and 2 and 8 July at similar altitudes.

M.P. McCormick provided the following information. On 4 June, the ground-based lidar at NASA's Langley Research Center in SE Virginia (37°N, 76.4°W) first detected a persistent layer at 18 km altitude (no data were obtained 30 May-3 June). H. Jäger and R. Reiter observed layers near 12 km altitude (slightly above the local tropopause) over Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (47.5°N, 11.0°E) on several days beginning on 25 May. Material extending from 13 to 15.5 km altitude was detected there on 12 June. Beginning 11 June, G. Visconti and G. Fiocco reported material between 15 and 20 km, and possibly at 14 km, over L'Aquila, Italy (42.4°N, 13.4°E). M. Fujiwara of Kyushu University, Japan (33.6°N, 130.4°E) reported a layer on 3 June just below 15 km, clearly higher than the local tropopause. NASA's SAGE satellite will move through the mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere in August and will collect data on ejecta remaining in the atmosphere. H.H. Lamb reports that he observed a colored ring, which he believes to be an example of Bishop's Ring, around the sun at sunset on 12 June at Norwich, England (52.6°N, l.3°E).

Issue No. 80-3 of the Upper Atmospheric Programs Bulletin, published jointly by NASA and the FAA, contains ten pages of reports of high-altitude atmospheric research and satellite study of the 18 May eruption cloud.

JMA reports that many of their stations, from the NE to the SW ends of Japan, recorded the pressure wave from the 18 May explosion on microbarometers. Arrivals ranged from 1447 to about 1628 (local time at Mt. St. Helens) on 18 May. Calculated apparent wave velocities ranged from 305 to 309 m/s.

Strong electrical effects were associated with the heavy ashfall of 18 May. Rocke Koreis reported observations of ball lightning at elevations from near ground level into the ash cloud over Yakima, Washington (140 km ENE of the volcano). Strong thunder continued throughout Yakima's ashfall, which was entirely dry and lasted from 1115 to 2300 on 18 May. A distinct second pulse of ash was noted in late afternoon. Koreis also reported that a light plane fleeing the initial 18 May explosion at an air-speed of more than 270 km/hr was briefly being overtaken by the eruption cloud moving at an estimated 320 km/hr.

Geologic Background. Prior to 1980, Mount St. Helens formed a conical, youthful volcano sometimes known as the Fuji-san of America. During the 1980 eruption the upper 400 m of the summit was removed by slope failure, leaving a 2 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped crater now partially filled by a lava dome. Mount St. Helens was formed during nine eruptive periods beginning about 40-50,000 years ago and has been the most active volcano in the Cascade Range during the Holocene. Prior to 2200 years ago, tephra, lava domes, and pyroclastic flows were erupted, forming the older St. Helens edifice, but few lava flows extended beyond the base of the volcano. The modern edifice was constructed during the last 2200 years, when the volcano produced basaltic as well as andesitic and dacitic products from summit and flank vents. Historical eruptions in the 19th century originated from the Goat Rocks area on the north flank, and were witnessed by early settlers.

Information Contacts: R. Decker, HVO, Hawaii; R. Tilling, C. Zablocki, USGS, Reston, VA; D. Swanson, R. Christiansen, USGS, Menlo Park, CA; A. Krueger, NOAA/NESS; S. Malone, R. Crosson, E. Endo, University of Washington; M.P. McCormick, NASA Langley Research Center; R. Fegley, NOAA/ERL; H. Jäger, Fraunhofer-Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung; G. Visconti, University dell'Aquila; G. Fiocco, Istituto di Fisica dell'Atmosfera; M. Fujiwara, Kyushu University; H.H. Lamb, University of East Anglia; Seismological Division, JMA; W.S. Smith, FAA; R.Koreis, Yakima, WA; AP; UPI.


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tephra ejection

Aerial observers reported that tephra clouds rose to about 1.8 km above On-take vent on 18-19 May.

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, CA.


Telica (Nicaragua) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Telica

Nicaragua

12.606°N, 86.84°W; summit elev. 1036 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small steam plume emission continues

When geologists visited Telica in June, a small steam plume continued to be emitted.

Geologic Background. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately E, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.

Information Contacts: R. Stoiber and S. Williams, Dartmouth College; M. Carr and J. Walker, Rutgers Univ.; A. Creusot, Instituto Nicaraguense de Energía.


Toya (Japan) — July 1980 Citation iconCite this Report

Toya

Japan

42.544°N, 140.839°E; summit elev. 733 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Cryptodome uplift and seismicity continue

Seismic activity (table 3) and cryptodome uplift have continued through May 1980. The rate of cryptodome uplift and outward movement of the N somma wall both averaged about 5 cm/day in November 1979 and 4 cm/day in March 1980. In May, white vapor rose from three vents. Three new parallel faults with a combined throw of about 60 cm passed through the S portions of the active vents.

Table 3. Monthly means of the number of recorded earthquakes per day, July 1979-May 1980. Courtesy of JMA.

[Skip text table]
    Year   Month   Daily Earthquakes

    1979    Jul           47
            Aug           36
            Sep           35
            Oct           36
            Nov           36
            Dec           44
    1980    Jan           38
            Feb           35
            Mar           29
            Apr           19
            May           22

Geologic Background. Usuzan, one of Hokkaido's most well-known volcanoes, is a small stratovolcano located astride the southern topographic rim of the 110,000-year-old Toya caldera. The center of the 10-km-wide, lake-filled caldera contains Nakajima, a group of forested Pleistocene andesitic lava domes. The summit of the basaltic-to-andesitic edifice of Usu is cut by a somma formed about 20-30,000 years ago when collapse of the volcano produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. Dacitic domes erupted along two NW-SE-trending lines fill and flank the summit caldera. Three of these domes, O-Usu, Ko-Usu and Showashinzan, along with seven crypto-domes, were erupted during historical time. The 1663 eruption of Usu was one of the largest in Hokkaido during historical time. The war-time growth of Showashinzan from 1943-45 was painstakingly documented by the local postmaster, who created the first detailed record of growth of a lava dome.

Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo; D. Shackelford, Fullerton CA.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

View Atmospheric Effects Reports

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

View Special Announcements Reports

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (SEAN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (SEAN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (SEAN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (SEAN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (SEAN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).