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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Aira (Japan) Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Agung (Indonesia) Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019.

Suwanosejima (Japan) Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Great Sitkin (United States) Small steam explosions in early June 2019

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ebeko (Russia) Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Yasur (Vanuatu) Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

Ambae (Vanuatu) Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Sangay (Ecuador) Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows



Aira (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Sakurajima rises from Kagoshima Bay, which fills the Aira Caldera near the southern tip of Japan's Kyushu Island. Frequent explosive and occasional effusive activity has been ongoing for centuries. The Minamidake summit cone has been the location of persistent activity since 1955; the Showa crater on its E flank has also been intermittently active since 2006. Numerous explosions and ash-bearing emissions have been occurring each month at either Minamidake or Showa crater since the latest eruptive episode began in late March 2017. This report covers ongoing activity from January through June 2019; the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides regular reports on activity, and the Tokyo VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) issues tens of reports each month about the frequent ash plumes.

From January to June 2019, ash plumes and explosions were usually reported multiple times each week. The quietest month was June with only five eruptive events; the most active was March with 29 (table 21). Ash plumes rose from a few hundred meters to 3,500 m above the summit during the period. Large blocks of incandescent ejecta traveled as far as 1,700 m from the Minamidake crater during explosions in February and April. All the activity originated in the Minamidake crater; the adjacent Showa crater only had a mild thermal anomaly and fumarole throughout the period. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies inside the Minamidake crater several times each month.

Table 21. Monthly summary of eruptive events recorded at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater in Aira caldera, January-June 2019. The number of events that were explosive in nature are in parentheses. No events were recorded at the Showa crater during this time. Data courtesy of JMA (January to June 2019 monthly reports).

Month Ash emissions (explosive) Max. plume height above crater Max. ejecta distance from crater
Jan 2019 8 (6) 2.1 km 1.1 km
Feb 2019 15 (11) 2.3 km 1.7 km
Mar 2019 29 (12) 3.5 km 1.3 km
Apr 2019 10 (5) 2.2 km 1.7 km
May 2019 15 (9) 2.9 km 1.3 km
Jun 2019 5 (2) 2.2 km 1.3 km

There were eight eruptive events reported by JMA during January 2019 at the Minamidake summit crater of Sakurajima. They occurred on 3, 6, 7, 9, 17, and 19 January (figure 76). Ash plume heights ranged from 600 to 2,100 m above the summit. The largest explosion, on 9 January, generated an ash plume that rose 2,100 m above the summit crater and drifted E. In addition, incandescent ejecta was sent 800-1,100 m from the summit. Incandescence was visible at the summit on most clear nights. During an overflight on 18 January no significant changes were noted at the crater (figure 77). Infrared thermal imaging done on 29 January indicated a weak thermal anomaly in the vicinity of the Showa crater on the SE side of Minamidake crater. The Kagoshima Regional Meteorological Observatory (KRMO) (11 km WSW) recorded ashfall there during four days of the month. Satellite imagery indicated thermal anomalies inside Minamidake on 7 and 27 January (figure 77).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Incandescent ejecta and ash emissions characterized activity from Sakurajima volcano at Aira during January 2019. Left: A webcam image showed incandescent ejecta on the flanks on 9 January 2019, courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, January 2019). Right: An ash plume rose hundreds of meters above the summit, likely also on 9 January, posted on 10 January 2019, courtesy of Mike Day.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. The summit of Sakurajima consists of the larger Minamidake crater and the smaller Showa crater on the E flank. Left: The Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 January 2019 seen in an overflight courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, March 2019). Right: Two areas of thermal anomaly were visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 27 January 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased during February 2019, with 15 eruptive events reported on days 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 17, 22, 24, and 27. Ash plume heights ranged from 600-2,300 m above the summit, and ejecta was reported 300 to 1,700 m from the crater in various events (figure 78). KRMO reported two days of ashfall during February. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies at the crater on 6 and 26 February, and ash plumes on 21 and 26 February (figure 79).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. An explosion from Sakurajima at Aira on 7 February 2019 sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the Minamidake summit crater. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, February 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Thermal anomalies and ash emissions were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 6, 21, and 26 February 2019 originating from Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Top: Thermal anomalies within the summit crater were visible underneath steam and ash plumes on 6 and 26 February (closeup of bottom right photo). Bottom: Ash emissions on 21 and 26 February drifted SE from the volcano. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The number of eruptive events continued to increase during March 2019; there were 29 events reported on numerous days (figures 80 and 81). An explosion on 14 March produced an ash plume that rose 3,500 m above the summit and drifted E. It also produced ejecta that landed 800-1,100 m from the crater. During an overflight on 26 March a fumarole was the only activity in Showa crater. KRMO reported 14 days of ashfall during the month. Satellite imagery identified an ash plume on 13 March and a thermal anomaly on 18 March (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. A large ash emission from Sakurajima volcano at Aira was photographed by a tourist on the W flank and posted on 1 March 2019. Courtesy of Kratü.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. An ash plume from Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 March 2019 produced enough ashfall to disrupt the trains in the nearby city of Kagoshima according to the photographer. Image taken from about 20 km away. Courtesy of Tim Board.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An ash plume drifted SE from the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 13 March (left) and a thermal anomaly was visible inside the Minamidake crater on 18 March 2019 (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A decline in activity to only ten eruptive events on days 7, 13, 17, 22, and 25 was reported by JMA for April 2019. An explosion on 7 April sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the crater. Another explosion on 13 April produced an ash plume that rose 2,200 m above the summit. Most of the eruptive events at Sakurajima last for less than 30 minutes; on 22 April two events lasted for almost an hour each producing ash plumes that rose 1,400 m above the summit. Ashfall at KRMO was reported during seven days in April. Two distinct thermal anomalies were visible inside the Minamidake crater on both 12 and 27 April (figure 83).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Two thermal anomalies were present inside Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 12 (left) and 27 (right) April 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There were 15 eruptive events during May 2019. An event that lasted for two hours on 12 May produced an ash plume that rose 2,900 m from the summit and drifted NE (figure 84). The Meteorological Observatory reported 14 days with ashfall during the month. Two thermal anomalies were present in satellite imagery in the Minamidake crater on both 17 and 22 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. An ash plume rose 2,900 m above the summit of Sakurajima at Aira on 12 May 2019 (left); incandescent ejecta went 1,300 m from the summit crater on 13 May. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, May 2019).

During June 2019 five eruptive events were reported, on 11, 13, and 24 June; the event on 11 June lasted for almost two hours, sent ash 2,200 m above the summit, and produced ejecta that landed up to 1,100 m from the crater (figure 85). Five days of ashfall were reported by KRMO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. A large ash plume on 11 June 2019 rose 2,200 m above the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Courtesy of Aone Wakatsuki.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Mike Day, Minnesota, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM, photo at https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM/status/1083489400451989505/photo/1); Kratü, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue, photo at https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue/status/1101469595414589441/photo/1); Tim Board, Japan, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_, photo at https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_/status/1107789108754038789); Aone Wakatsuke, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki, photo at https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki/status/1138420031258210305/photo/3).


Agung (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Agung

Indonesia

8.343°S, 115.508°E; summit elev. 2997 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

After a large, deadly explosive and effusive eruption during 1963-64, Indonesia's Mount Agung on Bali remained quiet until a new eruption began in November 2017 (BGVN 43:01). Lava emerged into the summit crater at the end of November and intermittent ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit through the end of the year. Activity continued throughout 2018 with explosions that produced ash plumes rising multiple kilometers above the summit, and the slow effusion of the lava within the summit crater (BGVN 43:08, 44:02). Information about the ongoing eruptive episode comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and multiple sources of satellite data. This report covers the ongoing eruption from February through May 2019.

Intermittent but increasingly frequent and intense explosions with ash emissions and incandescent ejecta characterized activity at Agung during February through May 2019. During February, explosions were reported three times; events on seven days in March were documented with ash plumes and ashfall in surrounding villages. Five significant events occurred during April; two involved incandescent ejecta that traveled several kilometers from the summit, and ashfall tens of kilometers from the volcano. Most of the five significant events reported in May involved incandescent ejecta and ashfall in adjacent villages; air traffic was disrupted during the 24 May event. Ash plumes in May reached altitudes over 7 km multiple times. Thermal activity increased steadily during the period, according to both the MIROVA project (figure 44) and MODVOLC thermal alert data. MAGMA Indonesia reported at the end of May 2019 that the volume of lava within the summit crater remained at about 25 million m3; satellite information indicated continued thermal activity within the crater. Alert Level III (of four levels) remained in effect throughout the period with a 4 km exclusion radius around the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal activity at Agung from 4 September 2018 through May 2019 was variable. The increasing frequency and intensity of thermal events was apparent from February-May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Steam plumes rose 30-300 m high daily during February 2019. The Agung Volcano Observatory (AVO) and PVMBG issued a VONA on 7 February (UTC) reporting an ash plume, although it was not visible due to meteoric cloud cover. Incandescence, however, was observed at the summit from webcams in both Rendang and Karangasem City (16 km SE). The seismic event associated with the explosion lasted for 97 seconds. A similar event on 13 February was also obscured by clouds but produced a seismic event that lasted for 3 minutes and 40 seconds, and ashfall was reported in the village of Bugbug, about 20 km SE. On 22 February a gray ash plume rose 700 m from the summit during a seismic event that lasted for 6 minutes and 20 seconds (figure 45). The Darwin VAAC reported the plume visible in satellite imagery moving W at 4.3 km altitude. It dissipated after a few hours, but a hotspot remained visible about 10 hours later.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. An ash plume rose from the summit of Agung on 22 February 2019, viewed from the Besakih temple, 7 km SW of the summit. Courtesy of PunapiBali.

Persistent steam plumes rose 50-500 m from the summit during March 2019. An explosion on 4 March was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW); no ash plume was observed due to fog. A short-lived ash plume rose to 3.7 km altitude and drifted SE on 8 March (UTC) 2019. The seismic event lasted for just under 4 minutes. Ash emissions were reported on 15 and 17 March to 4.3 and 3.7 km altitude, respectively, drifting W (figure 46). Ashfall from the 15 March event spread NNW and was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. MAGMA Indonesia noted that two explosions on the morning of 17 March (local time) produced gray plumes; the first sent a plume to 500 m above the summit drifting E and lasted for about 40 seconds, while the second plume a few hours later rose 600 m above the crater and lasted for 1 minute and 16 seconds. On 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. An event on 20 March was measured only seismically by PVMBG because fog prevented observations. An eruption on 28 March produced an ash plume 2 km high that drifted W and NW. The seismic signal for this event lasted for about two and a half minutes. The Darwin VAAC reported the ash plume at 5.5 km altitude, dissipating quickly to the NW. No ash was visible four hours later, but a thermal anomaly remained at the summit (figure 47). Ashfall was reported in nearby villages.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Ash plumes from Agung on 15 (left) and 17 (right) March 2019 resulted in ashfall in communities 10-20 km from the volcano. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia (Information on G. Agung Eruption, 15 March 2019 and Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release March 17, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. A thermal anomaly was visible through thick cloud cover at the summit of Agung on 29 March 2019 less than 24 hours after a gray ash plume was reported 2,000 m above the summit. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The first explosion of April 2019 occurred on the 3rd (UTC); PVMBG reported the dense gray ash plume 2 km above the summit drifting W. A few hours later the Darwin VAAC raised the altitude to 6.1 km based on infrared temperatures in satellite imagery. The seismic signal lasted for three and a half minutes and the explosion was heard at the PGA Post in Rendang (12 km SW). Incandescent material fell within a radius of 2-3 km, mainly on the S flank (figure 48). Ashfall was reported in the villages of Telungbuana, Badeg, Besakih, Pempatan, Teges, and Puregai on the W and S flanks (figure 49). An explosion on 11 April also produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted W. A hotspot remained about six hours later after the ash dissipated.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Incandescent ejecta appeared on the flanks of Agung after an eruption on 4 April 2019 (local time) as viewed from the observation post in Rendang (8 km SW). Courtesy of Jamie Sincioco.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Ashfall in a nearby town dusted mustard plants on 4 April 2019 from an explosion at Agung the previous day. Courtesy of Pantau.com (Photo: Antara / Nyoman Hendra).

PVMBG reported an eruption visible in the webcam early on 21 April (local time) that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW. The ash spread W and S and ash fell around Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (8 km SW), Klungkung (25 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (50 km WSW), and at the Ngurah Rai-Denpasar Airport (60 km SW). About 15 hours later a new explosion produced a dense gray ash plume that rose to 3 km above the summit and produced incandescent ejecta in all directions as far as 3 km away (figure 50). The ash spread to the S and ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). Both of the explosions were heard in Rendang and Batulompeh. The incandescent ejecta from the explosions remained within the 4-km exclusion zone. A satellite image on 23 April showed multiple thermal anomalies within the summit crater (figure 51). A dense gray plume drifted E from Agung on 29 April (30 April local time) at 4.6 km altitude. It was initially reported by ground observers, but was also visible in multispectral satellite imagery for about six hours before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. An explosion at Agung on 21 April 2019 sent incandescent eject 3,000 m from the summit. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release April 21, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Multiple thermal anomalies were still present within the summit crater of Agung on 23 April 2019 after two substantial explosions produced ash and incandescent ejecta around the summit two days earlier. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG reported an eruption on 3 May 2019 that was recorded on a seismogram with a signal that lasted for about a minute. Satellite imagery reported by the Darwin VAAC showed a growing hotspot and possible ash near the summit at 4.3 km altitude moving NE. A few days later, on 6 May, a gray ash plume rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted slowly W before dissipating; it was accompanied by a seismic signal that lasted for about two minutes. Explosions on 12 and 18 May produced significant amounts of incandescent ejecta (figure 52). The seismic signal for the 12 May event lasted for about two minutes; no plume was observed due to fog, but incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks and the explosion was heard at Rendang. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume from the explosion on 17 May (18 May local time) at 6.1 km altitude in satellite imagery moving E. They revised the altitude a short while later to 7.6 km based on IR temperature and movement; the plume drifted N, NE, and E in light and variable winds. A few hours after that it was moving NE at 7.6 km altitude and SE at 5.5 km altitude; this lasted for about 12 hours until it dissipated. Ashfall was reported in villages downwind including Cutcut, Tongtongan, Bonyoh (20 km WNW), and Temakung.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Explosions on 12 (left) and 18 (right) May (local time) 2019 produced substantial ejecta on the flanks of Agung visible from a distance of 10 km or more in PVMBG webcams. The ash plume from the 18 May event resulted in ashfall in numerous communities downwind. Courtesy of PVMBG (Information Eruption G. Agung, May 13, 2019, Information Eruption G. Agung, May 18, 2019).

The initial explosion on 18 May was captured by a webcam at a nearby resort and sent incandescent ejecta hundreds of meters down the NE flank within 20 seconds (figure 53). Satellite imagery on 3, 8, 13, and 18 May indicated multiple thermal anomalies growing stronger at the summit. All of the images were captured within 24 hours of an explosive event reported by PVMBG (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The 18 May 2019 explosion at Agung produced an ash plume that rose to over 7 km altitude and large bombs of incandescent material that traveled hundreds of meters down the NE flank within the first 20 seconds of the explosion. Images taken from a private webcam located 12 km NE. Courtesy of Volcanoverse, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Satellite images from 3, 8, 13, and 18 May 2019 at Agung showed persistent and increasing thermal anomalies within the summit crater. All images were captured within 24 hours of explosions reported by PVMBG. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG issued a VONA on 24 May 2019 reporting a new ash emission. They indicated that incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5-3 km in all directions from the summit, and the seismic signal lasted for four and a half minutes (figure 55). A dense gray ash plume was observed from Tulamben on the NE flank rising 2 km above the summit. Satellite imagery indicated that the plume drifted SW and ashfall was reported in the villages of Besakih, Pempatan, Menanga, Sebudi, Muncan, Amerta Bhuana, Nongan, Rendang, and at the Ngurah Rai Airport in Denpassar. Additionally, ashfall was reported in the districts of Tembuku, Bangli, and Susut (20 km SW). The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude along with a thermal anomaly and incandescent lava visible in webcam imagery. The remains of the ash plume were about 170 km S of the airport in Denpasar (60 km SW) and had nearly dissipated 18 hours after the event. According to a news article several flights to and from Australia were cancelled or diverted, though the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport was not closed. On 31 May another large explosion produced the largest ash plume of the report period, rising more than 2 km above the summit (figure 56). The Darwin VAAC reported its altitude as 8.2 km drifting ESE visible in satellite data. It split into two plumes, one drifted E at 8.2 km and the other ESE at 6.1 km altitude, dissipating after about 20 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. A large explosion at Agung on 24 May 2019 produced incandescent ejecta that covered all the flanks and dispersed ash to many communities to the SW. Courtesy of PVMBG (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release 24 May 2019 20:38 WIB, Kasbani, Ir., M.Sc.).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. An explosion at Agung on 31 May 2019 sent an ash plume to 8.2 km altitude, the highest for the report period. Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks extend to the coast. The summit area extends 1.5 km E-W, with the high point on the W and a steep-walled 800-m-wide crater on the E. The Pawon cone is located low on the SE flank. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the largest in the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); The Jakarta Post, Mount Agung eruption disrupts Australian flights, (URL: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/05/25/mount-agung-eruption-disrupts-australian-flights.html); PunapiBali (URL: http://punapibali.com/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/punapibali, image at https://twitter.com/punapibali/status/1098869352588288000/photo/1); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (URL: Twitter: https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco. Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1113765842557104130/photo/1); Pantau.com (URL: https://www.pantau.com/berita/erupsi-gunung-agung-sebagian-wilayah-bali-terpapar-hujan-abu?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter); Volcanoverse (URL: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCi3T_esus8Sr9I-3W5teVQQ); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN ).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019.

Frequently active, Indonesia's Mount Kerinci on Sumatra has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, usually multiple times per month, have characterized activity since April 2018. Similar activity continued during February-May 2019, the period covered in this report with information provided primarily by the Indonesian volcano monitoring agency, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, notices from the Darwin Volcano Ash Advisory Center (Darwin VAAC), and satellite data. PVMBG has maintained an Alert Level II (of 4) at Kerinci for several years.

On 13 February 2019 the Kerinci Volcano Observatory (KVO), part of PVMBG, noted a brownish-white ash emission that was drifting NE about 400 m above the summit. The seismicity during the event was dominated by continuous volcanic tremor. A brown ash emission was reported on 7 March 2019 that rose to 3.9 km altitude and drifted NE. Ash also drifted 1,300 m down the SE flank. Another ash plume the next morning drifted W at 4.5 km altitude, according to KVO. On 10, 11, and 13 March KVO reported brown ash plumes drifting NE from the summit at about 4.0-4.3 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC observed continuous ash emissions in satellite imagery on 15 March drifting W at 4.3 m altitude that dissipated after about 3 hours (figure 10). A gray ash emission was reported on 19 March about 600 m above the summit drifting NE; local news media noted that residents of Kayo Aro reported emissions on both 18 and 19 March (figure 11). An ash emission appeared in satellite imagery on 25 March (figure 10). On 30 March the observatory reported two ash plumes; a brown emission at 0351 UTC and a gray emission at 0746 UTC that both drifted NE at about 4.4 km altitude and dissipated within a few hours. PVMBG reported another gray ash plume the following day at a similar altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Kerinci from 15 (left) and 25 (right) March 2019 showed evidence of ash plumes rising from the summit. Kerinci's summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Dense ash plumes from Kerinci were reported by local news media on 18 and 19 March 2019. Courtesy of Nusana Jambi.

Activity continued during April with a brown ash emission reported on 3 April by several different agencies; the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG daily reports noted that the plume was about 500 m above the summit (4.3 km altitude) drifting NE. KVO observed two brown ash emissions on 13 April (UTC) that rose to 4.2 km altitude and drifted NE. Satellite imagery showed minor ash emissions from the summit on 14 April; steam plumes 100-500 m above the summit characterized activity for the remainder of April (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. A dilute ash emission rose from the summit of Kerinci on 14 April 2019 (left); only steam emissions were present on a clear 29 April in Sentinel-2 imagery (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Ashfall on the NE and S flanks within 7 km of the volcano was reported on 2 May 2019. According to a news article, at least five villages were affected late on 2 May, including Tanjung Bungo, Sangir, Sangir Tengah, Sungai Rumpun, and Bendung Air (figures 13 and 14). The smell of sulfur was apparent in the villages. Brown ash emissions were observed on 3 and 4 May that rose to 4.6 and 4.1 km altitude and drifted SE. The Darwin VAAC reported an emission on 5 May, based on a pilot report, that rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted NE for about an hour before dissipating. A brown ash emission on 10 May rose 700 m above the summit and drifted SE. Satellite imagery captured ash emissions from the summit on 14 and 24 May (figure 15). For the remainder of the month, 300-700-m-high dense steam plumes were noted daily until PVMBG reported white and brown plumes on 26 and 27 May rising 500-1,000 m above the summit. Although thermal anomalies were not reported during the period, persistent weak SO2 emissions were identified in TROPOMI instrument satellite data multiple times per month (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Ashfall was reported from five villages on the flanks of Kerinci on 2 May 2019. Courtesy of Uzone.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. An ash plume at Kerinci rose hundreds of meters on 2 May 2019; ashfall was reported in several nearby villages. Courtesy of Kerinci Time.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Ash emissions from Kerinci were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 14 (left) and 24 (right) May 2019. The summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Weak SO2 anomalies from Kerinci emissions were captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite multiple times each month from February to May 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Nuansa Jambi, Informasi Utama Jambi: (URL: https://nuansajambi.com/2019/03/20/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-asap-tebal/); Kerinci Time (URL: https://kerincitime.co.id/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-abu-vulkanik.html); Uzone.id (URL: https://news.uzone.id/gunung-kerinci-erupsi-5-desa-tertutup-abu-tebal).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Suwanosejima is an active volcanic island south of Japan in the Ryuku islands with recent activity centered at Otake crater. The current eruption began in October 2004 and activity has mostly consisted of small ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and visible incandescence at night. This report summarizes activity during January through June 2019 and is based on reports by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and various satellite data.

Thermal activity recorded by the MIROVA system was low through January and February after a decline in November (figure 36), shown in Sentined-2 thermal infrared imagery as originating at a vent in the Otake crater (figure 37). During January an explosive event was observed at 1727 on the 3rd, producing a gray plume that rose 600 m above the crater. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1.5 km above the crater and nighttime incandescence was observed throughout the month. Reduced activity continued through February with no reported explosive eruptions and light gray plumes up to 900 m above the crater. Incandescence continued to be recorded at night using a sensitive surveillance camera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared data at Suwanosejima during September 2018 through June 2019. There was reduced activity in 2019 with periods of more frequent anomalies during March and June. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image shows Suwanosejima with the active Otake crater in the center with elevated temperatures shown as bright orange/yellow. There is a light area next to the vent that may be a gas plume. False color (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There was an increase in thermal energy detected by the MIROVA system in mid-March and there was a MODVOLC thermal alert on the 15th. Occasional small explosions occurred but no larger explosive events were recorded. A white plume was noted on the 27th rising to 900 m above the crater and an event at 1048 on the 30th produced a light-gray plume that rose to 800 m. Incandescence was only observed using a sensitive camera at night (figure 38).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Incandescence from the Suwanosejima Otake crater reflecting in clouds above the volcano. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima March 2019).

No explosive events were observed through April. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1,200 m above the crater on the 19th and incandescence continued intermittently. Minor explosions were recorded on 5, 30, and 31 May, but no larger explosive events were observed during the month. The event on the 30th produced ash plume that reached 1.1 km above the crater. Similar activity continued through June with one explosive event occurring on the 2nd. Overall, there was a reduction in the number of ash plumes erupted during this period compared to previous months (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Observed activity at Suwanosejima for the year ending in July 2019. The black vertical bars represent steam, gas, or ash plume heights (scale in meters on the left axis), yellow diamonds represent incandescence observed in webcams, gray volcano symbols along the top are explosions accompanied by ash plumes, red volcano symbols represent large explosions with ash plumes. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima June 2019).

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Great Sitkin (United States) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Great Sitkin

United States

52.076°N, 176.13°W; summit elev. 1740 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small steam explosions in early June 2019

The Great Sitkin volcano is located about 40 km NE of Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands and has had a few short-lived eruptions over the past 100 years. Prior to the latest activity in early June 2019 described below, small phreatic explosions occurred in June and August 2018 (BGVN 43:09). An eruption in 1974 produced a lava dome in the center of the crater. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

Low-level unrest occurred from September 2018 through February 2019 with slightly elevated seismic activity (figure 6). Small explosions were seismically detected by AVO on 30 October, 5 and 16 November, and 11 December 2018, but they were not seen in regional infrasound data and satellite data did not show an ash cloud.

On 1, 7, and 9 June 2019, AVO reported small steam explosions as well as slightly elevated seismic activity. Steam plumes and surficial evidence of an explosion were not observed during these events. On 18 June 2019 weakly elevated surface temperatures were recorded, field crews working on Adak observed some steam emissions, and a gas flight was conducted. Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide detected above the lava dome were likely associated with the steam explosions earlier in the month (figures 7 and 8). From 23 June through the end of the month seismicity began to decline back to background levels.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. A steam plume was seen at the summit of Great Sitkin on 7 December 2018. Photo by Andy Lewis and Bob Boyd; courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Some degassing was observed on the southern flank of the Great Sitkin during an overflight on 18 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor; image courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. View of Great Sitkin with white plumes rising from the summit on 20 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor, courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Geologic Background. The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/).


Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ibu volcano on Halmahera island in Indonesia began the current eruption episode on 5 April 2008. Since then, activity has largely consisted of small ash plumes with less frequent lava flows, lava dome growth, avalanches, and larger ash plumes up to 5.5 km above the crater. This report summarizes activity during December 2018 through June 2019 and is based on Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) reports by MAGMA Indonesia, reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), and various satellite data.

During December PVMBG reported ash plumes ranging from 200 to 800 m above the crater. There were 11 MODVOLC thermal alerts that registered during 1-12 December. An explosion on 12 January 2019 produced an ash plume that reached 800 m above the crater and dispersed to the S (figure 15). A report released for this event by Sutopo at BNPB said that Ibu had erupted almost every day over the past three months; an example given was of activity on 10 January consisting of 80 explosions. There were four MODVOLC thermal alerts through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. An eruption at Ibu at 1712 on 21 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to 800 m above the crater. Courtesy of BNPB (color adjusted).

Throughout February explosions frequently produced ash plumes as high as 800 m above the crater, and nine MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued. Daily reports showed variable plume heights of 200-800 m most days throughout the month. Wind directions varied and dispersed the plumes in all directions. A VONA released at 1850 on 6 February reported an ash plume that rose to 1,925 m altitude (around 600 m above the summit) and dispersed S. Activity continued through March with the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reporting explosions producing ash plumes to heights of 200-800 m above the crater and dispersing in various directions. There were ten MODVOLC alerts through the month.

Similar activity continued through April, May, and June, with ash plumes reaching 200-800 m above the crater. There were 12, 6, and 15 MODVOLC Alerts in April, May, and June, respectively.

Planet Scope satellite images show activity at a two vents near the center of the crater that were producing small lava flows from February through June (figure 16). Thermal anomalies were frequent during December 2018 through June 2019 across MODVOLC, MIROVA, and Sentinel-2 infrared data (figures 17 and 18). Sentinel-2 data showed minor variation in the location of thermal anomalies within the crater, possibly indicating lava flow activity, and MIROVA data showed relatively constant activity with a few reductions in thermal activity during January and February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Planet Scope natural color satellite images showing activity in the Ibu crater during January through June 2019, with white arrows indicating sites of activity. One vent is visible in the 21 February image, and a 330-m-long (from the far side of the vent) lava flow with flow ridges had developed by 24 March. A second vent was active by 12 May with a new lava flow reaching a maximum length of 520 m. Activity was centered back at the previous vent by 23-27 June. Natural color Planet Scope Imagery, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Examples of thermal activity in the Ibu crater during January through May 2019. These Sentinel-2 satellite images show variations in hot areas in the crater due to a vent producing a small lava flow. Sentinel-2 false color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Ibu from September 2018 through June 2019. The registered energy was relatively stable through December, with breaks in January and February. Regular thermal anomalies continued with slight variation through to the end of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/).


Ebeko (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

The Ebeko volcano, located on the northern end of the Paramushir Island in the Kuril Islands, consists of many craters, lakes, and thermal features and has been frequently erupting since late February 2017. Typical activity includes ash plumes, explosive eruptions, and gas-and-steam activity. The previous report through November 2018 (BGVN 43:12) described frequent ash explosions that sometimes caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km E). The primary source of information is the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). This report updates the volcanic activity at Ebeko for December 2018 through May 2019.

Frequent moderate explosive activity continued after November 2018. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions sending up ash, which drifted N, NE, and E, resulting in ash falls on Severo-Kurilsk on 28 different days between December 2018 and March 2019. On 25 December 2018 an explosion sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and then drifted N for about 5 km. Explosions occurring on 8-10 March 2019 sent ash up to an altitude of 4 km, resulting in ashfall on Severo-Kurilsk on 9-10 March 2019. An ash plume from these explosions rose to a height of 2.5 km and drifted to a maximum distance of 30 km ENE.

Satellite data analyzed by KVERT registered 12 thermal anomalies from December 2018 through May 2019. According to satellite data analyzed by MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), only one thermal anomaly was recorded from December 2018-May 2019, and no hotspot pixels were recognized using satellite thermal data from the MODVOLC algorithm.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Klyuchevskoy has had alternating eruptive and less active periods since August 2015. Activity has included lava flows, a growing cinder cone, thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and ash explosions. Though some eruptions occur near the summit crater, major explosive and effusive eruptions have also occurred from flank craters (BGVN 42:04 and 43:05). Intermittent moderate gas-and-steam and ash emissions were previously reported from mid-February to mid-August 2018. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity, some of which contained a small amount of ash, and weak thermal anomalies occurred intermittently from the beginning of September 2018 through mid-April 2019. On 21-22 April 2019 webcam data showed a gas-and-steam plume extending about 160 km SE (figure 31). Moderate Strombolian-type volcanism began late April 2019 and continued intermittently through June 2019. On 11-12 June webcam data showed explosions that sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 6 km, with the resulting ash plume extending about 200 km WNW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Gas-and-steam plume containing some amount of ash rising from the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 22 April 2019. Photo by A. Klimova, courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS).

Thermal anomalies were noted by KVERT during two days in September 2018, six days in April 2019, eleven days in May 2019, and six days in June 2019. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed infrequent weak thermal anomalies December 2018 through early May 2019.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Yasur volcano on Tanna Island has been characterized by Strombolian activity with large incandescent bombs, frequent explosions, lava fountaining, and ash emissions for much of its known eruptive history. Melanesians from nearby islands are believed to have settled Tanna in about 400 BCE; it is now part of the nation of Vanuatu, independent since 1980. The Kwamera language (or Tannese) spoken on the SE coast of the island is thought to be the source of the name of the island. No known oral history describes volcanic activity; the first written English-language documentation of activity dates to 5 August 1774, when Captain James Cook saw "a great fire" on Tanna Island. Cook realized that it "was a Volcano which threw up vast quantities of fire and smoak and made a rumbling noise which was heard at a good distance" (The Captain Cook Society) (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Incandescence, steam, and dark ash from Yasur fill the sky in this sketch representing Captain James Cook's landing in the 'Resolution' at Tanna Island on 5 August 1774. The form of the volcano is behind the ship, the incandescence is in the upper right next to the ship's masts. "Landing at Tanna" by William Hodges, 1775-1776, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. The Maritime Museum noted that this is one of a group of panel paintings produced by Hodges of encounters with islanders during the voyage, in which the European perception of each society at the time is portrayed. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons.

Based on numerous accounts from ships logs and other sources, volcanic activity has been continuous since that time. During periods of higher activity, multiple vents within the summit crater send ejecta 100 m or more above the crater rim, with large bombs occasionally landing hundreds of meters away. Continued activity during February-May 2019 is covered in this report with information provided by the Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) which monitors the volcano and satellite data; photographs from tourists also provide valuable information about this remote location.

VMGD has maintained Alert Level 2 at Yasur since October 2016, indicating that it is in a major state of unrest. There is a permanent exclusion zone within 395 m of the eruptive vents where access is prohibited due to multiple hazards, primarily from large incandescent bombs up to 4 m in diameter which have been ejected from the vents onto the crater rim in the past, resulting in fatalities (BGVN 20:08).

Satellite and ground based information all support high levels of thermal activity during February -May 2019. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued 11 times in February, 27 times in March, and 20 times each in April and May. The MIROVA graph also indicated the ongoing consistently high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 52). Plumes of SO2 emissions are common from Vanuatu's volcanoes; newer higher resolution data available beginning in 2019 reveal a persistent stream of SO2 from Yasur on a near-daily basis (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. The MIROVA graph of thermal energy at Yasur from 3 September 2018 through May 2019 indicates the ongoing activity at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The SO2 plumes from Yasur were persistent during January-May 2019 when they were visible many days of each week throughout the period. Top left: On 12 January plumes were visible drifting E from both Ambrym (top) and Yasur (bottom). Top right: Plumes drifted W from three Vanuatu volcanoes on 7 February, Gaua (top), Ambrym (middle) and Yasur (bottom). Bottom left: On 12 March N drifting plumes could be seen from Ambae (top) and Yasur (bottom). On 27 April, only Yasur had an SO2 plume drifting W. Courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center.

Satellite imagery confirmed that the heat sources from Yasur were vents within the summit crater of the pyroclastic cone. Both northern and southern vent areas were active. On 7 March 2019 the N vent area had a strong thermal signal. Ten days later, on 17 March, similar intensity thermal anomalies were present in both the N and S vent areas (figure 54). On 6 April the S vent area had a stronger signal, and gas emissions from both vents were drifting N (figure 55). Satellite imagery from 21 May 2019 indicated a strong thermal signal inside the crater in the area of the vents, and included a weaker signal clearly visible on the inside E crater rim. Strong Strombolian activity or spatter sending large incandescent bombs as far as the crater rim are a likely explanation for the signal (figure 56), underscoring the hazardous nature of approaching the crater rim.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Strong thermal anomalies from the crater of Yasur's pyroclastic cone seen in satellite images confirmed the ongoing high level of activity. Left: 7 March 2019, a strong thermal anomaly from the N vent area, shown with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Right: 17 March 2019, thermal anomalies at both the N and S vent areas, shown with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Strong thermal anomalies (left) and gas emissions (right) at Yasur were captured with different bands in the same Sentinel-2 satellite image on 6 April 2019. Left: The thermal anomaly in the S vent area was stronger than in the N vent area, "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: Gas plumes drifted N from both vent areas, "Natural color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Thermal activity from the crater of Yasur on 21 May 2019 produced a strong thermal signal from the center of the crater and a weaker signal on the inside E crater rim, likely the result of hazardous incandescent bombs and ejecta, frequent products of the activity at Yasur. Left: "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). The crater is about 0.5 km in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Tourists visit Yasur on a regular basis. A former lake on the N side of Yasur has left ripples in the sand deposits over older volcanic rocks on the N side of the volcano (figure 57) since it drained in 2000 (BGVN 28:01). Visitors are allowed to approach the S rim of the crater where incandescence from both the N and S vents is usually visible (figure 58). Incandescent spatter from the convecting lava in the vents is highly dangerous and unpredictable and often covers the inner slopes of the rim as well as sending bombs outside the crater (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. The pyroclastic cone of Yasur viewed from the north on 6 May 2019. Ripples in volcaniclastic sand in the foreground are remnants of a lake that was present on the N side of the volcano until a natural dam breached in 2000. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Two glowing vents were visible from the south rim of Yasur on 6 May 2019. The S vent area is in the foreground, the N vent area is in the upper left. Copyrighted by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Incandescent spatter at Yasur on 6 May 2019 sent fragments of lava against the inside crater wall and onto the rim. The convecting lava in the vent can be seen in the lower foreground. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); The Captain Cook Society (URL: https://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/225-years-ago-july-september-1774); Royal Museums Greenwich (URL: https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/13383.html); Wikimedia Commons, (URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Landing_at_Tana_one_of_the_New_Hebrides,_by_William_Hodges.jpg); Nick Page, Australia,Flickr: (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/152585166@N08/).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

With historical eruptions reported back to 1842, Papua New Guinea's Bagana volcano on the island of Bougainville has been characterized by viscous andesitic lava flows down the steep flanks of its cone, along with intermittent ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Ongoing thermal anomalies and frequent ash plumes have been typical of activity during the current eruption since it began in early 2000. Activity declined significantly in December 2018 and remained low through May 2019, the period covered in this report (figure 33). Information for this report comes primarily from satellite images and thermal data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The MIROVA plot of radiative power at Bagana from 1 September 2018 through May 2019 shows a marked decline in thermal activity during December 2018 after ash explosions and satellite observations of flows during the previous months. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The last ash emission at Bagana was reported on 1 December 2018 by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). A Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a linear thermal anomaly trending NW from the summit on 14 December (BGVN 50:01). On 8 January 2019, an image contained a dense steam plume drifting E and a very faint thermal anomaly on the N flank a few hundred meters from the summit. A more distinct thermal anomaly at the summit appeared on 22 February 2019 (figure 34). A visitor to the region photographed incandescence on the flank, likely from the volcano, at dawn around 19 February 2019 (figure 35).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at Bagana in January and February 2019. Left: a very faint thermal anomaly was N of the summit at the edge of the E-drifting steam plume on 8 January 2019. Right: A thermal anomaly was located at the summit, at the base of the NE-drifting steam plume on 22 February 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A visitor near Bagana spotted incandescence on the flank at dawn, possibly from a lava flow. Posted online 19 February 2019. Courtesy of Emily Stanford.

Two faint thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 19 March; a single one appeared on 29 March 2019 (figure 36). No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 images during April or May, but steam plumes and gas emissions were visible through cloud cover on multiple occasions (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Faint thermal anomalies at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery twice during March 2019. Left: 19 March, two anomalies appear right of the date label. Right: 29 March, a small anomaly appears right of the date label. Sentinel-2 image rendered with "Atmospheric Penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Steam and gas emissions at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery during April and May 2019. Left: A steam plume drifted NW from the summit on 23 April, visible through dense cloud cover. Right: A gas plume drifted SW from the summit on 18 May. Sentinel-2 image with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Emily Stanford (Twitter: https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady, image posted at https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady/status/1098052063009792001/photo/1).


Ambae (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambae

Vanuatu

15.389°S, 167.835°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Ambae (Aoba) is a large basaltic shield volcano in the New Hebrides arc, part of the multi-island country of Vanuatu. Its periodic phreatic and pyroclastic explosions originating in the summit crater lakes have been recorded since the 16th century. A pyroclastic cone appeared in Lake Voui during November 2005-February 2006 (BGVN 31:12, figure 30); an explosive eruption from a new pyroclastic cone in the lake began in mid-September 2017 (BGVN 43:02). Activity included high-altitude ash emissions (9.1 km), lava flows, and Strombolian activity. Intermittent pulses of ash emissions during the following months resulted in extensive ashfall and evacuations; multiple communities were affected by lahars. The most recent episode of the eruption from July to September 2018 (BGVN 44:02) resulted in 11-km-altitude ash plumes and the evacuation of the entire island due to heavy ashfall and lahars. This report covers activity from February to May 2019, with information provided by the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) and satellite data from multiple sources.

Activity diminished after the extensive eruptive phase of July-September 2018 when substantial ash plumes and ashfall resulted in evacuations. An explosion with an ash plume on 30 October 2018 was the last activity reported for 2018. Thermal alerts were reported by the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC thermal alerts system through January 2019, and the Log Radiative Power graph prepared by the MIROVA project showed decreasing thermal anomalies into June 2019 (figure 92). Satellite images recorded in April and May 2019 (figure 93) showed the configuration of the summit lakes to be little changed from the previous November except for the color (BGVN 44:02, figure 89). No ash emissions or SO2 plumes were reported during the period. VMGD noted that the volcano remained at Alert Level 2 through May 2019 with a 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. The MIROVA log radiative power plot for Ambae showed ongoing intermittent thermal anomalies from early September 2018 through May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Satellite imagery in April and May 2019 showed little change in the configuration of lakes at the summit of Ambae since November 2018 (see BGVN 44:02, figure 89). Left: 24 April 2019. Right: 29 May 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The island of Ambae, also known as Aoba, is a massive 2500 km3 basaltic shield that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes (Manaro Ngoru, Voui, and Manaro Lakua) is located at the summit within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. That large central edifice is also called Manaro Voui or Lombenben volcano. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui (or Vui) about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sangay (Ecuador) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Sangay is the southernmost active volcano in Ecuador, with confirmed historical eruptions going back to 1628. The previous eruption occurred during August and December and was characterized by ash plumes reaching 2,500 m above the crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows descended the eastern and southern flanks. This report summarizes activity during January through July 2019 and is based on reports by Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

After the December 2018 eruption there was a larger reduction in seismicity, down to one event per day. During January, February, and most of March there was no recorded activity and low seismicity until the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume at 0615 on 26 March. The ash plume rose to a height of around 1 km and dispersed to the SW as seen in GOES 16 satellite imagery as a dark plume within white meteorological clouds. There was no seismic data available due to technical problems with the station.

More persistent eruptive activity began on 10 May with thermal alerts (figure 30) and an ash plume at 0700 that dispersed to the W. An explosion was recorded at 1938 on 11 May, producing an ash plume and incandescent material down the flank (figure 31). Two M 2 earthquakes were detected between 3.5 and 9 km below the crater on 10 May, possibly corresponding to explosive activity. By 17 May there were two active eruptive centers, the central crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Sangay for the year ending June 2019. The plot shows the August to December 2018 eruption, a break in activity, and resumed activity in May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. An explosion at Sangay on 10 May 2019 sent ballistic projectiles up to 650 m above the crater at a velocity of over 400 km/hour, an ash plume that rose to over 600 m, and incandescent blocks that traveled over 1.5 km from the crater at velocities of around 150 km/hour. Screenshots are from video by IG-EPN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. A photograph of the southern flank of Sangay on 17 May 2019 with the corresponding thermal infrared image in the top right corner. The letters correspond to: a) a fissure to the W of the lava flow; b) an active lava flow from the Ñuñurcu dome; c) the central crater producing a volcanic gas plume; d) a pyroclastic flow deposit produced by collapsing material from the front of the lava flow. Prepared by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 3 – 2019).

Activity at the central crater by 21 May was characterized by sporadic explosive eruptions that ejected hot ballistic ejecta (blocks) with velocities over 400 km/hour; after landing on the flanks the blocks travelled out to 2.5 km from the crater. Ash plumes reached heights between 0.9-2.3 km above the crater and dispersed mainly to the W and NW; gas plumes also dispersed to the W. The Ñuñurcu dome is located around 190 m SSE of the central crater and by 21 May had produced a lava flow over 470 m long with a maximum width of 175 m and an estimated minimum volume of 300,000 to 600,000 m3. Small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls resulted from collapse of the lava flow front, depositing material over a broad area on the E-SE flanks (figure 33). One pyroclastic flow reached 340 m and covered an area of 14,300 m2. During the 17 May observation flight the lava flow surface reached 277°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. A view of the ESE flanks of Sangay on 17 May 2019. The area within the black dotted line is the main area of pyroclastic flow deposition from the Ñuñurco Dome. Photo by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

At the end of June activity was continuing at the central crater and Ñuñurco Dome. At least three lava flows had been generated from the dome down the SE flank and pyroclastic flows continued to form from the flow fronts (figure 34). Pyroclastic material had been washed into the Upano river and steam was observed in the Volcán River possibly due to the presence of hot rocks. Ash plumes continued through June reaching heights of 800 m above the crater (figure 35), but no ashfall had been reported in nearby communities.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 natural color (left) and thermal (center) images (bands 12, 11, 4), and 1:50 000 scale maps (right) of Sangay with interpretation on the background of a 30 m numerical terrain model (WGS84; Zone 17S) (Prepared by B. Bernard). The dates from top to bottom are 17 May, 22 May, 27 May, 16 June, and 26 June 2019. Prepared by B. Bernard; courtesy IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Plots giving the heights and dispersal direction of ash plumes at Sangay during May and June 2019. Top: Ash plume heights measures in meters above the crater. Bottom: A plot showing that the dominant dispersal direction of ash plumes is to the W during this time. Courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 21, Number 05 (May 1996)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Aira (Japan)

Explosive activity continues, decreased activity in May

Akademia Nauk (Russia)

Eruptions continue through April; more details of early January activity

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Tremor duration unusually large in April (434 hours), but normal in May (325 hours)

Asosan (Japan)

Crater glow

Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001) (Unknown)

Lidar data from Virginia, Germany, and Cuba

Azumayama (Japan)

Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (Japan)

Discolored seawater

Hokkaido-Komagatake (Japan)

Steaming activity continues

Irazu (Costa Rica)

No tilt in April-May but tens of local earthquakes

Iwatesan (Japan)

Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

Karymsky (Russia)

Eruptions continue through April; more details of early January activity

Kilauea (United States)

Surface flows, ocean entries, and bench collapses; summit inflation episode

Kuchinoerabujima (Japan)

Number of volcanic earthquakes increases

Kujusan (Japan)

Seismic activity increases, but there is no ashfall

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Intermittent Vulcanian explosions produce ash-and-vapor clouds

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Low level activity persists

Poas (Costa Rica)

N crater lake at 10-year high; water temperature increases; phreatic explosion on 8 April

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Strong Strombolian eruption followed by less intense and more varied activity

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica)

Seven minor seismic events

Ruapehu (New Zealand)

Eruption on 17 June sends ash several kilometers above the summit

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Earthquake swarms during July-September 1995 and January-April 1996

Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom)

Dome growth and evacuation continue in May

Stromboli (Italy)

Continued high levels of activity through mid-June; two larger explosions

Tokachidake (Japan)

Seismic activity increases

Toya (Japan)

Seismic activity increases

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Low to moderate emission of steam continues

Unzendake (Japan)

Partial dome collapse triggers a pyroclastic flow



Aira (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosive activity continues, decreased activity in May

During April, Miniami-dake crater produced 14 eruptions, including five that were explosive. Seismic station B, 2.3 km NW of Miniami-dake crater, recorded 364 earthquakes and 120 tremors. On 28 April an ash plume rose 3,500 m above the summit crater. This was the highest ash plume observed during the month. A monthly ashfall total of 8 g/m2 of ashfall was measured at the Kagoshima Local Meteorological Observatory (KMO), 10 km W from the crater.

During May, Minami-dake crater produced one explosive eruption. Station B recorded 64 earthquakes and three tremors. The highest ash plume of May rose 3,500 m above the summit crater. The ashfall total at KMO was 6 g/m2.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Akademia Nauk (Russia) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Akademia Nauk

Russia

53.98°N, 159.45°E; summit elev. 1180 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions continue through April; more details of early January activity

Eruptions began on 2 January from the summit of Karymsky and from the lake (Karymsky Lake) within the Akademia Nauk caldera (figure 1), previously considered to be extinct (BGVN 21:01-21:03). Eruptive activity at [Karymsky] continued through the end of April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Schematic map showing some features of the SW part of the Karymsky Volcanic Center. Karymsky Lake lies within the Akademia Nauk Caldera. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Precursory seismicity. Large tectonic earthquakes in the Kronotsky Gulf have historically been among the precursors to eruptions from Karymsky and Maly Semiachik volcanoes. At 1926 on 31 December 1995, a M 5.6 earthquake occurred in the Kronotsky Gulf (50-60 km NE) at a depth of ~60 km. Earthquake swarms are common beneath the large (50 x 35 km) Karymsky Volcanic Center, but an unusually large swarm started on the evening of 1 January with hypocenters to depths of 80 km (figure 2). These followed a M 5.2 foreshock, and at 2157 a shallow M 6.9 earthquake took place centered ~25 km S of Karymsky; this was the largest earthquake recorded beneath the Kamchatkan volcanoes during the past 50 years. Scientists from the Institute of Volcanology and the Kamchatkan Experimental-Methodical Seismological Department of Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences, flew to the epicentral zone of the continuing earthquake swarm and observed the onset of the eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Map and cross-sections of epicenters from the earthquake swarm at Karymsky Volcanic Center that began on 1 January 1996. Cross-section A-B (below map) trends approximately NW-SE, and cross-section C-D (left of map) trends approximately NE-SW. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Early eruptions at Karymsky volcano. On the afternoon of 2 January the eruption began on Karymsky's upper SW flank 50 m below the old summit crater and from the Akademia Nauk caldera lake, ~6 km S (figure 3). Ash and gas clouds from the summit vent fed a plume rising to 1 km above the crater; the ash-flow rate was estimated to be several cubic meters per second. The eruption cloud extended E towards the ocean and ashfall was visible 40-50 km away.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Simultaneous eruptions of Karymsky (right) and Akademia Nauk (left) volcanoes, 2 January 1996. Distance between the summit vent of Karymsky and subaqueous vents in the Akademia Nauk caldera lake is 6 km. The Karymsky cone is 700 m high. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

On the evening on 3 January another crater formed on Karymsky; it looked like a 30-m-diameter amphitheater open to the SW. Sub-vertical Vulcanian explosions occurred from this crater to an altitude of 1 km. Over the next few days, explosions sent gas-and-ash emissions 300-1,100 m high almost every minute.

During the first three days of the eruption, ~500-800 x 103 tons of solid materials, including ash, lapilli, cinder, and bombs, were ejected at Karymsky. During the next 2-3.5 months ~3-4 x 103 tons of andesite-dacite tephra (SiO2 61%) and a small amount of bombs were ejected. An area with a radius of 15-20 km was covered by an ash layer several millimeters thick. The layer's thickness increased along the ashfall axis, reaching 20-30 mm at 4-5 km from the source.

Early eruptions at Akademia Nauk caldera lake. Violent subaqueous explosions on 2 January took place several times every hour in the N part of the 5-km-wide Akademia Nauk caldera lake (figure 4). Explosion clouds rose to 8 km altitude, but most of the tephra fell back into the lake. Ash from Karymsky Lake covered Akademia Nauk volcano and its surroundings. The head of the Karymsky River had its valley and adjacent flood-lands inundated by high water and mud flows.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. One of the powerful subaqueous explosions from the N part of Karymsky Lake (Akademia Nauk Caldera), 2 January 1996. The base of the growing cloud is ~1 km wide. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Although the Akademia Nauk caldera lake had been ice-covered during the winter, after the January explosions water temperature reached 25°C, pH decreased from 7.5 to 3.1-3.2, and mineralization increased from 0.1 g/l to 0.9 g/l. Thermal water compositionally similar to those of the Karymsky springs started to discharge at a new shoal in the N part of the lake. According to preliminary estimates, ~0.015 km3 of material was supplied to the lake during the eruption.

After the lake water had cleared, a subaqueous deposit around the main explosion vent (with a diameter of 1 km) was observed. The N part of the deposit, ~1 km2, was exposed at the surface, forming an arched spit with the adjoining peninsula (figure 5). According to preliminary estimates, ~5-10 x 106 m3 of tephra including sand and rounded fragments of various sizes, and many bombs, formed the deposit there. Their composition ranged from basaltic andesite to andesite-dacite. The volume of deposits on the bottom of the lake is much greater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. View of Karymsky Lake showing the new 1-km-wide peninsula formed by subaqueous explosion deposits on 2 January 1996. The main vents are to the left of the beach arc. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Activity through April. During the ensuing days in January, the eruption style at Karymsky dropped to 5-6 explosions reaching 500-900 m high every hour. More vigorous single explosions were exceptional. On 13-14 January, a block-lava flow from the flank crater traveled 400 m, was 50-70 m wide, and averaged 6-10 m thick. In late January the interval between explosions started to increase from 30 minutes to 2-3 hours.

In February only several explosions were observed each day (figure 6). In late February the number of explosions increased to 5-6/hour, but their intensity decreased. In March the number of explosions decreased but their intensity increased. In April the number of explosions increased. For example, on 23 April they took place every 5 minutes. Two additional lava flows were emitted from the flank crater in April.

A dense geodetic network developed since 1972 at the Karymsky Volcanic Center has been measured repeatedly. During the past 20 years, a horizontal extension of Akademia Nauk caldera was observed that may have indicated filling of a magma chamber under the volcano. Measurements made in February and March revealed an extension of 232 cm along the 3.5-km base and subsidence of 70 cm near the area of subaqueous explosions in the caldera lake.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Typical Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky, January-April 1996. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Karymsky Volcanic Center. Karymsky and Akademia Nauk are part of the 50 x 35 km Karymsky Volcanic Center (sometimes referred to as the Zhupanovsky volcano-tectonic depression). Located in the Eastern Kamchatka volcanic belt, 30 km from the Kronotsky Gulf and Pacific Ocean, this center contains 21 volcanic edifices, six calderas, and two historically active stratovolcanoes, Karymsky and Maly Semiachik.

The 5-km-diameter Karymsky Caldera formed 7,800 years ago and the Karymsky cone has been growing in the center of the caldera for 5,300 years, ejecting andesitic and dacitic materials. Historical reports on Karymsky's eruptions have been available since 1771. During that period of time, more than 20 prolonged eruptions were separated by quiet periods as long as 10 years. The most recent previous eruption continued from 1970 to 1982.

Akademia Nauk caldera, which was named by the famous Russian volcanologist Vladimir Vlodavetz in 1939, is located immediately to the S in the SW part of the Karymsky Volcanic Center. Its activity began about 50,000 years ago. The N part of the caldera is occupied by Karymsky Lake (4 km wide, 12.5 km2 in area, and 80 m deep). The Akademia Nauk chloride-sodium springs, with 1.3 g/l mineralization and temperatures >250°C in the interior part of the hydrothermal system, discharge along the lake's S shore.

Geologic Background. The scenic lake-filled Akademia Nauk caldera is one of three volcanoes constructed within the mid-Pleistocene, 15-km-wide Polovinka caldera. Beliankin stratovolcano, in the SW part of Polovinka caldera, is eroded, but has been active in postglacial time (Sviatlovsky, 1959). Two nested calderas, 5 x 4 km Odnoboky and 3 x 5 km Akademia Nauk (also known as Karymsky Lake or Academii Nauk), were formed during the late Pleistocene, the latter about 30,000 years ago. Eruptive products varied from initial basaltic-andesite lava flows to late-stage rhyodacitic lava domes. Two maars, Akademia Nauk and Karymsky, subsequently formed at the southern and northern margins of the caldera lake, respectively. The northern maar, Karymsky, erupted about 6500 radiocarbon years ago and formed a small bay. The first historical eruption from Akademia Nauk did not take place until January 2, 1996, when a brief, day-long explosive eruption of unusual basaltic and rhyolitic composition occurred from vents beneath the NNW part of the caldera lake near Karymsky maar.

Information Contacts: S.A. Fedotov, V.A. Budhikov, G.A. Karpov, M.A. Maguskin, Ya.D. Muravyev, V.A. Saltykov, and R.A. Shuvalov, Institute of Volcanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.


Arenal (Costa Rica) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tremor duration unusually large in April (434 hours), but normal in May (325 hours)

Fluctuations in the intensity and frequency of explosive activity were reported by OVSICORI-UNA. Activity during April increased above that of the previous several months but diminished during May. The April increase was accompanied by a corresponding rise in the amount of pyroclastic material produced; columns ascended over 1 km above Crater C in April and somewhat lower in May; these were commonly blown towards the NW, W, and SW. Ashfall measured at the ICE station 1.8 km W of the vent was higher during March-May than earlier in the year (table 14).

Table 14. Ash collected 1.8 km W of Arenal's active vent. Courtesy of Gerardo Soto, ICE.

Collection Interval Avg daily ashfall (grams/m2) Ash % 300+µ Ash % less than 300µ
22 Dec-06 Mar 1996 33 50 50
06 Mar-15 Apr 1996 43 50 50
15 Apr-16 May 1996 48 56 44

During April and May, bombs and blocks fell to 1,200 m elevation. New pyroclastic-flow deposits were noted in April. Early April pyroclastic deposits descended the SW flank (to 1,000 m elevation) and those of late April descended the NW flank (to 1,250 m elevation). Light ash fell towards the N and NE in May.

Lava flows emitted in the previous month divided into two arms that both trended about NW. A new, NE-trending flow began during April and by the end of the month its front reached 1,200 m elevation. Sporadic avalanches fell off this front and sometimes reached into forested land. During May, continued descent of the flows to as low as 750 m elevation led to avalanches off their fronts producing small fires in the woods. Accumulating tephra and lava have caused Crater C's floor to rise an average of 5.4 m/year since 1987.

OVSICORI-UNA reported a progressive seismic buildup during April; over the course of the month the number of local earthquakes increased 4- to 6-fold peaking on the 27th. Station VACR (2.7 km NE of the Crater C) registered rather typical numbers of earthquakes for both April and May: 798 and 828 events, respectively. Many of these earthquakes were associated with Strombolian eruptions that took place on 20-28 April.

The number of hours of tremor during April, 434, was the highest measured in more than two years. While there occurred a progressive buildup in the number of earthquakes during April (ending on the 27th), tremor during the same interval fluctuated strongly, with daily totals between about 6 and 23 hours. May tremor totalled 325 hours. Results for monthly earthquakes and tremor obtained by ICE are smaller but also show relative increases (table 15).

Table 15. Average seismicity at Arenal, as recorded in Fortuna station, 3.5 km E of active vent. Courtesy of ICE.

Month Earthquakes/day Daily tremor (hours)
Jan 1996 44 4.25
Feb 1996 -- --
Mar 1996 47 5.61
Apr 1996 63 7.83

Deformation studies carried out during April and May indicated no significant changes in that time interval. By the end of April 1996 the distance network had indicated a contraction of 22.4 ppm/year during the last two years.

OVSICORI-UNA and a team of seven visiting scientists reported that on 1-9 March Arenal's summit was almost continuously visible due to abnormally clear weather. Two gas plumes were observed, the largest being associated with the continuing Strombolian activity. This plume had extremely variable output and was often ash laden. The smaller plume, which was emitted at a more-or-less constant rate (even during the Strombolian explosions), carried no ash. The separate plumes were thought to signify the existence of two or more summit vents.

The Strombolian activity remained vigorous and variable, with large bombs being regularly thrown over the crater rim, making access to points on the edifice above 1000 m extremely hazardous. The ash column sometimes collapsed, resulting in pyroclastic surges, some of which were witnessed. Ash fallout from the plume was observed to vary from a wet, fine powder to dry particles up to 0.5 mm in diameter. Ash occasionally fell on the lower western flanks of the volcano.

The two lava flows referred to above were active when observed by visiting scientists. One flow was more vigorous; it issued from a steeply leveed channel aligned westwards from the summit for 200 m before diverging northwestwards.

A survey of lava flows erupted during 1995 showed that the westward flow had halted at 750 m and was composed of Arenal's typical basaltic andesite. The visiting scientists saw one anomalously hot area at 850 m elevation on the N levee that was distinguished by escaping steam. The levee on the flow's opposite side had completely collapsed. The flow was beginning to be vegetated by moss and ferns. The westward flow, which halted at 850 m in November 1995, contained vesiculated lava as well as the usual basaltic andesite mixed with blocks of ash. Flow thickness at the front of the surveyed flow that lies to the NW was around 100 m.

SO2 fluxes were also measured by COSPEC as a follow-up to measurements made at the same time last year. Six days of flux data during 29 February-8 March were collected, the result of more than 40 measurements. Daily averages were 110, 194, 111, 130, 259, and 171 metric tons/day (t/d); the mean for the period was 163 ± 53 t/d (1 sigma). The flux appeared to be small and variable, though less so than at the same time last year (BGVN 20:04). The highest SO2 flux was associated with mild explosive eruptions. Also evident in the fluxes in some instances were both a strong post-eruption decrease and a possible gradual pre-eruption increase.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: Erick Fernández, Elicer Duarte, Vilma Barboza, Rodolfo Van der Laat, and Enrique Hernandez, Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica; Hazel Rymer and Mark Davies, Dept. of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom; John Stix, Dora Knez, Glyn Williams-Jones, and Alexandre Beaulieu, Dept. de Geologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada; Nicki Stevens, Dept. of Geography, University of Reading, Reading RG2 2AB, United Kingdom; Gerardo J. Soto, Oficina de Sismología y Vulcanología, Departamento de Geología, Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Apartado 10032-1000, San José, Costa Rica.


Asosan (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Asosan

Japan

32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Crater glow

Red glow has been observed over part of the S wall of Naka-dake Crater 1 since 27 April. The floor of this crater was still covered with water in May. Aso, a 24-km wide caldera, produced pyroclastic-flow deposits during the Pleistocene that cover much of Kyushu. Naka-dake, one of the 15 intra-caldera cones of Aso's caldera, has erupted more than 165 times since 553 AD.

Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001) (Unknown) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Unknown

Unknown, Unknown; summit elev. m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lidar data from Virginia, Germany, and Cuba

Lidar data from Virginia, USA, again revealed the presence of a volcanic aerosol layer centered at about 22 km altitude in April and May 1996 (table 6), somewhat higher than the 18-19 km measured during August-December 1995 (Bulletin v. 20, no. 10, and table 6). Over Germany, the aerosol layer was concentrated around 15-20 km altitude during January-April 1996, consistent with measurements made during late 1995 (Bulletin v. 21, no. 2). Backscattering ratios continued to show a decreasing trend at Hampton, and remained stable at Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Data from Cuba during January-April 1996 were highly variable, but still comparable to late-1995 data (Bulletin v. 21, no. 2). The base of the aerosol layer was consistently around 15-17.5 km (dropping to 12.7-13.3 km in April), but the layer peak ranged from 18.1 up to 27.1 km. Backscattering ratios were also variable, with seven measurements showing the expected slow decrease to the 1.11-1.17 range, but with the other six being anomalously high in the 1.35-1.51 range.

Table 6. Lidar data from Virginia, Cuba, and Germany showing altitudes of aerosol layers; some layers have multiple peaks. Backscattering ratios from Virginia are for the ruby wavelength of 0.69 µm; those from Germany and Cuba are for the Nd-YAG wavelength of 0.53 µm, with equivalent ruby values in parentheses for data from Germany. The integrated value shows total backscatter, expressed in steradians-1, integrated over 300-m intervals from 16-33 km for Cuba and from the tropopause to 30 km at Hampton and Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Courtesy of Mary Osborn, Horst Jäger, and Rene Estevan.

DATE LAYER ALTITUDE (km) (peak) BACKSCATTERING RATIO BACKSCATTERING INTEGRATED
Hampton, Virginia (37.1°N, 76.3°W)
04 Dec 1995 13-25 (18.7) 1.22 1.05 x 10-4
25 Apr 1996 15-26 (22.4) 1.14 0.61 x 10-4
21 May 1996 15-28 (22.4) 1.18 0.64 x 10-4
31 May 1996 16-26 (22.0) 1.13 0.32 x 10-4
Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (47.5°N, 11.0°E)
04 Jan 1996 10-32 (19.1) 1.15 (1.30) --
11 Jan 1996 09-31 (19.2) 1.14 (1.28) --
17 Jan 1996 10-30 (16.4) 1.13 (1.25) --
31 Jan 1996 10-28 (19.8) 1.12 (1.23) --
06 Feb 1996 09-28 (15.7) 1.11 (1.21) --
23 Feb 1996 10-27 (14.7) 1.13 (1.25) --
27 Feb 1996 10-27 (18.2) 1.10 (1.20) --
05 Mar 1996 09-31 (17.9) 1.13 (1.25) --
05 Mar 1996 PSC peak at 19.8 -- --
07 Mar 1996 09-28 (17.9) 1.14 (1.27) --
14 Mar 1996 10-31 (15.8) 1.15 (1.29) --
23 Mar 1996 12-28 (18.0) 1.13 (1.25) --
15 Apr 1996 10-27 (17.2) 1.12 (1.24) --
Camaguey, Cuba (21.2°N, 77.5°W)
19 Jan 1996 14.8 (19.9) 1.17 0.55 x 10-4
24 Jan 1996 15.1 (21.7) 1.08 0.12 x 10-4
29 Jan 1996 15.1 (18.7) 1.58 4.90 x 10-4
04 Feb 1996 15.4 (23.5) 1.35 1.40 x 10-4
09 Feb 1996 17.2 (27.1) 1.11 0.26 x 10-4
15 Feb 1996 17.5 (22.3) 1.51 1.00 x 10-4
15 Feb 1996 17.5 (23.8) 1.48 --
24 Feb 1996 17.2 (25.6) 1.11 0.27 x 10-4
02 Mar 1996 16.9 (23.8) 1.16 0.13 x 10-4
18 Mar 1996 15.1 (18.1) 1.17 0.66 x 10-4
31 Mar 1996 15.7 (21.4) 1.16 0.69 x 10-4
05 Apr 1996 12.7 (23.8) 1.36 3.20 x 10-4
12 Apr 1996 13.3 (19.4) 1.27 0.66 x 10-4

Information Contacts: Mary Osborn, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), Hampton VA 23665, USA; Horst Jäger, Fraunhofer -- Institut für Atmosphärische Umweltforschung, Kreuzeckbahnstrasse 19, D-8100 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany; Rene Estevan and Juan Carlos Antuña, Centro Meteorologico de Camagüey, Apartado 134, Camagüey 70100, Cuba [J.C.A is presently at Univ. Maryland, Dept. of Meteorology, College Park, MD 20742 USA];


Azumayama (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Azumayama

Japan

37.735°N, 140.244°E; summit elev. 1949 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

Small-amplitude volcanic tremors were detected on 26 April and 26 May. The last eruption occurred in December 1977. Earthquakes began in September 1977, followed by mud and sand spattering and ejection of small blocks in October, and active fuming in November. The small eruption on 7 December 1977 sent ash 500-1,000 m above the crater and produced minor ashfall. Similar ash ejections occurred through January 1978 (SEAN 03:01 and 03:02).

Geologic Background. The Azumayama volcanic group consists of a cluster of stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, lava domes, and pyroclastic cones. The andesitic and basaltic complex was constructed in two E-W rows above a relatively high basement of Tertiary sedimentary rocks and granodiorites west of Fukushima city. Volcanic activity has migrated to the east, with the Higashi-Azuma volcano group being the youngest. The symmetrical Azuma-Kofuji crater and a nearby fumarolic area on the flank of Issaikyo volcano are popular tourist destinations. The Azumayama complex contains several crater lakes, including Goshikinuma and Okenuma. Historical eruptions, mostly small phreatic explosions, have been restricted to Issaikyo volcano at the northern end of the Higashiyama group.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba

Japan

24.285°N, 141.481°E; summit elev. -29 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Discolored seawater

During the first half of May, aviators of the Maritime Safety Agency and the Maritime Self-Defense Force reported discoloration of seawater at Fukutoku-Okanoba. Similar discoloration has been observed since November 1995 (BGVN 20:11/12, 21:01, 21:03, and 21:04). An overflight on 23 May indicated no discolored seawater.

Geologic Background. Fukutoku-Oka-no-ba is a submarine volcano located 5 km NE of the pyramidal island of Minami-Ioto. Water discoloration is frequently observed from the volcano, and several ephemeral islands have formed in the 20th century. The first of these formed Shin-Ioto ("New Sulfur Island") in 1904, and the most recent island was formed in 1986. The volcano is part of an elongated edifice with two major topographic highs trending NNW-SSE, and is a trachyandesitic volcano geochemically similar to Ioto.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Hokkaido-Komagatake (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Hokkaido-Komagatake

Japan

42.063°N, 140.677°E; summit elev. 1131 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Steaming activity continues

Activity has declined since the eruptive events of March when two vents opened on and near the S side of Showa 4-nen (1929) crater, and a line of vents extending ~200 m N-S formed on the S part of the crater floor. The height of the gas plume remained at 100-200 m. A volcanic earthquake occurred on 15 May. No volcanic tremor was observed.

Komaga-take sits 30 km N of Hakodate City (population 320,000). The andesitic stratovolcano has a 2-km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the E. The volcano has generated large pyroclastic eruptions, including major historical eruptions in 1640, 1856, and 1929. In the 1640 eruption, debris from a partial summit collapse entered the sea resulting in a tsunami that killed 700 people. Although the 1929 eruption was one of the largest 20th century eruptions in Japan, it may not have had clear geophysical precursors.

Geologic Background. Much of the truncated Hokkaido-Komagatake andesitic volcano on the Oshima Peninsula of southern Hokkaido is Pleistocene in age. The sharp-topped summit lies at the western side of a large breached crater that formed as a result of edifice collapse in 1640 CE. Hummocky debris avalanche material occurs at the base of the volcano on three sides. Two late-Pleistocene and two Holocene Plinian eruptions occurred prior to the first historical eruption in 1640, which began a period of more frequent explosive activity. The 1640 eruption, one of the largest in Japan during historical time, deposited ash as far away as central Honshu and produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. The resulting tsunami caused 700 fatalities. Three Plinian eruptions have occurred since 1640; in 1694, 1856, and 1929.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Irazu (Costa Rica) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Irazu

Costa Rica

9.979°N, 83.852°W; summit elev. 3432 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No tilt in April-May but tens of local earthquakes

During May the lake's water was yellow in color and its surface dropped by 40 cm with respect to March 1996. Irazú's seismic station (IRZ2), located 5 km SW of the active crater, registered 55 and 26 events during April and May respectively; all were only detected locally. For the interval April through May dry-tilt measurements failed to show significant changes.

Geologic Background. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

Information Contacts: Erick Fernández, Elicer Duarte, Vilma Barboza, Rodolfo Van der Laat, and Enrique Hernandez, Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica; Gerardo J. Soto, Oficina de Sismología y Vulcanología, Departamento de Geología, Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Apartado 10032-1000, San José, Costa Rica.


Iwatesan (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Iwatesan

Japan

39.853°N, 141.001°E; summit elev. 2038 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small-amplitude volcanic tremor

Small-amplitude volcanic tremor was detected on 12 May. Tremor was last reported on 4 March (BGVN 21:03), and previously in January and October 1995.

Geologic Background. Viewed from the east, Iwatesan volcano has a symmetrical profile that invites comparison with Fuji, but on the west an older cone is visible containing an oval-shaped, 1.8 x 3 km caldera. After the growth of Nishi-Iwate volcano beginning about 700,000 years ago, activity migrated eastward to form Higashi-Iwate volcano. Iwate has collapsed seven times during the past 230,000 years, most recently between 739 and 1615 CE. The dominantly basaltic summit cone of Higashi-Iwate volcano, Yakushidake, is truncated by a 500-m-wide crater. It rises well above and buries the eastern rim of the caldera, which is breached by a narrow gorge on the NW. A central cone containing a 500-m-wide crater partially filled by a lake is located in the center of the oval-shaped caldera. A young lava flow from Yakushidake descended into the caldera, and a fresh-looking lava flow from the 1732 eruption traveled down the NE flank.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Karymsky (Russia) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruptions continue through April; more details of early January activity

Eruptions began on 2 January from the summit of Karymsky and from the lake (Karymsky Lake) within the Akademia Nauk caldera (figure 2), previously considered to be extinct (BGVN 21:01-21:03). Eruptive activity at [Karymsky] continued through the end of April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Schematic map showing some features of the SW part of the Karymsky Volcanic Center. Karymsky Lake lies within the Akademia Nauk Caldera. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Precursory seismicity. Large tectonic earthquakes in the Kronotsky Gulf have historically been among the precursors to eruptions from Karymsky and Maly Semiachik volcanoes. At 1926 on 31 December 1995, a M 5.6 earthquake occurred in the Kronotsky Gulf (50-60 km NE) at a depth of ~60 km. Earthquake swarms are common beneath the large (50 x 35 km) Karymsky Volcanic Center, but an unusually large swarm started on the evening of 1 January with hypocenters to depths of 80 km (figure 3). These followed a M 5.2 foreshock, and at 2157 a shallow M 6.9 earthquake took place centered ~25 km S of Karymsky; this was the largest earthquake recorded beneath the Kamchatkan volcanoes during the past 50 years. Scientists from the Institute of Volcanology and the Kamchatkan Experimental-Methodical Seismological Department of Geophysical Survey, Russian Academy of Sciences, flew to the epicentral zone of the continuing earthquake swarm and observed the onset of the eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Map and cross-sections of epicenters from the earthquake swarm at Karymsky Volcanic Center that began on 1 January 1996. Cross-section A-B (below map) trends approximately NW-SE, and cross-section C-D (left of map) trends approximately NE-SW. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Early eruptions at Karymsky volcano. On the afternoon of 2 January the eruption began on Karymsky's upper SW flank 50 m below the old summit crater and from the Akademia Nauk caldera lake, ~6 km S (figure 4). Ash and gas clouds from the summit vent fed a plume (figure 5) rising to 1 km above the crater; the ash-flow rate was estimated to be several cubic meters per second. The eruption cloud extended E towards the ocean and ashfall was visible 40-50 km away.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Simultaneous eruptions of Karymsky (right) and Akademia Nauk (left) volcanoes, 2 January 1996. Distance between the summit vent of Karymsky and subaqueous vents in the Akademia Nauk caldera lake is 6 km. The Karymsky cone is 700 m high. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Continuous gas-and-ash emission from the new vent on the upper flank of Karymsky, 2 January 1996. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

On the evening on 3 January another crater formed on Karymsky; it looked like a 30-m-diameter amphitheater open to the SW. Sub-vertical Vulcanian explosions occurred from this crater to an altitude of 1 km. Over the next few days, explosions sent gas-and-ash emissions 300-1,100 m high almost every minute.

During the first three days of the eruption, ~500-800 x 103 tons of solid materials, including ash, lapilli, cinder, and bombs, were ejected at Karymsky. During the next 2-3.5 months ~3-4 x 103 tons of andesite-dacite tephra (SiO2 61%) and a small amount of bombs were ejected. An area with a radius of 15-20 km was covered by an ash layer several millimeters thick. The layer's thickness increased along the ashfall axis, reaching 20-30 mm at 4-5 km from the source.

Early eruptions at Akademia Nauk caldera lake. Violent subaqueous explosions on 2 January took place several times every hour in the N part of the 5-km-wide Akademia Nauk caldera lake (figure 6). Explosion clouds rose to 8 km altitude, but most of the tephra fell back into the lake. Ash from Karymsky Lake covered Akademia Nauk volcano and its surroundings. The head of the Karymsky River had its valley and adjacent flood-lands inundated by high water and mud flows.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. One of the powerful subaqueous explosions from the N part of Karymsky Lake (Akademia Nauk Caldera), 2 January 1996. The base of the growing cloud is ~1 km wide. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Although the Akademia Nauk caldera lake had been ice-covered during the winter, after the January explosions water temperature reached 25°C, pH decreased from 7.5 to 3.1-3.2, and mineralization increased from 0.1 g/l to 0.9 g/l. Thermal water compositionally similar to those of the Karymsky springs started to discharge at a new shoal in the N part of the lake. According to preliminary estimates, ~0.015 km3 of material was supplied to the lake during the eruption.

After the lake water had cleared, a subaqueous deposit around the main explosion vent (with a diameter of 1 km) was observed. The N part of the deposit, ~1 km2, was exposed at the surface, forming an arched spit with the adjoining peninsula (figure 7). According to preliminary estimates, ~5-10 x 106 m3 of tephra including sand and rounded fragments of various sizes, and many bombs, formed the deposit there. Their composition ranged from basaltic andesite to andesite-dacite. The volume of deposits on the bottom of the lake is much greater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. View of Karymsky Lake showing the new 1-km-wide peninsula formed by subaqueous explosion deposits on 2 January 1996. The main vents are to the left of the beach arc. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Activity through April. During the ensuing days in January, the eruption style at Karymsky dropped to 5-6 explosions reaching 500-900 m high every hour. More vigorous single explosions were exceptional. On 13-14 January, a block-lava flow from the flank crater traveled 400 m, was 50-70 m wide, and averaged 6-10 m thick. In late January the interval between explosions started to increase from 30 minutes to 2-3 hours.

In February only several explosions were observed each day (figure 8). In late February the number of explosions increased to 5-6/hour, but their intensity decreased. In March the number of explosions decreased but their intensity increased. In April the number of explosions increased. For example, on 23 April they took place every 5 minutes. Two additional lava flows were emitted from the flank crater in April.

A dense geodetic network developed since 1972 at the Karymsky Volcanic Center has been measured repeatedly. During the past 20 years, a horizontal extension of Akademia Nauk caldera was observed that may have indicated filling of a magma chamber under the volcano. Measurements made in February and March revealed an extension of 232 cm along the 3.5-km base and subsidence of 70 cm near the area of subaqueous explosions in the caldera lake.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Typical Vulcanian and Strombolian activity at Karymsky, January-April 1996. Courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology.

Karymsky Volcanic Center. Karymsky and Akademia Nauk are part of the 50 x 35 km Karymsky Volcanic Center (sometimes referred to as the Zhupanovsky volcano-tectonic depression). Located in the Eastern Kamchatka volcanic belt, 30 km from the Kronotsky Gulf and Pacific Ocean, this center contains 21 volcanic edifices, six calderas, and two historically active stratovolcanoes, Karymsky and Maly Semiachik.

The 5-km-diameter Karymsky Caldera formed 7,800 years ago and the Karymsky cone has been growing in the center of the caldera for 5,300 years, ejecting andesitic and dacitic materials. Historical reports on Karymsky's eruptions have been available since 1771. During that period of time, more than 20 prolonged eruptions were separated by quiet periods as long as 10 years. The most recent previous eruption continued from 1970 to 1982.

Akademia Nauk caldera, which was named by the famous Russian volcanologist Vladimir Vlodavetz in 1939, is located immediately to the S in the SW part of the Karymsky Volcanic Center. Its activity began about 50,000 years ago. The N part of the caldera is occupied by Karymsky Lake (4 km wide, 12.5 km2 in area, and 80 m deep). The Akademia Nauk chloride-sodium springs, with 1.3 g/l mineralization and temperatures >250°C in the interior part of the hydrothermal system, discharge along the lake's S shore.

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: S.A. Fedotov, V.A. Budhikov, G.A. Karpov, M.A. Maguskin, Ya.D. Muravyev, V.A. Saltykov, and R.A. Shuvalov, Institute of Volcanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.


Kilauea (United States) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Surface flows, ocean entries, and bench collapses; summit inflation episode

Surface flows were limited to the area below 180 m elevation in late March and early April (figure 100). Through the end of March, the Kamokuna ocean entry exhibited frequent explosive activity. On 6 April the volume of lava entering the ocean diminished as breakouts from the tube increased. By the 8th, the entry was producing a moderate-sized plume, and many small pahoehoe flows were active on the coastal plain. Most of the activity during 9-22 April took place below 165 m elevation, near the base of Pulama Pali. The surface flows on the coastal flats below Paliuli entered the ocean, forming three new entries in addition to the long-lived Kamokuna entry. On 9 April, surface flows entered the sea at the E end of the 1994 Lae'apuki bench (figure 100). Another flow entered the sea in the Kamoamoa area on 15 April, about halfway between the E Lae'apuki and Kamokuna entries. On the 22nd, a small lobe of the flow feeding the E Lae'apuki entry branched off to the W and produced a small new entry. The Pu`u `O`o pond was ~80 m deep as of 18 April and had divided into two active areas separated by a 30-m-wide segment of stationary crust.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Map of recent lava flows from Kilauea's east rift zone, April 1996. Contours are in meters and the contour interval is approximately 150 m. Courtesy of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.

The three active ocean entries were mostly nonexplosive from 23 April to 6 May. On the night of 28 April a large collapse of the Kamokuna bench removed a piece roughly 100 m wide by 400 m long. Surface flow activity was concentrated on the coastal plain. A moderate size "rockfall" registered on 2 May at local seismic stations, suggesting a possible collapse near Pu`u `O`o.

Surface flows during 7-20 May were diminished compared to those of previous weeks and limited to small, short-lived pahoehoe breakouts on the coastal plain inland of the Lae'apuki ocean entry. Lava continued to enter the ocean at Lae'apuki, Kamoamoa, and Kamokuna, with only 10-20% of the total volume entering at Kamoamoa. A major bench collapse at Kamoamoa on 16 May removed the entire bench, along with a significant piece of older inland terrain, for a total area of 375 x 60 m. Coastal explosions were recorded on 9 and 16 May, possibly related to bench activity. The lava pond inside Pu`u `O`o was visible on 16 May and appeared unchanged at a level of 80-90 m below the rim.

On the afternoon of 11 May, two short bursts of rapid summit inflation during a three-hour period were accompanied by shallow seismic tremor up to 6x background level. They were followed by four hours of deflation. This event did not noticeably affect the location or volume of lava flows on the east rift zone.

Through 29 May the eruption continued with three active ocean entries and small pahoehoe breakouts on the coastal plain from the lava tube supplying the Kamoamoa entry. A large pahoehoe sheet flow was observed at 180 m elevation on 29 May. On 29-30 May the eruption gradually shut down over 18 hours. By the morning of 30 May, the ocean entries had died and the 13th pause of Episode 53 had begun. During the pause, the level of the lava pond in Pu`u `O`o cone fluctuated by as much as 30 m, rising to a high point of 58 m below the rim on 3 June. Lava also appeared on the floor of the Great Pit in the outer wall of the cone. This pause in the eruption lasted until 4 June.

Seismicity. Eruption tremor continued with amplitudes averaging ~2-3x background level from 26 March through 3 June. There were three episodes of weak, deep tremor from a SW source on 31 March, 2 April, and 5 April. A fourth tremor of moderate size from the same source occurred on 7 April. Daily counts of shallow, long-period summit events were moderate to low with a maximum of 119 on 27 March. Microearthquake counts then remained generally low beneath the summit and rift zones through 20 May. Shallow, long-period microearthquake counts increased during 21-22 May and again from 30 May to 3 June. A flurry of shallow earthquakes at the uppermost end of the Upper east rift zone began on 30 May. High counts persisted and peaked on 3 June, with >200 events for the day. The number of short-period events was low beneath the summit from 21 May to 3 June.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718, USA.


Kuchinoerabujima (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Kuchinoerabujima

Japan

30.443°N, 130.217°E; summit elev. 657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Number of volcanic earthquakes increases

According to reports of Sakura-jima Volcanological Observatory, Kyoto University, 86 earthquakes occurred around Shin-dake in May. Seismicity has been increasing since January 1996.

Geologic Background. A group of young stratovolcanoes forms the eastern end of the irregularly shaped island of Kuchinoerabujima in the northern Ryukyu Islands, 15 km W of Yakushima. The Furudake, Shindake, and Noikeyama cones were erupted from south to north, respectively, forming a composite cone with multiple craters. The youngest cone, centrally-located Shindake, formed after the NW side of Furudake was breached by an explosion. All historical eruptions have occurred from Shindake, although a lava flow from the S flank of Furudake that reached the coast has a very fresh morphology. Frequent explosive eruptions have taken place from Shindake since 1840; the largest of these was in December 1933. Several villages on the 4 x 12 km island are located within a few kilometers of the active crater and have suffered damage from eruptions.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Kujusan (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Kujusan

Japan

33.086°N, 131.249°E; summit elev. 1791 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic activity increases, but there is no ashfall

The increased seismicity that began in late March and early April (BGVN 21:02 and 21:03) continued during May. The total number of earthquakes in May was 423, of which 283 occurred on the 14th. No volcanic tremor was observed. The plume height remained at 100-400 m for most of the month, but rose to 600 m on 14 May. There were no ashfalls.

Geologic Background. Kujusan is a complex of stratovolcanoes and lava domes lying NE of Aso caldera in north-central Kyushu. The group consists of 16 andesitic lava domes, five andesitic stratovolcanoes, and one basaltic cone. Activity dates back about 150,000 years. Six major andesitic-to-dacitic tephra deposits, many associated with the growth of lava domes, have been recorded during the Holocene. Eruptive activity has migrated systematically eastward during the past 5000 years. The latest magmatic activity occurred about 1600 years ago, when Kurodake lava dome at the E end of the complex was formed. The first reports of historical eruptions were in the 17th and 18th centuries, when phreatic or hydrothermal activity occurred. There are also many hot springs and hydrothermal fields. A fumarole on Hosho lava dome was the site of a sulfur mine for at least 500 years. Two geothermal power plants are in operation at Kuju.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent Vulcanian explosions produce ash-and-vapor clouds

Crater 2 activity continued in May as in past months (BGVN 21:04) with intermittent Vulcanian explosions producing thin-to-thick white-to-gray/brown ash-and-vapor clouds. These clouds rose several hundred meters above the rim before being blown to the N, NW, and SE and producing fine ashfalls. Occasional explosions were heard. Glows of variable intensity were seen on most nights during the first three weeks. Weak projections of incandescent lava fragments were observed on 12 and 14 May. A daily range of 10-50 explosion earthquakes was recorded at the seismic station until it became non-operational on 24 May. Crater 3 remained quiet apart from a single emission of very thin white/gray vapor on 7 May.

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and C. McKee, RVO.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low level activity persists

Low-level activity persisted during May as in previous months (BGVN 21:04). Both summit craters emitted white vapor in variable quantity. Blue vapor from South Crater was seen on 28 and 29 May, and weak roaring noises were heard on the evening of 6 May. Between 1 and 5 May the daily occurrence of low-frequency earthquakes ranged from 440 to 690 events/day. This value increased up to 800-1,690 events/day during 6-30 May. On the 31st the seismicity dropped to the early May level.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and C. McKee, RVO.


Poas (Costa Rica) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


N crater lake at 10-year high; water temperature increases; phreatic explosion on 8 April

When observed by visiting scientists on 11-13 March, the lake in the active N crater was at its highest level since 1986, with a depth estimated at 50 m. The lake's color was pale green, its measured temperature, 32°C, and pH, 1.5.

The scientists noted three areas of fumarolic activity in the active crater with the strongest concentrated on the 1953-55 cone immediately S of the lake. Most of this activity was located on the NW side of the cone near lake level; in this area, high-pressure degassing exited from an E-W oriented fracture ~10 m above the lake's surface. These fumaroles have appeared since the beginning of 1996. Low-pressure fumaroles were also observed on the eastern top of the dome, with gas exiting through small cracks and crevices. Maximum temperatures were 93°C, suggesting that these were boiling-point fumaroles.

A second set of at least five individual fumaroles above the lake's W edge within the inner crater began appearing at the end of 1995, with the most recent one, which displayed the highest gas pressure, forming in March 1996. A third set of fumaroles had been observed since April 1995 in the crater's S area where the trail begins ascending to the Mirador; these had low pressure. Temperatures did not exceed 93°C, again indicating boiling-point fumaroles.

Microgravity measurements made in the crater area showed a continuation in the trend of increased gravity on the N crater floor and a new pattern of decreased gravity (~100 µgal in two years) on the S crater floor.

When visited by OVSCICORI-UNA scientists during April and May the surface of the light-gray crater lake had risen 0.4 and 96 cm, respectively, compared to March. The lake's temperature recently increased: in April it was 36°C and in May, 42°C (compared to 26°C in February and 30°C in March). As is typical, fumaroles clustered near the pyroclastic cone. Their temperatures measured 94°C during April and May; however, the most vigorously degassing zones were inaccessible. Some of these degassing zones continued to make loud noises and their condensed gases formed plumes that rose to 500 m above the crater floor. On the SE, S, and SW walls, maximum fumarole temperatures ranged between 91 and 94°C.

In addition to suspended sulfur and constant bubbling seen in the lake, small landslide deposits were noted leading into the lake from the crater walls. Park guards reported that when the wind blew to the S, visitors suffered from coughs and irritated eyes and skin. New fumaroles appeared along the E crater wall, coincident with high-frequency earthquakes and increased steam output at the pyroclastic cone.

Except for signals associated with a small phreatic eruption, seismic station POA2 registered relative quiet during April: 651 total earthquakes, 24 mid-frequency earthquakes, 17 high-frequency earthquakes, and four hours of tremor. During May POA2 registered 1,243 earthquakes, 29 mid-frequency earthquakes, 21 high-frequency earthquakes, and six hours of tremor. Some of the latter signals during May were correlated with increased fumarolic activity and the appearance of new fumaroles in the active crater.

On the morning of 8 April a low-frequency signal lasting for 223 seconds coincided with an eruption. Fieldwork on 12 April disclosed that the eruption had thrown blocks S to SW of the dome. The blocks had dimensions of up to 35 x 45 cm; in an area N of the lake, the diameter of some blocks reached 80 cm. The N, W, and SW walls of the lake were coated with light gray material ejected from the lake floor. Much of the same material fell back into the lake. Insubstantial deformation was seen during April and May.

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: Erick Fernández, Elicer Duarte, Vilma Barboza, Rodolfo Van der Laat, and Enrique Hernandez, Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica; Hazel Rymer and Mark Davies, Dept. of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom; John Stix, Dora Knez, Glyn Williams-Jones, and Alexandre Beaulieu, Dept. de Geologie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada; Nicki Stevens, Dept. of Geography, University of Reading, Reading RG2 2AB, United Kingdom.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong Strombolian eruption followed by less intense and more varied activity

On 11 May a Strombolian eruption took place at Tavurvur. Until early in May weak to moderate explosions occurred every few minutes and generated pale to dark-gray ash-and-vapor clouds that rose ~ 400-1,000 m before drifting 15-20 km downwind (mostly SE, S, and SW). Large incandescent ejecta were observed at night and roaring noises were heard from as much as 15 km away (BGVN 21:04).

Visible eruptive activity began to change mid-afternoon on 9 May. Vapor emissions reached ~1,500 m and seismicity increased to a peak around 2200, when a series of strong explosions started. By about 0800 on 10 May, the emissions were sub-continuous and explosions sent ash clouds ~2-2.5 km above the vent. The activity declined through the afternoon. Later that day the emission column was ~1.2-1.5 km high, with occasional explosion clouds rising 1.9 km. Shortly before midnight, explosions were occurring at intervals of ~5 minutes.

A moderate increase in activity began at midnight on 11 May. By 0245 it changed to Strombolian mode as explosions were occurring every 30 seconds, with increasing frequency and strength. Large bolts of lightning flashed through the growing eruption column. Slabs of lava ~10-15 m in diameter were ejected hundreds of meters above the vent, and meter-sized blocks were landing on the shore ~1 km from the vent. By 0300 the explosions and the lightning were almost continuous. The eruption column was a constant stream of incandescent lava fragments rising at least 400 m. There was a spontaneous evacuation of some people from nearby Matupit Island. Strong air-shock waves from the explosions were felt within a few kilometers from the summit. Irregular and continuous tremors were recorded, but observers noted that the shaking was due to the blasts and not to earthquakes.

Seismicity peaked at 0315. Within minutes the activity declined, the streaming of ejecta stopped, and the time between explosions increased to 30 seconds. By 0400 the activity had returned to the level observed on 10 May. At 0438 the first of a series of strong explosions, at irregular intervals of 10-40 seconds, sent incandescent ballistic blocks 1.5 km from Tavurvur. The last explosion, at 0728, generated and ash cloud that rose ~2.3 km.

During the following day a few large explosions occurred, but their frequency and strength were declining. The emissions were commonly white and blue vapors with occasional ash. By the end of 12 May the explosions stopped and seismicity consisted of irregular tremor. This type of activity persisted for 2-3 days, until 15 May when explosive activity resumed.

Several phases of intensified activity took place during the following weeks, but these were considerably less intense than that of 10-11 May. Seismicity remained weaker than during the previous five months (figure 26).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Seismicity at Rabaul for the period December 1995-May 1996 with detail over the days of peak activity in May. Courtesy of RVO.

A new electronic tiltmeter was installed on 30 April at Matupit Island, ~2.5 km WSW of Tavurvur. It initially measured moderate WNW downward tilt. This continued until 3 May when the pattern reversed and ESE downward tilt began. On 8 May, after accumulating ~10 µrad of rotation, the tilting pattern again changed and the instrument recorded WNW downward tilt. The WNW downward tilt that started on 8 May was probably related to the 9 May activity. The WNW downward tilt continued until 20 May, with rotation reaching up to 16 µrad. From 20 to 30 May the downward tilt returned to ESE and gradually decreased to zero.

The available COSPEC measurements showed a decline in SO2 emission rate from the range of ~500-900 metric tons/day (t/d) at the beginning of May to background values of a few hundred tons per day during 8-15 May. At the end of the month the emission rate increased to ~800 t/d. Although the 8-15 May data failed to portray any flux increases associated with the 10-11 May eruption, later, on 18 and 26 May, peaks in SO2 emissions correlated with some less dramatic periods of enhanced eruptive activity.

A total of 3,993 explosion earthquakes was recorded during May. Episodes of volcanic tremor numbered 106; more than 90% of these tremors took place during the 10-11 May eruption. Four high-frequency earthquakes were recorded during the month. Two of these were within the zone of defined by 1994 caldera seismicity.

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and C. McKee, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), P.O. Box 385, Rabaul, Papua New Guinea.


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seven minor seismic events

During May seismic station RIN3 registered a total of seven events: two of high frequency and five of low frequency.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Erick Fernández, Elicer Duarte, Vilma Barboza, Rodolfo Van der Laat, and Enrique Hernandez, Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica.


Ruapehu (New Zealand) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruapehu

New Zealand

39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption on 17 June sends ash several kilometers above the summit

Between approximately 1430 on 15 June and 0100 on 16 June, volcanic tremor reached the highest levels recorded during the previous six months. There were no reports of volcanic activity accompanying this tremor episode; however, poor weather conditions prevented observations after the start of the tremor. At about 0600 on 17 June the level of volcanic tremor started to increase again. The first of several eruption plumes was seen around 0650; larger pulses were observed at 0710 and 0825. The plumes rose several kilometers, carrying voluminous amounts of coarse ash. Large blocks rising to heights of 400-500 m fell as far as 600-700 m from the vent. The second pulse was accompanied by a small lahar down the [E]-flank Whangaehu River valley (see map in BGVN 21:04). Ashfall was recorded as far N as Turangi, 32 km away, due to the prevailing southerly wind. The Alert Level was raised to 3, indicating a significant local eruption in progress (see BGVN 20:09).

Volcanic tremor continued to increase until about 1100 when it plateaued at levels similar to those during the 11-12 October 1995 eruptions. By about 1330 the level of tremor was starting to decline, and the style of activity changed to discrete explosive events. Around 1500 the volcano started to erupt every 10-15 minutes, sending ash-laden plumes to several kilometers height (figure 23). During an overflight around the same time, observers confirmed a small lahar down the Whangaehu catchment but no evidence for pyroclastic flows out of the summit crater basin. Light ashfalls occurred over much of the zone extending N from the volcano to the Bay of Plenty between the coastal towns of Tauranga and Whakatane. A significant Strombolian eruption during 2100-2200 on 17 June was characterized by loud detonations and sprays of glowing rocks ejected above the crater, and was accompanied by strong seismicity. Through to about 0300 several discrete eruption earthquakes were recorded, but the size and rate decreased through the morning of 18 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Satellite image of the Ruapehu eruption plume, 1512 on 17 June 1996. The ash cloud is rising to about 20 km altitude in clear weather over North Island, New Zealand. The image was created from NOAA-14 data by combining the visible, near infrared, and one thermal infrared wavelength band. Courtesy of Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research.

Observations made on overflights the morning of 18 June confirmed that the new lake was destroyed and the crater floor was dry. The active vent was in the S part of the crater floor, on which thick deposits of bombs and lapilli had accumulated. The bombs and blocks ejected during the night traveled farther than those erupted on 17 June, to ~1.5 km from the vent. Dome Shelter remained intact, as did the seismic signal from the shelter. On 18 June the active vent was producing weakly ash-charged plumes 1,000-2,000 m above the summit, which were blown downwind, forming a low-level haze at 1,500-3,000 m altitude.

Low-frequency volcanic tremor remained elevated, suggesting that molten material continued to move into the base of the volcano. This eruption was continuing at press time in late June, and had caused significant closures of airspace around the Auckland airport and all of North Island. Additional details will be reported next month.

Geologic Background. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 km3 dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

Information Contacts: B.J. Scott, Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (IGNS), Private Bag 2000, Wairakei, New Zealand; Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research Ltd., P.O. Box 38491, Wellington, New Zealand (URL: https://www.landcareresearch.co.nz/).


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquake swarms during July-September 1995 and January-April 1996

Almost two years of low-level seismicity ended in mid-March 1994 with the occurrence of a high-frequency earthquake swarm followed by long-period events and an explosion on 23 April (BGVN 19:05). Activity returned to low levels through the rest of 1994.

A mid-sized landslide in January 1995 descended the upper reach of the Lagunillas River but caused no significant damage. It was primarily caused by ground and ice-cap instability, not volcanism. Seismicity in July and August 1995 was stronger than in April 1994. Swarms of long-period events reached a maximum count of 1,050 events on 26 July with more than 6.3 x 108 ergs of energy released. Some of the events were related to explosions heard by scientists doing fieldwork some kilometers away from the Arenas Crater, but ash emission was not confirmed. No significant volcano-tectonic activity was registered. Swarms of long-period events during early September 1995 were similar to those of July-August, but were fewer in number and had less energy. This volcanic related seismicity was located mostly toward the Arenas Crater and the SW part of the volcano at shallow depths.

Seismicity during January-April 1996 remained low, except for the first 10 days of January when there was an increase of long-period screw-type events, with a high of seven on the 5th. Most of these events were located at shallow depths near Arenas Crater and over its W side. Screw-type events have become significant since May 1995. Some volcano-tectonic earthquake swarms also occurred during these four months. Two significant swarms were located toward the S part of the volcano, near the RECI seismic station (figure 47). In both swarms, maximum magnitudes were close to 3. Tremor signals were intermittent; some saturated the stations closest to Arenas Crater, but none were correlated to ash emissions. The electronic tiltmeter 800 m from Arenas Crater (FARA) did not show significant variations. During these four months there were a total of 657 volcano-tectonic earthquakes and 1,308 long-period events recorded by the observatory network. This suggests that processes related to fluids within the volcanic conduits were dominant over fracture-related processes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Location of telemetered stations and significant seismic events recorded at Ruiz during January-April 1996. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

Nevado del Ruiz, located 33 km SE of Manizales, is a broad stratovolcano of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastic deposits that cover more than 200 km2. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut its flanks, and melting of its summit ice cap during historical eruptions resulted in devastating lahars. The last eruption began with moderate phreatic ejections on 11 September 1985. On 13 November 1985 an explosive eruption produced pyroclastic flows and surges that melted part of the summit ice cap. Major mudflows subsequently devastated Armero and other towns on the flanks of the volcano, causing over 23,000 fatalities. Intermittent minor ash emissions with occasional stronger phreato-magmatic eruptions continued until July 1991.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: John Jairo Sánchez A., Fernando Gil Cruz, Alvaro Pablo Acevedo, John Makario Londoño, and Jairo Patiño Cifuentes, INGEOMINAS Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales (OVSM), A.A. 1296, Manizales, Caldas, Colombia.


Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Soufriere Hills

United Kingdom

16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome growth and evacuation continue in May

During May the dome's growth continued, accompanied by small intermittent pyroclastic flows and minor ashfalls that were mostly thought to be generated by rockfalls. Although activity during the first week of May appeared similar to the final week of April, visibility became poor after 5 May. When visible, the dome's new growth was manifested in rapid increases of summit elevation (on 19 April, 865 m; on 30 April, 896 m; on 2 May, 898 m; on 3 May, 909 m). This was followed by an apparent 2-m decrease (i.e. on 4 May, 907 m). Many rockfalls took place on the dome's NE and E flanks. Throughout early May small ash clouds repeatedly blew W depositing very small amounts of ash in the Upper Gages and Amersham areas.

Activity was characterized as slightly less elevated during the second week of May. However, visual observations on 11 May indicated that a small pyroclastic flow had traveled 300 m E of the base of old Castle Peak dome (into the Upper Tar River Valley passing just S of the path of the 3 April pyroclastic flows). Although this flow had set fire to some trees, no significant changes were observed, and small ash clouds again blew W depositing minor ash in the Upper Gages, Amersham, and Fort Barrington areas.

On 12 May the dome area discharged abnormally large ash clouds associated with at least three pyroclastic flows E of the crater down the Tar River. Relatively large ashfalls also took place in the WNW-NW sector at least as far as the coastal area (Fox's Bay). In some places the ashfall reached a maximum thickness of 3 mm. These ashfalls were reported in parts of southern and central Montserrat (including the settlements of Farrell's, Rileys, Windy Hill, Gages, Lees, St. George's Hill, Fox's Bay, Richmond Hill, Garibaldi Hill, Ile Bay, Old Towne, and Salem). Areas affected also included some settlements in the designated safe zone in the N part of the 13-km-long island (including Cork Hill, Weekes', Olveston, and Barzey's) and small amounts of ash fell in the volcano's E sector (Tar River, Long Ground, and Whites).

The 12 May episode began at about 0630 when near-continuous rockfalls took place on the dome's E flank lasting until about 0720. From 0720 to 0945 the rockfalls became intermittent and small but they still produced ash clouds. A further increase in activity produced pyroclastic flows that were seen in the Tar River Valley at around 0945, 0952, 1105 and 1153. The ones at 0945 and 1105 advanced more than 30 m over the sea; the one at 1153 stopped just short of the sea. Activity declined after about 1220 but small-to-moderate rockfalls continued intermittently.

The 12 May pyroclastic flows did not damage any structures but trees were set ablaze in the Tar River Valley area. Excellent views were obtained of the pyroclastic flows.

On 13 May, light ashfalls blew across the volcano's W and SW sectors. On 15 May small ash clouds again blew W; views then suggested that most of the rockfalls producing the ash came from the NE flank of the dome. In addition, on 15 May moderate amounts of steam escaped from the base of the dome's N side; at other times during the second week of May steam mainly escaped from the SW moat.

Rockfalls were especially abundant on 16 and 22 May. In addition, one on 19 May generated an ash plume that reportedly reached an altitude of about 1.2 km. Another on 20 May was associated with a small pyroclastic flow that traveled ~2 km NE of Chances Peak down the Upper Tar River Valley (as far as Hermitage).

Visibility was generally poor for most of the third week of May allowing only brief views into the crater to establish the dome's main areas of growth on the N and NE flanks. When visibility improved on 20 May, nine days after the previous observation on 11 May, the dome contained several smaller spines and a large broad spine at the top. The large spine rose ~20 m and leaned slightly NE. Observers saw no morphological clues for the source of the 12 May pyroclastic flows, possibly because any topographic signs may have been erased by mass wasting during the intervening week. During brief observations from a helicopter, rockfalls mainly cascaded down the dome's N and NE flanks; fewer came down the vigorously steaming SE flank. Very poor visibility returned on 21 and 22 May.

During the week ending on 29 May, visibility gradually improved allowing remote measurement of 200-250°C dome surface temperatures. Observers on 24 May saw at least three spines on top of the dome (none more than 15 m high) and vigorous steaming from both the NW moat and several areas of the dome. A mudflow that descended the Upper Tar River Valley had apparently formed due to heavy rainfall on the previous night (23-24 May). Also noted was a clear scar on the dome's lower NE flank. About a meter deep and perhaps 5- to 10-m wide, the scar provided a path for ongoing rockfalls.

Observations on 26 May indicated dome growth focused on the dome's E, NE, S, and W parts. Also during the week ending on 29 May, the absence of strong wind allowed the development of near vertical ash plumes, some of which ascended up to 2-km altitude. On 29 May observers saw several small pyroclastic flows that started near the upper dome and flowed E down the Tar River Valley, stopping no farther than the Tar River Soufriere.

Seismicity during May is summarized in table 3. Intense hybrid seismicity took place on 2-3 May; otherwise seismic activity for late April through May was dominated by near-continuous broadband tremor, in some cases lasting up to several days. Tremor duration remained qualitative because it was saved on analog recorders; the gains and filters on these recorders were periodically changed in order to look at other types of seismicity, leaving no consistent record for quantitative analysis. In addition to tremor, rockfall signals were also common.

Table 3. Seismic data from Soufriere Hills, May 1996. Courtesy of MVO.

Date Volcano-tectonic Long-period Hybrid Rockfall Amount of tremor
02 May 1996 0 32 52 46 Intermediate
03 May 1996 1 2 345 50 Intermediate to high
04 May 1996 0 5 11 27 Intermediate
05 May 1996 0 11 1 67 Intermediate to high
06 May 1996 0 2 6 55 Intermediate
07 May 1996 0 7 5 50 Low
08 May 1996 0 21 5 64 Low
09 May 1996 0 21 0 73 Low
10 May 1996 1 16 0 97 Low
11 May 1996 1 4 0 62 Low
12 May 1996 0 6 0 109 Low
13 May 1996 0 15 0 127 None
14 May 1996 0 18 0 147 None
15 May 1996 2 50 67 103 None
16 May 1996 0 2 12 80 Low to intermediate
17 May 1996 0 4 8 33 Low to intermediate
18 May 1996 1 12 2 25 Low
19 May 1996 1 9 13 34 Low to intermediate
20 May 1996 0 7 8 43 Intermediate
21 May 1996 0 4 0 32 Intermediate to high
22 May 1996 0 7 0 60 Intermediate to high
23 May 1996 0 12 0 64 Intermediate to high
24 May 1996 0 19 0 50 Low
25 May 1996 0 17 1 104 Low
26 May 1996 0 12 8 114 Intermediate
27 May 1996 1 13 5 85 Intermediate
28 May 1996 1 13 4 86 Intermediate to high
29 May 1996 0 12 3 83 Low to intermediate
30 May 1996 1 5 0 17 Low to intermediate
31 May 1996 1 14 96 97 Intermediate to high

Some of the deformation measurements made during May were taken on the E and S triangles on 26 May. The line lengths on the southern triangle had shortened by 8 to 9 mm since 21 April, while the eastern triangle had shortened by ~1 cm since 20 May. These data obtained by the EDM technique were consistent with recent GPS measurements conducted by the Alan Smith and colleagues from the University of Puerto Rico.

The bulk of the SO2 flux measurements were made with a car-mounted COSPEC driven under the plume (between Cork Hill and St. Patrick's) at ~20 km/hr (table 4). Wind speeds were measured with a hand-held annemometer before and after each day's runs at Windy Hill (3.4 km N of Chances Peak), the windiest spot accessible by road. Typical SO2 fluxes were in the range of 25-205 metric tons/day (t/d). An exception was the 13 May measurement of 357 t/d.

Table 4. Correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) SO2 flux measurements at Soufriere Hills, 28 April-22 May 1996. Courtesy of MVO.

Date Number of measurements Mean (t/d) Sigma
28 Apr 1996 4 26 5
29 Apr 1996 3 86 10
01 May 1996 5 97 29
02 May 1996 3 177 29
03 May 1996 5 89 11
04 May 1996 5 76 17
05 May 1996 3 54 10
09 May 1996 4 138 11
10 May 1996 5 123 46
11 May 1996 4 96 30
13 May 1996 3 357 119
17 May 1996 5 130 29
18 May 1996 5 129 39
19 May 1996 5 203 54
20 May 1996 4 164 31
21 May 1996 5 205 56
22 May 1996 -- 130 --

Resettlement. Since 3 April shelters have housed 1,381 residents. About another 3,000 people rented or shared accommodations in the homes of friends and relatives. The W. H. Bramble airport remained open. Pre-fabricated buildings were erected and church and school buildings were converted to temporary shelters; in addition, the government prepared an ancillary hospital and a power station in the safe area; it made road repairs, upgraded fuel storage, relocated livestock on farms, and established programs for sport, culture, counselling, and guidance.

As of 24 April no plan for mass off-island evacuation for the island's 10,000 inhabitants had been implemented; instead the British and CARICOM governments favored voluntary evacuation. Some residents could remain on Montserrat at the N end of the island, in the area considered comparatively safe by Wadge and Isaacs (1988) and by scientists at MVO. Participants who go to the U.K. could be eligible for employment, income support, housing, and the enrollment of children in British schools for two years.

Reference. Wadge, G., and Isaacs, M.C., 1988, Mapping the volcanic hazards from Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, West Indies using an image processor: Journal of the Geological Society of London, v. 145, no. 4, p. 541-551.

Geologic Background. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

Information Contacts: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), c/o Chief Minister's Office, PO Box 292, Plymouth, Montserrat (URL: http://www.mvo.ms/); Alan L. Smith, Univ. Puerto Rico, Dept. of Geology, Mayaguez, PR 00680 USA.


Stromboli (Italy) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued high levels of activity through mid-June; two larger explosions

Seismicity began slowly increasing in mid-March before a sudden jump in tremor intensity on 15-16 April (BGVN 21:04). Observations made by Marco Fulle confirmed that the elevated seismicity corresponded to increased eruptive activity. During the night of 15-16 April about 100 explosions occurred. Continuous fountains from the N part of vent 1/2 (see sketch in BGVN 21:04) rose 50 m and lasted 1-2 hours. The S part of vent 1/2 produced large explosions to heights of 150-200 m that deposited bombs on the terrace beyond vent 3/2. Activity from vent 3/1 consisted of continuous pulsing of incandescent gas and explosions every 2-3 hours. Vent 3/2 produced simultaneous explosions every 10-30 minutes from two vents. Similar activity and ~50 explosions were seen the night of 20-21 April. Additional observations included glowing ex-hornitos in vent 1/3 with regular steam pulses. Vent 3/2 explosions covered the terrace S of Crater 3 with bombs.

Observations of summit activity made during 21-28 April by Alean, Carniel, and Iacop revealed similar activity consisting of continuous spattering and intermittent explosions from Crater 1 (BGVN 21:04). Seismicity remained at high levels through mid-May (BGVN 21:04).

IIV report of 1 and 6 June explosions. At 2147 on 1 June, local seismic stations maintained by the Istituto Internazionale di Vulcanologia (IIV) recorded a powerful event lasting ~3 minutes. Eyewitnesses at Stromboli village reported a single strong blast followed by the fallout of red bombs on the upper N slope. Incandescent bombs fell on vegetation, causing a fire that was extinguished by Civil Protection aircraft in the late morning of 2 June. More than twenty tourists were visiting the summit at the time of the explosion. Some of them reported light burns caused by hot lapilli fallout and minor injuries made while escaping on the steep slope.

A field survey early on 2 June revealed that the explosion occurred at Crater 1. The chain of hornitos inside Crater 1 was blown out, leaving a large deep depression in the N side of the crater floor. The ejected material completely covered the summit, falling more than 500 m to the S and E, and reaching ~1,000 m on the N sector, where it fell on the vegetation. The deposit was made of black scoriaceous bombs, covered by Pele's hair, reddish blocks, and a small amount of fine material. On the Pizzo area, where people usually stay to observe the activity (250 m SE from the vent), the falling bombs ranged between 10 and 50 cm in size, and they covered the area with a density of 3-4/m2.

Strombolian activity after this event shortly returned to a medium intensity and a normal frequency (3-4 events/hour). In the days after there were several hours without any activity alternating to mild Strombolian activity and after 5 June spattering activity lasting several minutes was occasionally observed.

At 0452 on 6 June another strong seismic event from Crater 1 was smaller than the 1 June event and lasted ~1 minute. The eruption was recorded by the surveillance video camera on the Pizzo Sopra La Fossa, 120 m above the vent and 250 m away; the camera had been restored two days earlier. A few people observed the explosion and reported an ash column to a few hundred meters high and bomb fallout on the Sciara del Fuoco. The video showed a very fast gray-brown jet that ascended at ~30 m/second at the upper limit of the camera view; most of the bomb and block fallout was behind the camera. The ash emission lasted ~2 minutes, but at the end only overpressured steam was emitted.

After the explosion, Strombolian activity continued at Crater 1. During fieldwork that afternoon, activity was characterized by low-intensity explosions with emission of bombs and brown ash, interrupted by sporadic strong explosions that produced a larger amount of bombs followed by an almost continuous spattering for 5-15 minutes. All pyroclastic materials fell close to the craters but during the larger explosion some bombs were thrown a few hundred meters from the vents. The Strombolian activity continued through at least 10 June, showing periods of mild explosions interrupted by strong explosions and short periods of continuous spattering.

Observations on 8-9 and 11-12 June. Marco Fulle made observations from Pizzo sopra la Fossa for six hours on the night of 8-9 June. Vent 1/2 exhibited continuous fountaining 50 m high with larger pulses every 5-10 minutes and ejection of meter-sized lava clots. The vent also produced 35 explosions 100-200 m high, with bombs over the Sciara del Fuoco and the terrace up to Crater 2, and meter-sized lava clots inside Crater 1. Vent 3/1 was inactive, but vent 3/2 produced 20 explosions 50 m high with a lot of ash and bombs ejected inside the crater.

Observations from Pizzo sopra la Fossa were again made for six hours on the night of 11-12 June. Vent 1/2 again produced continuous fountaining and 46 explosions. Vent 3/1 remained inactive. Vent 3/2 generated 37 explosions 100-250 m high with minor ash. Fountaining occurred during the explosions and near-vertical jets of bombs fell S of the crater rim and over vent 3/1.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Mauro Coltelli, CNR Istituto Internazionale di Vulcanologia (IIV), Piazza Roma 2, Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ingv.it/en/); Marco Fulle, Osservatorio Astronomico, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste, Italy.


Tokachidake (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Tokachidake

Japan

43.418°N, 142.686°E; summit elev. 2077 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic activity increases

High seismicity during 18-22 May included 50 events on the 19th. Neither volcanic tremor nor any geophysical changes were observed. A seismicity increase also occurred in December 1995 (BGVN 20:11/12).

Geologic Background. Tokachidake volcano consists of a group of dominantly andesitic stratovolcanoes and lava domes arranged on a NE-SW line above a plateau of welded Pleistocene tuffs in central Hokkaido. Numerous explosion craters and cinder cones are located on the upper flanks of the small stratovolcanoes, with the youngest Holocene centers located at the NW end of the chain. Frequent historical eruptions, consisting mostly of mild-to-moderate phreatic explosions, have been recorded since the mid-19th century. Two larger eruptions occurred in 1926 and 1962. Partial cone collapse of the western flank during the 1926 eruption produced a disastrous debris avalanche and mudflow.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Toya (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Toya

Japan

42.544°N, 140.839°E; summit elev. 733 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic activity increases

The number of earthquakes gradually increased to 18 during the first half of May.

The latest eruptive activity consisted of major explosions in August 1977 that were followed by rapid cryptodome growth. More explosions took place in November 1977, became more vigorous and frequent the following summer, and ended in October 1978. Dome growth and seismicity continued for several years and ceased abruptly in 1982 (SEAN 08:12).

Geologic Background. Usuzan, one of Hokkaido's most well-known volcanoes, is a small stratovolcano located astride the southern topographic rim of the 110,000-year-old Toya caldera. The center of the 10-km-wide, lake-filled caldera contains Nakajima, a group of forested Pleistocene andesitic lava domes. The summit of the basaltic-to-andesitic edifice of Usu is cut by a somma formed about 20-30,000 years ago when collapse of the volcano produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. Dacitic domes erupted along two NW-SE-trending lines fill and flank the summit caldera. Three of these domes, O-Usu, Ko-Usu and Showashinzan, along with seven crypto-domes, were erupted during historical time. The 1663 eruption of Usu was one of the largest in Hokkaido during historical time. The war-time growth of Showashinzan from 1943-45 was painstakingly documented by the local postmaster, who created the first detailed record of growth of a lava dome.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low to moderate emission of steam continues

The low-level activity of previous months persisted through April and May. White vapor continued to be released in small to moderate volumes, but the rate decreased in May. Seismic activity remained at low levels. The seismograph became non-operational on 23 May.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and C. McKee, RVO.


Unzendake (Japan) — May 1996 Citation iconCite this Report

Unzendake

Japan

32.761°N, 130.299°E; summit elev. 1483 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Partial dome collapse triggers a pyroclastic flow

On 1 May a pyroclastic flow was triggered by the partial collapse of an unstable lava dome. Dome collapse causing pyroclastic flows was a common occurrence during the 1990-1995 eruption. Pyroclastic flows began again in February, and tremor was recorded in March. The large Unzen volcanic complex covers much of the Shimabara Peninsula E of Nagasaki. Mayu-yama lava dome was the source of a devastating 1792 avalanche and tsunami.

Geologic Background. The massive Unzendake volcanic complex comprises much of the Shimabara Peninsula east of the city of Nagasaki. An E-W graben, 30-40 km long, extends across the peninsula. Three large stratovolcanoes with complex structures, Kinugasa on the north, Fugen-dake at the east-center, and Kusenbu on the south, form topographic highs on the broad peninsula. Fugendake and Mayuyama volcanoes in the east-central portion of the andesitic-to-dacitic volcanic complex have been active during the Holocene. The Mayuyama lava dome complex, located along the eastern coast west of Shimabara City, formed about 4000 years ago and was the source of a devastating 1792 CE debris avalanche and tsunami. Historical eruptive activity has been restricted to the summit and flanks of Fugendake. The latest activity during 1990-95 formed a lava dome at the summit, accompanied by pyroclastic flows that caused fatalities and damaged populated areas near Shimabara City.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).