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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Karangetang (Indonesia) Activity at two craters with the N crater producing ash plumes, avalanches, pyroclastic flows, and lava flows that reached the ocean in February 2019

Erta Ale (Ethiopia) Continued summit activity and lava flow to the E during April 2018-March 2019

Etna (Italy) Lava flows from NSEC scoria cone and SE flank fissure in December 2018; ash emissions through March 2019

Manam (Papua New Guinea) Ash plumes reaching 15 km altitude in August and December 2018

Merapi (Indonesia) Dome appears at summit on 12 August 2018; grows to 447,000 m3 by late March 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies continue through January 2019

Fuego (Guatemala) Frequent explosive activity with ash plumes, avalanches, lava flows, and lahars from July 2018 through March 2019

Stromboli (Italy) Constant explosions from both crater areas during November 2018-February 2019

Krakatau (Indonesia) Ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and lava extrusion during October-December; partial collapse and tsunami in late December; Surtseyan activity in December-January 2019

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake persists with decreased thermal output, November 2018-February 2019

Santa Maria (Guatemala) Daily explosions cause steam-and-ash plumes and block avalanches, November 2018-February 2019

Reventador (Ecuador) Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks, October 2018-January 2019



Karangetang (Indonesia) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Karangetang

Indonesia

2.781°N, 125.407°E; summit elev. 1797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity at two craters with the N crater producing ash plumes, avalanches, pyroclastic flows, and lava flows that reached the ocean in February 2019

Karangetang (also referred to as Api Siau) is an active volcano on the island of Siau in the Sitaro Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It produces frequent small eruptions that include gas-and-steam plumes, ash plumes, avalanches, lava flows, incandescent ballistic ejecta, and pyroclastic flows. This report covers May 2018-May 2019 and summarizes reports by Indonesia's Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM, or the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation), and the Darwin VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center), and satellite data. During this time, increased activity resulted in a lava flow that reached the ocean and cut road access to communities.

No activity was reported during May through October 2018. During this time, Sentinel-2 thermal images showed elevated temperatures in the main active crater and gas-and-steam plumes dispersing in different directions (figure 17). On 4 July, the Darwin VAAC reported a "weak" ash plume to an altitude of 3 km that drifted NE, only based on satellite imagery. There were few thermal signatures detected by the MIROVA algorithm from May through November (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Incandescence and weak steam-and-gas plumes at the southern crater of Karangetang on 9 May and 17 August 2018. This was common in cloud-free images acquired during this time. Sentinel-2 false color (bands 12, 11, 4) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS infrared data for June 2018 through April 2019. There was little thermal energy detected before December, after which levels remained high until they began declining in March 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Steam plumes were observed from two craters during November 2018 (figures 19 and 20). There was a significant increase in seismicity on 22 to 23 November, followed by a sharp decline on the 24th. The first MODVOLC thermal alert was issued on 25 November. At 1314 on 25 November an ash plume rose to at least 500 m above the N crater and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. A Sentinel-2 thermal image acquired on this day showed elevated temperatures at both south and north craters, with accompanying gas-and-steam plumes. After the increase in seismicity and detected thermal energy, activity progressed to lava flow extrusion, avalanches, and pyroclastic flows triggered from the lava flow. The lava flow originated from the north crater (Kawah Dua) and moved towards the NNW. Avalanches accompanied the flow from the crater and down the lava flow surface. The Volcano Alert level was increased from II to III on 20 December at 1800 (on a scale of I to IV).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. White gas-and-steam plumes emanating from two craters at Karangetang at 0630 on 16 November 2018. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. An ash plume from the N crater (left) and a gas-and-steam plume from the S crater (right) of Karangetang at 0703 on 26 November 2018. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.

Throughout January 2019 activity consisted of small ash plumes up to 600 m above the N crater (figure 21) and continued lava flow activity. On 17 January Kompas TV reported that heavy ashfall impacted several villages. Lava and avalanches traveled as far as 0.7-1 km W towards the Sumpihi River and 1-2 km NE down the Kali Batuare throughout the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. A small ash plume on 31 January 2019 at Karangetang. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.

Video taken on 3 February 2019 shows the lava flow covering the road and continuing down the steep slope with multi-meter-scale incandescent blocky lava fragments on the surface dislodging and triggering small avalanches. By 5 February the lava flow reached over 3.5 km down the Malebuhe River drainage on the NW flank and into the ocean where a lava delta was growing with dense steam plume rising above by the 11th (figures 22-26). Drone footage from 9 February shows the lava flow across the section of road had a width of about 160 m and a width of about 140 m at the coast. Gas-and-steam and ash plumes were noted most days, reaching up to 600 m above the crater and dominantly dispersing to the E (figure 27). By 11 February there had been 190 people evacuated.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. The lava flow front at Karangetang nearing the ocean on 5 February 2019. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. The lava flow entering the ocean at Karangetang in early February 2019. Photos posted on 11 February; courtesy of BNPB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Locations of activity observations at Karangetang in November 2018 and February 2019. 27 November 2018: the descent of lava from the Kawah Dua crater (N crater) to about 700-1000 m away, towards the Sumpihi River and Kinali Village. 2 February 2019: the descent of lava 2.5 km NW, 500 m from the highway. 5 February 2019: the lava flow reached the sea. Courtesy of BNPB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Karangetang during November 2018 through February 2019 showing elevated temperatures at two craters, gas-and-steam plumes, and a lava flow moving to the NW (bright yellow-orange). Sentinel-2 false color (bands 12, 11, 4) images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. View of the active lava flow on Karangetang at the ocean entry in early February 2019. Photo posted on 12 February; taken by Ungke Pepotoh, courtesy of Agence France-Presse.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Ashfall from Karangetang on Siau Island as seen from Pehe port on 7 February 2019. Photo courtesy of The New Indian Express, AFP / Ungke Pepotoh.

On 13 February 2019 avalanches continued from the northern crater to 700-1000 m W towards the Sumpihi River and 1-2 km NE towards Kali Batuare. KOMPAS TV reported a statement by PVMBG describing a decrease in activity, including lava avalanches, but with elevated seismicity on the 12 February. Throughout this period of elevated activity both seismicity (figure 28), along with plume heights and directions (figure 29), were variable. On 22 February the Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume, due to a pyroclastic flow, rising to an altitude of 3.7 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Graph showing the variable seismicity at Karangetang during 1 November 2018 to 8 February 2019. Courtesy of PVMBG.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Graph showing gas-and-steam plume heights in meters above the crater from 1 November 2018 to 8 February 2019, with the plume dispersal directions indicated in the box. Modified from data courtesy of PVMBG.

Throughout March 2019 PVMBG reported the continuation of a low rate of lava effusion at the north crater, avalanches, and gas-and-steam plumes rising up to 500 m above the crater. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume on 7 March that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km that dispersed to the SW. Minor ash emissions were reported by the Darwin VAAC on 6 April that rose to 2.1 km altitude and drifted SE. In mid-April, activity increased in the southern crater and on 15 April a pyroclastic flow traveled 2 km towards the Kahetang and Batuawang rivers. Another ash advisory was issued for an ash plume up to 2.4 km altitude on 16 April. Small gas-and-steam plumes continued through the month.

Geologic Background. Karangetang (Api Siau) volcano lies at the northern end of the island of Siau, about 125 km NNE of the NE-most point of Sulawesi island. The stratovolcano contains five summit craters along a N-S line. It is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, with more than 40 eruptions recorded since 1675 and many additional small eruptions that were not documented in the historical record (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World: Neumann van Padang, 1951). Twentieth-century eruptions have included frequent explosive activity sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lahars. Lava dome growth has occurred in the summit craters; collapse of lava flow fronts have produced pyroclastic flows.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/); Kompas TV, Menara Kompas Lt. 6, Jl. Palmerah Selatan No.21, Jakarta Pusat 10270 Indonesia (URL: https://www.kompas.tv/article/39190/abu-gunung-karangetang-tutup-permukiman-warga); The New Indian Express (URL: http://www.newindianexpress.com/world/2019/feb/08/emergency-declared-on-indonesian-island-after-volcanic-eruption-1936173.html); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: https://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Erta Ale (Ethiopia) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Erta Ale

Ethiopia

13.6°N, 40.67°E; summit elev. 613 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued summit activity and lava flow to the E during April 2018-March 2019

Erta Ale is the most active volcano in Ethiopia, containing multiple active pit craters within both the summit and southeast calderas. Multiple recent lava flows are visible as darker-colored areas on the broad flanks. A new fissure eruption began in January 2017, forming a lava lake and multiple large lava flow fields during January 2017-March 2018. This report summarizes activity during April 2018 through March 2019 and is based on satellite data.

During April 2018 through March 2019 minor activity continued in the calderas and along the active lava flow to the E. Several persistent thermal anomalies were present in both the summit and southeast calderas (figure 88). A small lava outbreak was detected in Sentinel-2 thermal data on 25 December 2018 located approximately 6 km from the vent. Numerous small outbreak flows at the distal end of the lava flow located around 10-15 km away from the vent (figure 89).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing Erta Ale activity in November and December 2018 with persistent thermal anomalies (bright orange-yellow) in the summit and southeast calderas (circled) and an active lava flow to the E. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Sentinel-2 thermal images showing small lava flow outbreaks (bright orange) in the distal part of the latest Erta Ale flow. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Thermal activity using MODIS detected by the MIROVA system has been stable with a slight decrease in energy since January 2019 (figure 90). The number of thermal alerts identified by the MODVOLC system was typically below 20/month (figure 91), but with notably lower numbers in April, August, September, and November 2018, and February-March 2019. There were 30 alerts noted in December 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Plot showing log radiative power of MODIS infrared data at Erta Ale using the MIROVA algorithm for the year ending 9 April 2019. Black lines indicate that the location of the thermal anomaly is over 5 km from the vent while blue lines indicate that the thermal anomaly is within 5 km of the vent. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Graph showing the number of MODIS thermal alerts in the MODVOLC system for Erta Ale during April 2018-March 2019 (top) and the locations of the thermal alerts (bottom). Data courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Sentinel-1 imagery analyzed by Christopher Moore, University of Leeds (Moore et al., in prep, 2019), show a lowering of the lava lake level down to 70-90 m below the rim in October 2018, consistent with broader recent trends. Lava lake activity since late 2014 can be broken down into four stages: the pre-eruption stage during October 2014-January 2017 when the level was stable at less than 20 m below the rim; the initial fissure eruption during 11-28 January 2017 when there was a rapid drop from a state of overflowing down to 80-100 m below the rim; the early stage of the eruption period during January 2017 through mid-2017 when there was a gradual rise up to 50-70 m below the rim; and the late eruption stage during mid-2017 through October 2018 when there was a gradual drop down to 70-90 m below the rim.

Reference: Moore, C., Wright, T., Hooper, A., and Biggs, J., In Prep. Insights into the Shallow Plumbing System of Erta 'Ale Volcano, Ethiopia, from the Long-Lived 2017 Eruption.

Geologic Background. Erta Ale is an isolated basaltic shield that is the most active volcano in Ethiopia. The broad, 50-km-wide edifice rises more than 600 m from below sea level in the barren Danakil depression. Erta Ale is the namesake and most prominent feature of the Erta Ale Range. The volcano contains a 0.7 x 1.6 km, elliptical summit crater housing steep-sided pit craters. Another larger 1.8 x 3.1 km wide depression elongated parallel to the trend of the Erta Ale range is located SE of the summit and is bounded by curvilinear fault scarps on the SE side. Fresh-looking basaltic lava flows from these fissures have poured into the caldera and locally overflowed its rim. The summit caldera is renowned for one, or sometimes two long-term lava lakes that have been active since at least 1967, or possibly since 1906. Recent fissure eruptions have occurred on the N flank.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Christopher Moore, Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom (URL: https://environment.leeds.ac.uk/see/pgr/2207/chris-moore).


Etna (Italy) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3295 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows from NSEC scoria cone and SE flank fissure in December 2018; ash emissions through March 2019

Italy's Mount Etna on the island of Sicily has had historically recorded eruptions for the past 3,500 years and has been erupting continuously since September 2013 through at least March 2019. Lava flows, explosive eruptions with ash plumes, and Strombolian lava fountains commonly occur from its summit areas that include the Northeast Crater (NEC), the Voragine-Bocca Nuova (or Central) complex (VOR-BN), the Southeast Crater (SEC, formed in 1978), and the New Southeast Crater (NSEC, formed in 2011). A new crater, referred to as the "cono della sella" (saddle cone), emerged during early 2017 in the area between SEC and NSEC and has become the highest part of the SEC-NSEC complex. After several months of low-level activity in early 2018, increases in Strombolian activity at several vents began in mid-July (BGVN 43:08). This was followed by new lava flows emerging from the saddle cone and the E vent of the NSEC complex in late August and discontinuous Strombolian activity and intermittent ash emissions through November 2018 (BGVN 43:12). An eruption from a new fissure produced a lava flow into the Valle del Bove in late December 2018 and is covered in this report along with activity through March 2019 that included frequent ash emissions. Information is provided primarily by the Osservatorio Etneo (OE), part of the Catania Branch of Italy's Istituo Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologica (INGV).

For the first three weeks of December 2018, Strombolian activity and ash emissions continued from the summit vents. A series of small flows from multiple vents near the scoria cone inside NSEC formed a small flow field on the E flank mid-month. A lateral eruption from a fissure on the SE flank of NSEC opened on 24 December and produced a series of flows that traveled E into the Valle del Bove for three days. Sporadic ash emissions, some with dense plumes and significant SO2 emissions, were typical throughout January and February 2019. Activity declined significantly during March 2019 to minor ash emissions and ongoing outgassing from the summit vents. The MIROVA plot of thermal energy recorded the increased heat from the lava flows during December 2018, along with minor pulses from the ash emissions and Strombolian activity in January and February (figure 240).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 240. The Etna MIROVA thermal anomaly data for 5 July 2018 through March 2019 showed a spike in thermal activity from lava flows and increased Strombolian activity in late August and during December 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during December 2018. Strombolian activity, with modest ash emissions, continued from the Bocca Nuova, NSEC, and NEC during the first three weeks of December. Lava flowed from the scoria cone located within the E vent of NSEC and was associated with incandescent blocks rolling down the E flank of NSEC. Variable Strombolian activity at the scoria cone beginning on 4 December produced continuous overlapping small flows from several vents near the scoria cone for two weeks (figure 241). Intermittent explosions lasted 5-10 minutes with similar length pauses; activity increased on 16 December with near-continuous lava effusion. Several small flows traveled NE, E, and SE down the E flank of NSEC during the second and third weeks of the month (figure 242). A few flows reached the base of the cone at 2,900 m elevation and were almost a kilometer in length. Small collapses of portions of the lava field also produced minor plumes of ash.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 241. Map of the summit crater area at Etna (DEM 2014). Black hatch lines outline the edge of the summit craters: BN = Bocca Nuova, with the north-western depression (BN-1) and the south-eastern depression (BN-2); VOR = Voragine; NEC = Northeast Crater; SEC = Southeast Crater; NSEC = New Southeast Crater. Yellow circles are degassing vents, and red circles are vents with Strombolian activity and/or ash emissions. The cooling lava field from the E vent scoria cone at NSEC is shown in yellow; the red flows were active on 17 December 2018. Courtesy of INGV (Report 51/2018, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 10/12/2018 - 16/12/2018, data emissione 18/12/2018).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 242. The scoria cone inside the E vent of NSEC at Etna produced multiple small lava flows and Strombolian explosions for most of the first half of December 2018. (a) Strombolian activity at the scoria cone inside the E vent of the New Southeast Crater, seen from Milo (on Etna's eastern slope) on 11 December 2018. (b) Summit area of Etna seen from the south on 11 December 2018. (c) Eastern flank of the New South-East Crater seen from Fornazzo (eastern slope of Etna), with Strombolian activity and lava flows on 16 December 2018. (d) Active lava flows seen from Zafferana (eastern slope of Etna) on 16 December 2018. Courtesy of INGV (Report 51/2018, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 10/12/2018 - 16/12/2018, data emissione 18/12/2018).

A lateral eruption and intense seismic swarm began on 24 December 2018 from a nearly 2-km-long fissure trending NNW-SSE on the SE flank of NSEC; it produced a flow into the Valle del Bove and covered about 1 km2 (figures 243). The other summit craters produced intense Strombolian activity and abundant ash emissions during 24-27 December. Beginning around 0800 local time on 24 December, degassing intensity from the summit craters increased significantly. In the following hours, intermittent reddish-gray ash emissions rose from Bocca Nuova and NEC becoming continuous by late morning. Shortly after noon, an eruptive fissure opened up at the southeastern base of NSEC, releasing intense Strombolian activity which rapidly formed a dense plume of dark ash. A second smaller fissure located between NSEC and NEC also opened at the same time and produced weaker Strombolian activity that lasted a few tens of minutes. Over the following two hours, the main fissure spread SE, crossing over the western edge of the Valle del Bove and reaching down to 2,400 m elevation. Continuous Strombolian activity of variable intensity occurred at NEC and Bocca Nuova. The ash cloud created by the multiple eruptive vents generated a dense plume that drifted SE, producing ashfall mainly in the area around Zafferana Etnea and Santa Venerina (figure 244).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 243. Preliminary map of the lava flows and scoria cones at Etna active during the eruption of 24-27 December 2018. The topographic base used was provided by TECNOLAB of the INGV Catania Section Observatory Etneo, Laboratory for Technological Advances in Volcano Geophysics. The abbreviations at the top left identify the various summit craters (NEC = North-East Crater, VOR = Voragine, BN = Bocca Nuova, SEC = South-East Crater, NSEC = New South-East Crater). Courtesy of INGV (Report 01/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/12/2018 - 30/12/2018, data emissione 01/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 244. Eruptive activity from the fissure at Etna that opened on 24 December 2018 included multiple flows, Strombolian explosions, and a significant ash plume that caused ashfall in nearby communities. Top left: The eruptive fissure opened near the edge of the western wall of the Valle del Bove. Top right: An ash and steam plume produced by the opening of the fissure, taken from the south. Bottom left: Ash fall on a sidewalk in Zafferana Etnea. Bottom right: Multiple lava flows were fed by an eruptive fissure that opened along the western wall of the Valle del Bove. Images taken on 24 December by B. Behncke. Courtesy of INGV (25 dicembre 2018, Redazione INGV Vulcani, L'eruzione laterale etnea iniziata il 24 dicembre 2018).

As the fissure opened it fed several flows that descended the W face of the Valle del Bove (figure 245), past Serra Giannicola Grande, merged into a single flow at the base of the wall, and continued E across the valley floor. Ash emissions decreased significantly from Bocca Nuova and NEC after 1430 on 24 December. By 1800 the fissure was active mainly at the lower end where it continued to feed the flow in the Valle del Bove with strong Strombolian activity and abundant ash emissions. Around 1830 intense Strombolian activity resumed at Bocca Nuova along with abundant ash emissions which gradually decreased overnight. Effusive activity from the fissure continued through 26 December when it decreased significantly; new lava feeding the flow ended on 27 December, but the flow front continued to move slowly (figure 246). Degassing continued at Bocca Nuova, forming a dilute ash plume that drifted hundreds of km S before dissipating. A persistent SO2 plume was measured with satellite instruments drifting SSE during 25-30 December while the eruptive fissure was active (figure 247).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 245. Visual and thermal images of the 24-27 December 2018 fissure vent at Etna taken on 26 December 2018. (a) The eruptive fissure (yellow arrows) opened on 24 December 2018 along the W wall of the Valle del Bove and sent fresh lava down the wall (black areas), the yellow dashed rectangles indicate the areas shown with thermal images in c and d. (b) The crew that carried out the overflight on 26 December, using the helicopter of the 2nd Coast Guard Air Force in Catania. (c) and (d) are thermal camera images of the eruptive fissure that highlight the flows moving down the W wall of Valle del Bove. Visible image photo by Marco Neri. Thermal images by Stefano Branca. Courtesy of INGV (Report 01/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/12/2018 - 30/12/2018, data emissione 01/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 246. The flow from the fissure eruption at Etna traveled past Serra Giannicola Grande and E into the Valle del Bove during 24-27 December 2018. By the time of this image at 1600 on 27 December, the lava flows were no longer being fed with new material and were almost stationary within the Valle del Bove. Photo by Marco Neri, courtesy of INGV (Report 01/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 24/12/2018 - 30/12/2018, data emissione 01/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 247. The OMPS instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite measured significant SO2 plumes from Etna during the December eruptive episode, shown here by data on (clockwise from top left) 25, 27, 29, and 30 December 2018. The SO2 plumes on these days all drifted SSE from Etna. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

A significant increase in the release of seismic strain and frequency of earthquakes began around 0830 on 24 December 2018. Around 300 events occurred during the first three hours of increased seismicity which continued throughout the week, with over 2,000 events recorded in different areas around Etna. The initial swarm was located in the summit area near the fissure with events located 0-3 km below sea level; subsequent seismicity was located in the Valle del Bove and included multiple earthquakes with magnitudes greater than M 4.0. The E and SW slopes of the volcano were also affected by seismic events. The largest earthquake (M 4.8) was recorded on 26 December at 0319 local time, located about 1 km below sea level between the towns of Fleri and Pennisi on the Faglia Fiandaca fault. It was widely felt in many urban centers and caused damage in some areas. INGV noted that it was likely not generated by movement of magmatic material in the epicentral area.

Activity during January 2019. No lava flow activity was reported in January, but sporadic ash emissions and weak Strombolian activity persisted at NEC and Bocca Nuova (figure 248); occasional nighttime incandescent bursts were seen from Voragine. During one of these ash-emission episodes, on the evening of 18 January, fine ashfall was reported on the SE flank in the towns of Zafferana Etnea and Santa Venerina. Slight increases in volcanic tremor amplitude accompanied incandescent flashes from Voragine crater on the evenings of 16 and 18 January and in the early morning of 21 January (figure 249). On 19 January gas emissions and explosions were reported from a new vent near the NE edge of VOR, about 40 m NW from the 7 August 2016 vent (figure 250).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 248. Strong degassing from the summit craters at Etna was accompanied by ash emissions from NEC on 16 (a) and 19 January 2019 (b). The images were taken with the high-resolution webcam at Monte Cagliato (located E of Etna). Courtesy of INGV (Report 04/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 14/01/2019 - 20/01/2019, data emissione 22/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 249. Episodes of strong incandescence appeared at Etna's Voragine crater at 1710 UTC on 16 January (a), at 1143 UTC on 18 January (b), and at 0307 on 21 January (c). Photo (a) was taken from Tremestieri Etneo (south side of Etna), (b) and (c) were recorded by the high resolution camera in Monte Cagliato (eastern slope of Etna). Courtesy of INGV (Report 04/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 14/01/2019 - 20/01/2019, data emissione 22/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 250. A newly opened vent under the NE rim of the Voragine crater at Etna was observed on 19 January 2019. Behind it on the right, about 40 m SE, is the 7 August 2016 vent. Video taken by Prof. Carmelo Ferlito, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences of the University of Catania. Courtesy of INGV (Report 04/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 14/01/2019 - 20/01/2019, data emissione 22/01/2019).

Newly available higher resolution SO2 data from the TROPOMI Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument on board the Copernicus Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) satellite showed persistent SO2 plumes from Etna that drifted significant distances in multiple directions before dissipating for much of the month. The strongest plumes were recorded during 16-22 January 2019 (figure 251).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 251. Sulfur dioxide plumes were recorded from Etna during most days in January 2019 from the TROPOMI Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument on the Copernicus S5P satellite. The densest plumes were recorded during 16-22 January; plumes from 18, 19, 20 and 21 January 2019 are shown here. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Ash emissions intensified during the last week of January. During the morning of 23 January 2019 a dense ash plume drifted ENE from NEC, producing ashfall on the E flank of the volcano as far as the coast, including in Giarre (figure 252). Discontinuous ash emissions were reported from Bocca Nuova on 25 January; the following morning ash emissions intensified again from NEC and drifted S, producing ashfall in the S flank as far as Catania (figure 253). Emissions persisted until sometime during the night of 26-27 January. The ashfall from 22-23 and 26 January were analyzed by INGV personnel; the components were 95-97% lithic fragments and crystals with only 3-5% juvenile material. An ash plume from Bocca Nuova on 28 January drifted E and produced ashfall in the Valle del Bove. Ash emission decreased from Bocca Nuova on 29-30 January; only dilute ash was observed from NEC during the last few days of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 252. Dense ash emissions during the morning of 23 January 2019 at Etna were observed (a) from the Catania camera CUAD (ECV), (b) from the Catania CUAD high resolution camera (ECVH), (c) from the area stop at Linera on the A18 Messina-Catania motorway (photo B. Behncke), and (d) from the hamlet of Pisano, near Zafferana Etnea, on the SE slope of the volcano (photo B. Behncke). Courtesy of INGV (Report 05/2019; ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 21/01/2019 - 27/01/2019, data emissione 29/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 253. Ash emissions covered the snow on the S flank of Etna on 26 January 2019. Photo was taken from the SS 121 at the Adrano junction, on the SW flank of the volcano. Photo by R. Corsaro, courtesy of INGV (Report 05/2019; ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 21/01/2019 - 27/01/2019 ,data emissione 29/01/2019).

Activity during February 2019. Typical degassing and discontinuous explosive activity from the summit characterized Etna during February. An explosion was observed at NEC at 0230 UTC on 2 February which initially produced a dense ash plume that drifted NE, producing ashfall in the summit area and the Piano Provenzana. Ash emission decreased throughout the day. Repeated ash emissions were visible beginning in the afternoon of 6 February from NEC after several days of cloudy weather. Continuous ash emissions were observed overnight on 7-8 February, producing a dilute plume that drifted S then SE. A similar dilute ash emission was observed on 9 February; the plume drifted SW. Analysis of the ash by INGV indicated a similar composition to the samples measured two weeks prior. Webcams captured numerous pulsating ash emissions from NEC in mid-February, many of which produced substantial SO2 plumes (figure 254). Emissions increased in intensity and frequency and were nearly continuous during most of the third week, with plumes drifting W, S, and SE resulting in ashfall in those directions, and also led to temporary air space closures in Catania and Comiso (figures 255 and 256). Also during the third week, Strombolian activity took place at BN-1, while pulsating degassing was observed at BN-2. Incandescent degassing continued at the vent located on the N edge of Voragine. Irregular ash emissions that rapidly dispersed near the summit were produced by BN on 26 and 27 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 254. Substantial SO2 plumes accompanied ash emissions from Etna during many days in February 2019. The largest plumes were captured with the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite on 19, 20, 21, and 22 February. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 255. Ash emission from Etna's North-East Crater (NEC) on the morning of 18 February 2019 was captured by the INGV-OE webcam in Milo. The different colored lines roughly indicate the topographic profiles observable from that position of the various summit craters of Etna: NSEC = New South-East Crater; BN = Bocca Nuova; VOR = Voragine. Courtesy of INGV (Report 09/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 18/02/2019 - 24/02/2019, data emissione 26/02/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 256. An ash emission drifted W from Etna's NEC on 19 February 2019 as viewed from Tremestieri Etneo, located 20 km S of the volcano. Photo by Boris Behncke, courtesy of INGV-OE (Report 09/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 18/02/2019 - 24/02/2019, data emissione 26/02/2019).

Activity during March 2019. Discontinuous and moderate outgassing characterized activity at all the summit vents of Etna throughout March 2018 after an ash plume from Bocca Nuova on 2 March reached 4 km above the crater. The ash plume was accompanied by seismic activity that INGV concluded was likely related to an intra-crater collapse. The discontinuous degassing was interrupted on 16 March by a single small emission of brown ash from Bocca Nuova which rapidly dissipated (figure 257). During a site visit on 30 March, INGV personnel noted pulsating degassing with apparent temperatures above 250°C from the new vent formed in mid-January at the E rim of Voragine (figure 258). At NEC, low-temperature pulsating degassing was occurring at the vent at the bottom of the crater and from fumaroles along the inner walls (figure 259).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 257. A small ash emission from the BN crater on 16 March 2019 was recorded by the high-resolution webcams in Monte Cagliato, on the eastern slope of Etna (a) and in Bronte, on the west side (b). Courtesy of INGV (Report 12/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 11/03/2019 - 17/03/2019, data emissione 19/03/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 258. Degassing continued at the vents along the E edge of Voragine crater at Etna on 30 March 2019, producing temperatures in excess of 250°C. In the background is the NE Crater (NEC) whose southern edge was affected by modest collapses in March 2019. Courtesy of INGV (Report 14/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/03/2019 - 31/03/2019, data emissione 02/04/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 259. Degassing continued from the vents located on the bottom of the NE Crater at Etna on 30 March 2019 as seen from the eastern edge with visual and thermal images. Courtesy of INGV (Report 14/2019, ETNA, Bollettino Settimanale, 25/03/2019 - 31/03/2019, (data emissione 02/04/2019).

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/it/ ); Blog INGVvulcani, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV); (URL: http://ingvvulcani.wordpress.com); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes reaching 15 km altitude in August and December 2018

Manam is a basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano that lies 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea; it has a 400-year history of recorded evidence for recurring low-level ash plumes, occasional Strombolian activity, lava flows, pyroclastic avalanches, and large ash plumes. Activity during 2017 included a strong surge in thermal anomalies beginning in mid-February that lasted through mid-June; low levels of intermittent thermal activity continued for the rest of the year (BGVN 43:03). Activity during 2018, discussed below, included two ash explosions that rose higher than 15 km altitude, in August and December, resulting in significant ashfall and evacuations of several villages. Information about Manam is primarily provided by Papua New Guinea's Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), part of the Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM). This information is supplemented with aviation alerts from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). MODIS thermal anomaly satellite data is recorded by the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC thermal alert recording system, and the Italian MIROVA project; sulfur dioxide monitoring is done by instruments on satellites managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Satellite imagery provided by the Sentinel Hub Playground is also a valuable resource for information about this remote location.

Satellite imagery confirmed thermal activity in December 2017, February-April 2018, and June-December 2018. Explosive activity with ash plumes was reported in June, August-October, and December 2018. Ash plumes from explosions in late August and early December rose to over 15 km altitude and caused heavy ashfall on the island. Lava flows were reported in late August, late September to early October, and December; a pyroclastic flow on the NE flank occurred during the late August explosive episode. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued during the same periods when lava flows were reported on the NE flank. The MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph for 2018 showed intermittent pulses of thermal activity throughout the year; levels of increased activity were apparent in late December 2017-early January 2018, mid-May, August, late September-early October, and early December 2018 (figure 42). Many of these thermal events could be confirmed with either satellite or ground-based information.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. The MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph for Manam during 2018 showed intermittent pulses of thermal activity throughout the year, many of which could be confirmed with satellite imagery or ground observations. Levels of increased activity were apparent in late December 2017-early January 2018, mid-May, August, late September to early October, and the first half of December 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during December 2017-July 2018. Both Sentinel-2 satellite imagery, and MIROVA data thermal evidence, indicated continued thermal activity at both of Manam's summit craters (Main and Southern) during December 2017-April 2018. Satellite imagery on 11, 26, and 31 December showed two thermal hotspots on each date, with a gas plume drifting E on 26 December 2017. One strong thermal anomaly was visible in satellite imagery on 19 February 2018 along with a SE-drifting gas plume (figure 43). A single anomaly was visible through atmospheric clouds on 1 March 2017 with a thin gas plume drifting NNE. On 10 April two hotspots were clearly visible, the one at Southern Crater was larger than the one at Main Crater, both with ESE drifting gas plumes. Though there was diffuse atmospheric cloud cover on 15 April, both anomalies were visible with SW-drifting gas plumes. On 25 April clouds covered the likely thermal anomalies, but a dense gas plume drifted N from the summit (figure 44).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 images (bands 12, 14, 2) of Manam on 11, 26, and 31 December 2017 and 19 February 2018 all showed evidence of either one or two thermal anomalies at the summit craters and gas plumes drifting in multiple directions. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal anomalies and/or gas plumes were visible at Manam's Main and Southern Craters on 1 March and 10, 15, and 25 April 2018 in Sentinel-2 imagery (bands 12, 14, 2), confirming continued activity at the volcano. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Although no satellite images confirmed thermal activity in May 2018, several anomalies were recorded by the MIROVA project (figure 42). Sentinel-2 imagery on 9 June confirmed two hotspots at the summit with Southern Crater's signal larger than the weak Main Crater signal; the first VAAC report of 2018 was issued on 10 June based on a pilot report of ash at 1.8 km altitude, but it did not appear in satellite imagery. Two thermal anomalies were both more clearly visible on 29 July, with NNE drifting gas plumes (figure 45).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Two thermal anomalies with steam and gas plumes were visible in Sentinel-2 imagery (bands 12,4, 2) at the summit of Manam on 9 June and 29 July 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during August 2018.Thermal activity began increasing in early August 2018, as seen in the MIROVA data, but satellite imagery also indicated a growing hotspot at Main Crater on 13 August. The thermal source appeared to be some type of incandescent flow on the upper NE flank that was visible in 23 August imagery along with the second anomaly at Southern Crater (figure 46).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Growing hotspots were visible at the summit of Manam in Sentinel-2 imagery (bands 12,4, 2) on 13 August 2018 compared with the June and July imagery (figure 45). By 23 August a much larger thermal anomaly was visible beneath cloud cover originating from Main Crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) issued an information bulletin early on 25 August indicating a new eruption from Main Crater (figure 47). Residents on the island reported increased activity around 0500 local time. The Darwin VAAC also issued a report a few hours later (24 August 2019 UTC) where they increased the Aviation Color code to Red, and indicated a high-impact eruption with an ash plume visible in satellite imagery that rose to 15.2 km altitude and drifted WSW after initially moving N (figure 48). Reports received at RVO indicated that ash, scoria, and mud fell in areas between the communities of Dangale on the NNE and Jogari on the SW part of the island. They also indicated that the most affected areas were Baliau and Kuluguma where wet, heavy, ashfall broke tree branches and reduced visibility (figure 49). A lava flow was observed in the NE valley slowly moving downhill, and there was evidence of a pyroclastic flow that reached the ocean in the same valley (figure 50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. A large explosion at Manam on 25 August 2018 (local time) produced an ash plume that rose to over 15 km altitude. Islanders reported that ash and other debris from the eruption was so thick that sunlight was totally blocked for hours. Photo taken from the New Guinea mainland by members of the Police force. Courtesy of Scott Waide.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. A substantial ash plume from an explosion at Manam on 25 August 2018 (local time) rose to 15.2 km altitude and drifted WSW for about five hours. Photo by Sean Richards, courtesy of Scott Waide.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Vegetation on Manam was covered and damaged by heavy, wet, ash after an explosion on 25 August 2018. Photo by Anisah Isimel, courtesy of Scott Waide.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. A fresh lava flow was visible in the major drainage on the NE flank at Manam a few days after a large explosion on 25 August 2018. Pyroclastic flows scorched trees and left behind debris. Posted online on 28 August 2018 by journalist Scott Waide from an article by journalist Martha Louis, EMTV.

The eruption ceased around 1030 local time and was followed by dense steam plumes rising from the summit. RVO reported the following day that six houses in Boakure village on the NE side of the island were buried by debris from the pyroclastic flow. The occupants of the houses had escaped earlier to nearby Abaria village and no casualties were reported. The OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite captured a significant SO2 plume drifting WSW a few hours after reports of the 25 August eruption (figure 51). The Darwin VAAC reported a possible ash eruption on 28 August that was drifting WNW at 3.4 km altitude for a brief period before dissipating. According to RVO, several mudflows were reported in areas between the NW and SW parts of the island after the 25 August 2018 eruption, triggered by the heavy rainfall that followed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. The OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite captured a significant SO2 plume drifting WSW from Manam a few hours after reports of the 25 August 2018 eruption. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Activity during September-November 2018. Satellite evidence during September 2018 confirmed the ongoing activity at the summit where a thermal anomaly was visible at Southern Crater on 7 September. On 12 September a gas plume drifted NW from the thermal anomaly at Southern crater while an incandescent lava flow was visible on the NE flank below Main Crater. (figure 52). RVO reported increased activity at Southern Crater during 20-24 September that included variable amounts of steam and gray to brown ash plumes. The Darwin VAAC reported a short-lived ash plume visible in satellite imagery on 23 September that rose to 8.5 km altitude and drifted NW. A small ash emission seen in visible imagery on 25 September rose to 2.4 km altitude and extended SE briefly before dissipating. Although partially obscured by clouds, the lava flow was still visible on the upper NE flank on 27 September (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Satellite evidence (Sentinel-2, bands 12, 4, 2) during September 2018 at Manam confirmed the ongoing activity at the summit where a thermal anomaly was visible at Southern Crater on 7 September. On 12 September a gas plume drifted NW from Southern Crater while an incandescent flow traveled down the NE flank from Main Crater. Although partially obscured by clouds, the flow was still visible on the upper NE flank on 27 September. A nearly clear satellite image on 2 October showed incandescent lava reaching almost to the ocean in two lobes on the NE flank of the island. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub playground.

Continuous ash emissions from a new explosion were first reported based on satellite imagery by the Darwin VAAC on 30 September (UTC) at 4.3 km altitude extending SW, and also at 3.0 km altitude drifting W. The emissions at 4.3 km altitude dissipated the following day, but lower level emissions continued at 2.1 km altitude drifting NW through 3 October. On 1 October residents reported hearing continuous loud roaring, rumbling, and banging noises, and reports from Tabele on the SW side of the island indicated very bright incandescence at the summit area. The incandescence was also visible from the Bogia Government Station on the mainland. Small amounts of fine ash and scoria were reported at Jogari and surrounding villages to the N on 1 October. Field observations on 1 October confirmed the presence of a two-lobed lava flow into the NE valley. The smaller lobe traveled towards Kolang village on the N side of the valley and the larger lobe went to the S towards Boakure village. Both flows stopped before reaching inhabited areas. A nearly clear satellite image on 2 October showed the incandescent lava reaching almost to the ocean in the two lobes on the NE flank of the island (figure 52). An SO2 plume drifting SW from Manam was captured by the OMI instrument on the Aura satellite on 1 October 2018 (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite captured an SO2 plume drifting SW from Manam on 1 October 2018. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

RVO reported that during 2-12 October Southern Crater produced variable amounts of brown, gray-brown and dark gray ash clouds that rose between a few hundred meters and a kilometer above the summit craters before drifting NW. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission to 10.4 km altitude on 5 October that extended 25 km W before dissipating within a few hours. Continuous emissions to 2.4 km altitude extending WNW began a few hours later and were intermittently visible in satellite imagery through 12 October. Incandescent lava was visible in satellite imagery on the NE flank on 12 October (figure 54). Activity decreased significantly during the rest of October and most of November 2018, with no ground reports, VAAC reports, or satellite imagery indicating thermal activity; only the MIROVA data showed low-level thermal anomalies (figure 42). A satellite image on 26 November 2018 indicated that thermal activity continued at one of the summit craters (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Incandescent lava was visible on the NE flank of Manam on 12 October 2018 in this Sentinel-2 satellite image (bands 12, 4, 2). A single hotspot appeared through meteoric clouds on 26 November. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during December 2018. The Darwin VAAC reported a minor ash emission on 6 December 2018 that rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted SE for a few hours before dissipating. A much larger ash emission on 8 December was clearly observed in satellite imagery and reported by a pilot, as well as by ground and ocean-based observers. It was initially reported at 12.2 km altitude but rose to 15.2 km a few hours later, drifting E for about 10 hours before dissipating (figure 55). This was followed later in the day by an ongoing ash emission at 8.2 km altitude that drifted E before dissipating on 9 December. According to the UNHCR news organization Relief Web, the eruption started around 1300 local time on 8 December and lasted until about 1000 on 9 December. Based on reports from the ground, the eruption affected the NE part of the island. In particular, a lava flow affected Bokure (Bokuri) and Kolang (NE Manam). Communities in both localities were evacuated. The Loop PNG reported that RVO noted that the flow stopped before reaching Bokure. Ash and scoria fall was described as being moderate in downwind areas, including Warisi village on the SE side of the island. An SO2 plume was also identified by satellite instruments. Hotspots were visible from both craters on 11 December and from one of the craters on 16 December (figure 56).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. This image of an eruption at Manam on 8 December 2018 (local time) was likely taken from a Papua New Guinea government ship, and made available via Jhay Mawengu of the Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Sentinel-2 satellite images indicated thermal activity continuing as hotspots at the summit of Manam on 11 and 16 December 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Scott Waide (URL: https://mylandmycountry.wordpress.com/2018/08/, Twitter: @Scott_Waide); Jhay Mawengu, Royal Papua New Guinea Constabulary (URL: https://www.facebook.com/mawengu.jeremy.7); Relief Web, United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Resident Coordinator's Office, 380 Madison Avenue, 7th floor, New York, NY 10017-2528, USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/); LOOP Pacific (URL: http://www.looppng.com/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dome appears at summit on 12 August 2018; grows to 447,000 m3 by late March 2019

Merapi volcano in central Java, Indonesia (figure 69), has a lengthy history of major eruptive episodes. Activity has included lava flows, pyroclastic flows, lahars, Plinian explosions with heavy ashfall, incandescent block avalanches, and dome growth and destruction. Fatalities from these events were reported in 1994, 2006, and during a major event in 2010 (BGVN 36:01) where hundreds were killed and hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated. Renewed phreatic explosions in May 2018 cancelled airline fights and generated significant SO2 plumes in the atmosphere. The volcano then remained quiet until an explosion on 11 August 2018 marked the beginning of the growth of a new lava dome. The period June 2018 through March 2019 is covered in this report with information provided primarily by Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG, which monitors activity specifically at Merapi.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. A drone aerial photo of Merapi taken on 11 November 2018 shows the Gendol river drainage in the foreground and the upper part that is often referred to as Bebeng. Pyroclastic flows descended through this drainage in both 2006 and 2010. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

The first sign of renewed activity at Merapi came with an explosion and the appearance of a lava dome at the summit on 12 August 2018. The growth rate of the dome fluctuated between August 2018 and January 2019, with a low rate of 1,000 m3/day in late September to a high of 6,200 m3/day in mid-October. By mid-December the dome was large enough to send block avalanches down the Kali Gendol ravine on the SSE flank. The rate of dome growth declined rapidly during January 2019, when most of the new lava moved down the ravine in numerous block avalanches. By late March 2019 the dome had reached 472,000 m3 in volume and block avalanches were occurring every few days.

After the eruptive events between 11 May and 1 June 2018, seismicity fluctuated at levels slightly above normal during June and July, with the highest levels recorded on 18 and 29 July. A VONA on 3 June reported a plume of steam that rose 800 m above the summit; for the rest of June the plume heights gradually decreased to a maximum of 400 m by the third week. During July steam plume heights varied from 30 to 350 m above the summit.

On 1 August 2018 an explosion was heard at the Babadan Post. An explosion on 11 August was heard by residents of Deles on the SE flank. Photos taken in a survey by drone the following day indicated the presence of new material in the middle of the 2010 dome fracture (figure 70). The presence of a new lava dome was confirmed with a site visit on 18 August 2018. The dome was 55 m long and 25 m wide, and about 5 m below the 2010 dome surface (figure 71). As of 23 August, the volume of the dome was 23,000 m3, growing at an average rate of 2,700 m3/day. By the end of the month the volume was estimated to be 54,000 m3 with a growth rate of 4,000 m3/day (figure 72). Throughout the month, persistent steam plumes rose 50-200 m above the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. The first sign of new dome growth at Merapi appeared in this drone photo taken on 12 August 2018. Courtesy of BPPTKG (Siaran Pers 18 Agustus 2018 Pukul 17:00 WIB, Press Release 18 August 2018, 1700 local time).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. The new dome at the summit of Merapi on 18 August 2018. Courtesy of BPPTKG (Siaran Pers 18 Agustus 2018 Pukul 17:00 WIB, Press Release 18 August 2018, 1700 local time).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. A comparison of the dome on 18 (top) and 28 (bottom) August 2018 at Merapi taken from the Puncak webcam on the N flank. By the end of August 2018, the dome size was about 54,000 m3. Courtesy of BPPTKG (posted via Twitter on 27 August 2018).

During September-November 2018 the summit dome grew at varying rates from 1,000 to 6,200 m3/day (table 22). At the beginning of September its volume was 54,000 m3; it had reached 329,000 m3 by the end of November (figure 73). Steam plumes in September rose from 100 to 450 m above the summit. They were lower in October, rising only 50-100 m high. During November they rose 100 to400 m above the summit. Intermittent seismic activity remained above background levels. By mid-November, the growth of the dome was clearly visible from the ground 4.5 km S of the summit (figure 74).

Table 22. The volume and growth rate of the lava dome at Merapi was measured weekly from late August 2018 through January 2019. Data courtesy of BPPTKG Merapi weekly reports.

Date Size (m3) Rate (m3 / day)
23 Aug 2018 23,000 2,700
30 Aug 2018 54,000 4,000
06 Sep 2018 82,000 3,900
13 Sep 2018 103,000 3,000
20 Sep 2018 122,000 3,000
27 Sep 2018 129,000 1,000
04 Oct 2018 135,000 1,000
11 Oct 2018 160,000 3,100
18 Oct 2018 201,000 6,200
21 Oct 2018 219,000 6,100
31 Oct 2018 248,000 2,900
07 Nov 2018 273,000 3,500
14 Nov 2018 290,000 2,400
21 Nov 2018 308,000 2,600
29 Nov 2018 329,000 2,500
06 Dec 2018 344,000 2,200
13 Dec 2018 359,000 2,200
19 Dec 2018 370,000 2,000
27 Dec 2018 389,000 2,300
03 Jan 2019 415,000 3,800
10 Jan 2019 439,000 3,400
16 Jan 2019 453,000 2,300
22 Jan 2019 461,000 1,300
29 Jan 2019 461,000 --
07 Feb 2019 461,000 --
14 Feb 2019 461,000 --
21 Feb 2019 466,000 --
05 Mar 2019 470,000 --
21 Mar 2019 472,000 --
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Images from September-November 2018 show the growth of the lava dome at the summit of Merapi. In each pair the left image is from the Deles webcam, and the right image is from the Puncak webcam on the same date. Top: 26 September 2018, left growth lines show change from 8 to 27 September, from 18 to 26 September on right; Middle: 22 October 2018, both sets of growth lines are from 13 September to 22 October; Bottom: 22 November 2018, left growth lines are from mid-September to 21 November and right growth lines are 15 and 22 November. In each Puncak image the red outline at the center is the dome outline on 18 August 2018. Courtesy of BPPTKG, from weekly reports of Merapi activity, 21-27 September, 19-25 October, and 16-22 November 2018.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. A comparison of the crater area of Merapi on 2 June 2018 (left) and 11 November 2018 (right). The new dome is clearly visible in the later photo. The images were taken about 4.5 km S of the summit. Persistent gas emissions rose from both the new dome and around the summit crater. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

The lava dome continued to grow during December 2018, producing steam plumes that rose 50-200 m. As the height of the dome increased, block avalanches began descending into the upper reaches of Kali Gendol ravine on the SSE flank. Avalanches on 16 and 19 December reached 300 m down the drainage; on 21 December a larger avalanche lasted for 129 seconds and traveled 1 km based on the duration of the seismic data (figure 75). By the end of December BPPTKG measured the volume of the dome as 389,000 m3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Steam and gas from a recent block avalanche rose from the edge of the new dome at Merapi on 21 December 2018 (top). By the end of December BPPTKG measured the volume of the dome as 389,000 m3. Top image from BPPTKG press release of 21 December 2018; bottom images from the weekly Merapi Mountain activities report of 21-27 December. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

The rate of dome growth declined steadily during January 2019, and by the third week most of the lava extrusion was collapsing as block avalanches into the upper part of Kali Gendol, and dome growth had slowed. Steam plumes rose 50-450 m during the month. In spite of slowing growth, a comparison of the dome size between 11 November 2018 and 13 January 2019 indicated an increase in volume of over 150,000 m3 of material (figure 76). Incandescence at the dome and in the block avalanches was visible at night when the summit was clear (figures 77 and 78). Three block avalanches occurred during the evening of 29 January; the first traveled 1.4 km, the second 1.35 km, and the third 1.1 km down the ravine; each one lasted for about two minutes. By the end of January the size of the dome was reported by BPPTKG to be about 461,000 m3.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. A comparison of the dome growth at Merapi from 11 November 2018 to 13 January 2019 showed an increase in volume of over 150,000 m3 according to Indonesian authorities (BPPTKG), as well as the accumulation of debris as material fell down the ravine. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Incandescence appeared at the growing dome at the summit of Merapi late on 13 January 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Incandescent blocks from the growing dome at Merapi traveled several hundred meters down Kali Gendol on 14 January 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

Numerous block avalanches were observed during February 2019 as almost all of the lava extrusion was moving down the slope. Multiple avalanches were reported on 7, 11, 18, 25, and 27 February, with traveling distances ranging from 200 to 2,000 m. Steam plumes did not rise more than 375 m during the month. By the end of February, the dome had only grown slightly to 466,000 m3. Seventeen block avalanches were reported during March 2019; they traveled distances ranging from 500 to 1,900 m down the Kali Gendol ravine. A drone measurement on 5 March determined the volume of the dome to be 470,000 m3; it was only 2,000 m3 larger when measured again on 21 March.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: https://www.oysteinlundandersen.com/).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — February 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies continue through January 2019

The relatively remote Bagana volcano, located on Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, is poorly monitored and most of the available data is obtained by satellites (figure 30). The most recent eruptive phase began on or before early 2000 with intermittent ash plumes and detected thermal anomalies (BGVN 41:04, 41:07, 42:08, 43:05). The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) monitors satellite imagery for ash plumes that could impact aviation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. Sentinel-2 satellite image (natural color, bands 4, 3, 2) of Bagana on 28 May 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Cloud cover obscured the volcano during much of the reporting period, but significant ash plumes were identified five times by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), in May, July, and December 2018 (table 6). Infrared satellite imagery from Sentinel-2 frequently showed thermal anomalies, both at the summit and caused by hot material moving down the flanks (figure 31).

Table 6. Summary of ash plumes from Bagana reported during May 2018 through January 2019. Courtesy of the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Date Max Plume Altitude (km) Plume Drift
08 May 2018 2.1 W
11 May 2018 2.1 SW
22 Jul 2018 2.4 W
29-30 Jul 2018 1.8-2.1 SW
01 Dec 2018 3-6.1 SE
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Infrared satellite images from Sentinel-2 (atmospheric penetration, bands 12, 11, 8A) showing hot areas at the summit and on the flanks on 7 July (top left), 31 August (top right), 14 November (bottom left) and 14 December (bottom right) 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, recorded a large number of thermal alerts within 5 km of the summit throughout this reporting period (figure 32). Thermal alerts increased in number and intensity beginning mid-July 2018. This pattern is also consistent with the MODVOLC data (also based on MODIS satellite data). A total of 76 thermal anomaly pixels were recorded during the reporting period; of these, greater than 40 pixels were observed during July 2018 alone with 13 pixels reported in December 2018 (figure 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Thermal anomalies identified at Bagana by the MIROVA system (log radiative power) for the year ending 8 February 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Small sulfur dioxide (SO2) anomalies were detected by the AuraOMI instrument during this period, the highest being in the range of 1.5-1.8 Dobson Units (DU). Emissions in this range occurred during July 7, 21, and 28 July, and 3-5 and 19 December 2018.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA, a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) – MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Fuego (Guatemala) — April 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosive activity with ash plumes, avalanches, lava flows, and lahars from July 2018 through March 2019

Fuego is one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, regularly producing ash plumes and incandescent ballistic ejecta, along with lava flows, avalanches, pyroclastic flows, and lahars down the ravines (barrancas) and rivers (figure 104). Frequent ash plumes have been recorded in recent years (figure 105). A major eruptive event occurred on 3-5 June that resulted in fatalities. Thermal data show an increase in activity from November 2018, that continued through the reporting period (figure 106). This report summarizes activity from July 2018 through March 2019 based on reports by Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanología, Meteorología e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH) and the National Office of Disaster Management (CONRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. Map of Fuego showing the ravines, rivers, and communities. Map created in 2005 (see BGVN 30:08).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Ash plume altitudes from 1999 through 2019 for Fuego as reported by the Washington VAAC. The gray vertical lines represent paroxysmal eruptions. Courtesy of Rudiger Escobar Wolf, Michigan Technological University.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS infrared data at Fuego for the year ending April 2019 showing increased activity since November 2018. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Gas emissions and avalanches characterized activity in early July 2018; an increase was reported on the 4th. Avalanches descended through the Cenizas, Las Lajas, and Santa Teresa ravines on the 6th. One explosion every two hours on 8 July produced ash plumes up to 4.3 km altitude (500 m above the crater) that dispersed towards the SW. Avalanches down the flanks accompanied this activity. On 10 July ash plumes rose to 4.2 and 5 km altitude dispersing to the SW, and ashfall was reported in Morelia and Panimache (figure 107). Avalanches continued on the 19-20 and 23-24 July and weak explosions on the 23-24 produced low ash plumes that dispersed to the N. Hot lahars containing blocks 2-3 m in diameter and tree trunks and branches were generated in the Taniluyá, Ceniza, El Jute, and Las Lajas ravines on 30 and 31 July, and 2 and 9 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. A moderate explosion produced an ash plume at Fuego on 10 July 2018. Photo courtesy of CONRED.

During August and September, weak to moderate explosions produced ash plumes that rose to 4.7 km altitude and incandescent material was ejected to 150 m above the crater, producing avalanches down the ravines. Additional hot lahars carrying boulders and tree branches occurred on 29 August-2 September and 21-27 September down the Honda (E), El Jute (SE), Las Lajas (SE), Cenizas (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Seca (W), Santa Teresa (W), Niagara (W), Mineral, and Pantaleón (W) drainages.

An increase in activity occurred on 29 September with degassing pulses lasting 3-4 hours recorded and heard. Avalanches occurred on the flanks and weak-moderate explosions occurred at a rate of 10-15 per hour with ash plumes rising up to 4.7 km. Hot lahars traveled down the Seca, Santa Teresa, and Mineral ravines, transporting blocks up to 3 m in diameter along with tree trunks and branches. Similar lahars were generated in the Las Lajas ravine on 5, 8, and 9 October (figure 108). The lahars were hot and smelled of sulfur, and they carried blocks 1-3 m in diameter.

On 12 October activity increased and produced incandescent ejecta up to 100-200 m above the crater and out to 300 m away from the crater, avalanches in the ravines, and a lava flow with a length of 800-1,000 m, that had reached 1,500 m by the 13th. Ash plumes reached 4.8 km altitude and dispersed up to 12 km towards the S and SE. Explosions occurred at a rate of 8-10 per hour with shockwaves that were reported near the volcano. At 1640 a pyroclastic flow was generated down the Seca ravine (figure 109). Similar activity continued through the 13th, with ash plumes reaching 5 km and ashfall reported in communities including Panimache I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, El Porvenir, and Palo Verde Estate. This episode of increased activity continued for 32 hours. Lahars traveled down the Ceniza and Seca ravines, the Achiguate River, and the Mineral and Taniluyá ravines (both tributaries of the Pantaleón river). A 30-m-wide lahar with a depth of 2 m was reported on 16 October that carried blocks up to 2 m in diameter, tree trunks, and branches. More lahars descended the Las Lajas ravine on the 17-18, and 20 October. Explosions continued through to the end of October, with increased activity on 31 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Seismograms and RSAM (Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement) graphs of activity at Fuego showing a change in signal indicative of lahars in the Las Lajas ravine on 8 and 9 October 2018 (red boxes and arrows). The change in seismic signal correlates with an increase in RSAM values. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. A pyroclastic flow at Fuego traveling down the Seca ravine on 12 October 2018. Courtesy of CONRED.

Frequent activity continued into November with elevated activity reported on the 2 and 4-6 November. On 6 November ash plumes rose to 4.8 km altitude and traveled 20 km W and SW resulted in ashfall on communities including Panimache, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Constant explosions ejected incandescent material to 300 m above the crater. A lava flow 1-1.2 km long observed in the Ceniza ravine generated avalanches from the front of the flow, which continued through the 9th.

Activity increased again on 17 November, initiating the fifth eruptive phase of 2018. There were 10-15 explosions recorded per hour along with ash plumes up to 4.7 km that dispersed 10-15 km to the W and SW. Incandescent material was ejected up to 200-300 m above the crater, and avalanches were generated. A new lava flow reached 800 m down the Ceniza ravine. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, Yepocapa, and other communities.

The elevated activity continued through 18 November with 12-17 explosions per hour and a constant ash plume to 5 km altitude, dispersing to the W and SW for 20-25 km. Moderate avalanches traveled down the Ceniza, Taniluyá, and Seca ravines out to the vegetation line. Incandescent blocks were ejected up to 400 m above the crater. Ashfall was reported in communities including Panimaché I, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, and Palo Verde Estate. Avalanches from the front of the lava flow traveled down the Taniluyá and Seca ravines.

Ash plumes rose to 7 km altitude on the 19th and dispersed 50-60 km towards the W, SW, and NE (figure 110). Incandescent ballistic ejecta reached 1 km above the crater and scattered to over 1 km from the crater (figure 111), with the explosions shaking houses over 15 km away to the W and SW, and avalanches moved down the Seca, Ceniza, Taniluyá, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines reaching the vegetation. Two new lava flows formed, extending to 300 m down the Seca and Santa Teresa ravines. Pyroclastic flows traveled down the Seca, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. Ashfall due to the generation of pyroclastic flows was reported in Panimaché I and II, Santa Sofía, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and in Alotenango and Antigua, Guatemala, to the NE. CONRED reported the evacuation of 3,925 people. INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption phase was over at 1800 on 19 November after 32 hours of increased activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Eruption at Fuego on 19 November 2018 producing ash plumes and incandescent ejecta. Courtesy of European Pressphoto Agency via BBC News.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Explosions at Fuego on 19 November 2018 generated ash plumes to 5.2 km altitude, incandescent blocks up to 1 km above the crater, and avalanches. Courtesy of CONRED.

Explosions continued through 20 November at a rate of 8-13 per hour, ejecting incandescent material up to 200 m above the crater and ash plumes to at least 4.6 km that drifted 20-25 km NW, W, and SW. Avalanches continued with some reaching the vegetation. Ashfall was reported in communities including Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa.

Similar activity continued through to the end of November with explosions producing shockwaves felt out to 25 km; some explosions were heard in Guatemala City, 40 km ENE. Ash plumes rose to 5 km (figures 112 and 113) and dispersed 20 km W, S, and SW, and ash fell in communities including Panimaché, El Porvenir, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, San Pedro Yepocapa, Alotenango, and San Miguel Dueñas. Explosions were recorded 10 to 18 per hour. Incandescent ejecta rose to 200 m above the crater and resulted in avalanches in the Las Lajas, Ceniza, El jute, Honda, Taniluyá, Trinidad, and Seca ravines with some reaching the vegetation line. Some avalanches entrained large blocks up to 3 m in diameter that produced ash plumes as they traveled down the ravines. Hot lahars were generated in the Seca, Santa Maria, and Mineral ravines, carrying blocks up to 3 m in diameter (figure 114).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes and caused avalanches in the Las Lajas, Trinidad, and Ceniza ravines on 22 November 2018. Courtesy of CONRED.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Ash plume up to 5.5 km altitude at Fuego on 28 November 2018. Courtesy of CONRED.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. A lahar from Fuego traveling down the Mineral River in November 2018. Courtesy of CONRED.

During December white to light gray fumarolic plumes rose to a maximum height of 4.5 km. Ash plumes reached up to 5.2 km and dispersed to a maximum of 25 km S, SW, and W. There were 3-15 explosions recorded per hour with shockwaves, incandescent ejecta reaching 300 m above the crater, and avalanches down the Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Honda ravines. Ashfall was reported in communities including Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, Palo Verde Estate, Sangre de Cristo, Yepocapa, La Rochela, San Andrés Osuna, Ceylon, Alotenango, and San Pedro.

Similar activity continued through January 2019 with fumarolic plumes rising to a maximum of 4.4 km altitude, ash plumes reaching 4.8 km and dispersing over 15 km to the NE, WSW, and NW; 3-25 explosions per hour sent shockwaves and avalanches in multiple directions. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, Palo Verde Estate, and San Pedro Yepocapa. Also in Alotenango, La Reunion, and El Porvenir, Alotenango.

An increase in activity began on 21 January with moderate to strong explosions producing ash plumes up to 5 km altitude that dispersed 12 km W and SW. The explosions were heard over 15 km away and shook windows and roofs out to 12 km away. Avalanches were triggered in multiple ravines. On 22 January there were 15-25 recorded explosions per hour, each lasting 2-3 minutes and producing ash plumes to 4.8 km and incandescent ejecta up to 300 m above the crater (figure 115).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 115. An ash plume rising during an explosive event at Fuego on 22 January 2019. Courtesy of CONRED.

Frequent explosions continued during February through to late-March, with a range of 8-18 per hour, producing ash plumes rising to 4.8 km (figure 116), and dispersing out to 15 km in multiple directions. Incandescent ejecta rose to 350 m above the crater and resulted in avalanches down multiple ravines. Ashfall was reported in communities including El Rodeo, El Zapote, Ceylon, La Roche-la, Panimache, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Sangre de Cristo, San Miguel Dueñas, Ciudad Vieja, and Alotenango, Verde Estate, San Pedro Yepocapa, La Rochelle, and San Andrés Osuna.

On 22 March there was an increase in the number and energy of explosions with 15-20 per hour. Accompanying ash plumes rose to 5 km altitude and dispersed 25-30 km S, W, SW, E, and SE, depositing ash in La Rochela, Ceylon, Osuna, Las Palmas, Siquinalá, and Santa Lucia Cotzumalguapa. Explosions were heard over 20 km from the volcano. Incandescent ejecta rose to 300 m above the crater and moderate to strong avalanches flowed down the Seca, Taniluyá, Ceniza, Trinidad, Las Lajas and Honda ravines. Explosions increased to 14-32 events per hour by 31 March, continuing to produce ash plumes up to 5 km and depositing ash on nearby communities and causing avalanches down the flanks. A new lava flow reached 800 m down the Seca ravine.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 116. Examples of small ash plumes at Fuego on 21 February and 12 March 2019. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED (top) and CONRED (bottom).

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between 3763-m-high Fuego and its twin volcano to the north, Acatenango. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at Acatenango. In contrast to the mostly andesitic Acatenango, eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Av. Hincapié 21-72, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://conred.gob.gt/www/index.php); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Rudiger Escobar Wolf, Michigan Technologicla University, 630 Dow Environmental Sciences, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, USA (URL: https://www.mtu.edu/geo/department/staff/wolf.html); William Chigna, CONRED (URL: https://twitter.com/william_chigna); BBC News (URL: https://www.bbc.com; https://www.bbc.com/news/world-latin-america-46261168?intlink_from_url=https://www.bbc.com/news/topics/c4n0j0d82l0t/guatemala-volcano&link_location=live-reporting-story); European Pressphoto Agency (URL: http://www.epa.eu/); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/).


Stromboli (Italy) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Constant explosions from both crater areas during November 2018-February 2019

Nearly constant fountains of lava at Stromboli have served as a natural beacon in the Tyrrhenian Sea for at least 2,000 years. Eruptive activity at the summit consistently occurs from multiple vents at both a north crater area (N Area) and a southern crater group (CS Area) on the Terrazza Craterica at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the island. Thermal and visual cameras that monitor activity at the vents are located on the nearby Pizzo Sopra La Fossa, above the Terrazza Craterica, and at a location closer to the summit craters.

Eruptive activity from November 2018 to February 2019 was consistent in terms of explosion intensities and rates from both crater areas at the summit, and similar to activity of the past few years (table 5). In the North Crater area, both vents N1 and N2 emitted a mixture of coarse (lapilli and bombs) and fine (ash) ejecta; most explosions rose less than 80 m above the vents, some reached 150 m. Average explosion rates ranged from 4 to 21 per hour. In the CS crater area continuous degassing and occasional intense spattering were typical at vent C, vent S1 was a low-intensity incandescent jet throughout the period. Explosions from vent S2 produced 80-150 m high ejecta of ash, lapilli and bombs at average rates of 3-16 per hour. Thermal activity at Stromboli was actually higher during November 2018-February 2019 than it had been in previous months as recorded in the MIROVA Log Radiative Power data from MODIS infrared satellite information (figure 139).

Table 5. Summary of activity levels at Stromboli, November 2018-February 2019. Low intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m and medium intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month N Area Activity CS Area Activity
Nov 2018 Low- to medium-intensity explosions at both N1 and N2, lapilli and bombs mixed with ash, explosion rates of 6-16 per hour. Continuous degassing at C; intense spattering on 26 Nov. Low- to medium-intensity incandescent jetting at S1. Low- to medium-intensity explosions at S2 with a mix of coarse and fine ejecta and explosion rates of 3-18 per hour.
Dec 2018 Low- to medium-intensity explosions at both N1 and N2, coarse and fine ejecta, explosion rates of 4-21 per hour. Three days of intense spattering at N2. Continuous degassing at C; intense spattering 1-2 Dec. Low- to medium-intensity incandescent jets at S1, low and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine material at S2. Average explosion raters were 10-18 per hour at the beginning of the month, 3-4 per hour during last week.
Jan 2019 Low- to medium-intensity explosions at N1, coarse ejecta. Low- to medium-intensity and spattering at N2, coarse and fine ejecta. Explosion rates of 9-16 per hour. Continuous degassing and low-intensity explosions of coarse ejecta at C. Low-intensity incandescent jets at S1. Low- and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine ejecta at S2.
Feb 2019 Medium-intensity explosions with coarse ejecta at N1. Low-intensity explosions with fine ash at N2. Explosion rates of 4-11 per hour. Continuous degassing and low-intensity explosions with coarse and fine ejecta at C and S2. Low intensity incandescent jets at S1. Explosion rates of 2-13 per hour.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 139.Thermal activity at Stromboli increased during November 2018-February 2019 compared with the preceding several months as recorded in the MIROVA project log radiative power data taken from MODIS thermal satellite information. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity at the N area was very consistent during November 2018 (figure 140). Explosions of low-intensity (less than 80 m high) to medium-intensity (less than 150 m high) occurred at both the N1 and N2 vents and produced coarse material (lapilli and bombs) mixed with ash, at rates averaging 6-16 explosions per hour. In the SC area continuous degassing was reported from vent C with a brief period of intense spattering on 26 November. At vent S1 low- to medium-intensity incandescent jetting was reported. At vent S2, low- and medium-intensity explosive activity produced a mixture of coarse and fine (ash) material at a frequency of 3-18 events per hour.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 140. The Terrazza Craterica at Stromboli on 12 November 2018 as viewed by the thermal camera placed on the Pizzo sopra la Fossa, showing the two main crater areas and the active vents within each area that are discussed in the text. Heights above the crater terrace, as indicators of intensity of the explosions, are shown divided into three intervals of low (basso), medium (media), and high (alta). Courtesy of INGV (Report 46/2018, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale 05/11/2018 - 11/11/2018, data emissione 13/11/2018).

Similar activity continued during December at both crater areas, although there were brief periods of more intense activity. Low- to medium-intensity explosions at both N area vents produced a mixture of coarse and fine-grained material at rates averaging 4-21 per hour. During 6-7 December ejecta from the N vents fell onto the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco and rolled down the gullies to the coast, producing tongues of debris (figure 141). An explosion at N1 on 12 December produced a change in the structure of the crater area. During 10-16 December the ejecta from the N area landed outside the crater on the Sciara del Fuoco. Intense spattering was observed from N2 on 18, 22, and 31 December. In the CS area, continuous degassing took place at vent C, along with a brief period of intense spattering on 1-2 December. Low to medium intensity incandescent jets persisted at S1 along with low-and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine-grained material at vent S2. Rates of explosion at the CS area were higher at the beginning of December (10-18 per hour) and lower during the last week of the month (3-4 per hour).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 141. Images from the Q 400 thermal camera at Stromboli taken on 6 December 2018 showed the accumulation of pyroclastic material in several gullies on the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco following an explosion at vent N2 at 1520 UTC. The images illustrate the rapid cooling of the pyroclastic material in the subsequent two hours. Courtesy of INGV (Report 50/2018, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 03/12/2018 - 09/12/2018, data emissione 11/12/2018).

Explosive intensity was low (ejecta less than 80 m high) at vent N1 at the beginning of January 2019 and increased to medium (ejecta less than 150 m high) during the second half of the month, producing coarse ejecta of lapilli and bombs. Intensity at vent N2 was low to medium throughout the month with both coarse- and fine-grained material ejected. Explosions from N2 sent large blocks onto the Sciara del Fuoco several times throughout the month and usually was accompanied by intense spattering. Explosion rates varied, with averages of 9 to 16 per hour, throughout the month in the N area. In the CS area continuous degassing occurred at vent C, and low-intensity explosions of coarse-grained material were reported during the second half of the month. Low-intensity incandescent jets at S1 along with low- and medium-intensity explosions of coarse and fine-grained material at S2 persisted throughout the month.

A helicopter overflight of Stromboli on 8 January 2019 allowed for detailed visual and thermal observations of activity and of the morphology of the vents at the summit (figure 142). Vent C had two small hornitos, and a small scoria cone was present in vent S1, while a larger crater was apparent at S2. In the N crater area vent N2 had a large scoria cone that faced the Sciara del Fuoco to the north; three narrow gullies were visible at the base of the cone (figure 143). Vent S1 was a large crater containing three small vents aligned in a NW-SE trend; INGV scientists concluded the vents formed as a result of the 12 December 2018 explosion. Thermal images showed relatively low temperatures at all fumaroles compared with earlier visits.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 142. Thermal images from Stromboli taken during the overflight of 8 January 2019 showed the morphological structure of the individual vents of the N and CS crater areas. Courtesy of INGV (Report 03/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/01/2019 - 13/01/2019, (data emissione 15/01/2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 143. An image taken at Stromboli during the overflight of 8 January 2019 shows the morphological structure of the summit Terrazza Craterica with three gullies at the base of the scoria cone of vent N2. The top thermal image (inset a) shows that the fumaroles in the upper part of the Sciara del Fuoco have low temperatures. Courtesy of INGV (Report 03/2019, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 07/01/2019 - 13/01/2019, data emissione 15/01/2019).

Activity during February 2019 declined slightly from the previous few months. Explosions at vent N1 were of medium-intensity and produced coarse material (lapilli and bombs). At N2, low-intensity explosions produced fine ash. Average explosion rates in the N area ranged from 4-11 per hour. At the CS area, continuous degassing and low-intensity explosions produced coarse and fine-grained material from vents C and S2 while low-intensity incandescent jets were active at S1. The explosion rates at the CS area averaged 2-13 per hour.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy, (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and lava extrusion during October-December; partial collapse and tsunami in late December; Surtseyan activity in December-January 2019

Krakatau volcano, between Java in Sumatra in the Sunda Straight of Indonesia, is known for its catastrophic collapse in 1883 that produce far-reaching pyroclastic flows, ashfall, and tsunami. The pre-1883 edifice had grown within an even older collapse caldera that formed around 535 CE, resulting in a 7-km-wide caldera and the three surrounding islands of Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata (figure 55). Eruptions that began in late December 1927 (figures 56 and 57) built the Anak Krakatau cone above sea level (Sudradjat, 1982; Simkin and Fiske, 1983). Frequent smaller eruptions since that time, over 40 short episodes consisting of ash plumes, incandescent blocks and bombs, and lava flows, constructed an island reaching 338 m elevation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. The three islands of Verlaten, Lang, and Rakata formed during a collapse event around 535 CE. Another collapse event occurred in 1883, producing widespread ashfall, pyroclastic flows, and triggering a tsunami. Through many smaller eruptions since then, Anak Krakatau has since grown in the center of the caldera. Sentinel-2 natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) satellite image acquired on 16 November 2018, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Photo sequence (made from a film) at 6-second intervals from the early phase of activity on 24 January 1928 that built the active Anak Krakatau cone above the ocean surface. Plume height reached about 1 km. View is from about 4.5 km away at a beach on Verlaten Island looking SE towards Rakata Island in the right background. Photos by Charles E. Stehn (Netherlands Indies Volcanological Survey) from the E.G. Zies Collection, Smithsonian Institution.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. Submarine explosions in January 1928 built the active Anak Krakatau cone above the ocean surface. View is from about 600 m away looking E towards Lang Island in the background. Photos by Charles E. Stehn (Netherlands Indies Volcanological Survey) from the E.G. Zies Collection, Smithsonian Institution.

Historically there has been a lot of confusion about the name and preferred spelling of this volcano. Some have incorrectly made a distinction between the pre-1883 edifice being called "Krakatoa" and then using "Krakatau" for the current volcano. Anak Krakatau is the name of the active cone, but the overall volcano name is simply Krakatau. Simkin and Fiske (1983) explained as follows: "Krakatau was the accepted spelling for the volcano in 1883 and remains the accepted spelling in modern Indonesia. In the original manuscript copy submitted to the printers of the 1888 Royal Society Report, now in the archives of the Royal Society, this spelling has been systematically changed by a neat red line through the final 'au' and the replacement 'oa' entered above; a late policy change that, from some of the archived correspondence, saddened several contributors to the volume."

After 15 months of quiescence Krakatau began a new eruption phase on 21 June 2018, characterized by ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, Strombolian activity, and lava flows. Ash plumes reached 4.9 km and a lava flow traveled down the SE flank and entered the ocean. This report summarizes the activity from October 2018 to January 2019 based on reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, the National Board for Disaster Management - Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite data, and eye witness accounts.

Activity during October-21 December 2018. The eruption continued to eject incandescent ballistic ejecta, ash plumes, and lava flows in October through December 2018. On 22 December a partial collapse of Anak Krakatau began, dramatically changing the morphology of the island and triggering a deadly tsunami that impacted coastlines around the Sunda Straight. Following the collapse the vent was located below sea level and Surtseyan activity produced steam plumes, ash plumes, and volcanic lightning.

Sentinel-2 satellite images acquired through October show incandescence in the crater, lava flows on the SW flank, and incandescent material to the S to SE of the crater (figure 58). This correlates with eyewitness accounts of explosions ejecting incandescent ballistic ejecta, and Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) ash plume reports. The Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes to 1.5-2.4 km altitude that drifted in multiple directions during 17-19 October, but throughout most of October visual observations were limited due to fog. A video shared by Sutopo on 24 October shows ash emission and lava fountaining producing a lava flow that entered the ocean, resulting in a white plume. Video by Richard Roscoe of Photovolcanica shows explosions ejecting incandescent blocks onto the flanks and ash plumes accompanied by volcanic lightning on 25 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing lava flows, incandescent avalanche deposits, and incandescence in the crater of Anak Krakatau during October 2018. Courtesy of Sentinel-2 hub playground.

Throughout November frequent ash plumes rose to 0.3-1.3 km altitude, with explosion durations spanning 29-212 seconds (figure 59). Observations by Øystein Lund Andersen describe explosions ejecting incandescent material with ash plumes and some associated lightning on 17 November (figure 60).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Sentinel-2 satellite images showing ash plumes at Krakatau during 6-16 November 2018. Natural color (Bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Krakatau erupting an ash plume and incandescent material on 17 November 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

During 1-21 December intermittent explosions lasting 46-776 seconds produced ash plumes that rose up to 1 km altitude. Thermal signatures were sporadically detected by various satellite thermal infrared sensors during this time. On 22 December ash plumes reached 0.3-1.5 km through the day and continuous tremor was recorded.

Activity and events during 22-28 December 2018. The following events during the evening of the 22nd were recorded by Øystein Lund Andersen, who was photographing the eruption from the Anyer-Carita area in Java, approximately 47 km from Anak Krakatau. Starting at 1429 local time, incandescence and ash plumes were observed and the eruption could be heard as intermittent 'cannon-fire' sounds, sometimes shaking walls and windows. An increase in intensity was noted at around 1700, when the ash column increased in height and was accompanied by volcanic lightning, and eruption sounds became more frequent (figure 61). A white steam plume began to rise from the shore of the southern flank. After sunset incandescent ballistic blocks were observed impacting the flanks, with activity intensity peaking around 1830 with louder eruption sounds and a higher steam plume from the ocean (figure 62).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Ash plumes at Krakatau from 1429 to 1739 on 22 December 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Krakatau ejecting incandescent blocks and ash during 1823-1859 on 22 December 2018. The top and middle images show the steam plume at the shore of the southern flank. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

PVMBG recorded an eruption at 2103. When viewed at 2105 by Øystein Lund Andersen, a dark plume across the area blocked observations of Anak Krakatau and any incandescence (figure 63). At 2127-2128 the first tsunami wave hit the shore and traveled approximately 15 m inland (matching the BNPB determined time of 2127). At approximately 2131 the sound of the ocean ceased and was soon replaced by a rumbling sound and the second, larger tsunami wave impacted the area and traveled further inland, where it reached significant depths and caused extensive damage (figures 64 and 65). After the tsunami, eruption activity remained high and the eruption was heard again during intervals from 0300 through to early afternoon.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Krakatau is no longer visible at 2116 on 22 December 2018, minutes before the first tsunami wave arrived at west Java. A dark ash plume takes up much of the view. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. The second tsunami wave arriving at Anyer-Carita area of Java after the Krakatau collapse. This photo was taken at 2133 on 22 December 2018, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Photographs showing damage caused in the Anyer-Carita area of Java by the tsunami that was triggered by the partial collapse of Krakatau. From top to bottom, these images were taken approximately 40 m, 20 m, and 20 m from the shore on 23 December 2018. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

Observations on 23 December reveal steam-rich ash plumes and base surge traveling along the water, indicative of the shallow-water Surtseyan eruption (figure 66). Ashfall was reported on the 26th in several regions including Cilegon, Anyer, and Serang. The first radar observations of Krakatau were on 24 December and showed a significant removal of material from the island (figure 67). At 0600 on the 27th the volcanic alert level was increased from II to III (on a scale of I-IV) and a VONA with Aviation Color Code Red reported an ash plume to approximately 7 km altitude that dispersed to the NE. When Anak Krakatau was visible, Surtseyan activity and plumes were observed through the end of December. On 28 December, plumes reached 200-3000 m. At 0418 the eruption paused and the first observation of the post-collapse edifice was made. The estimated removed volume (above sea level) was 150-180 million m3, leaving a remaining volume of 40-70 million m3. The summit of the pre-collapse cone was 338 m, while the highest point post-collapse was reduced to 110 m. Hundreds of thousands of lightning strokes were detected during 22-28 December with varying intensity (figure 68).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Steam-rich plumes and underlying dark ash plumes from Surtseyan activity at Krakatau on 23 December 2018. Photos by Instagram user @didikh017 at Grand Cava Susi Air, via Sutopo.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. ALOS-2 satellite radar images showing Krakatau on 20 August 2018 and 24 December 2018. The later image shows that a large part of the cone of Anak Krakatau had collapsed. Courtesy of Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) via Sutopo.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Lightning strokes during the eruption of Krakatau within a 20 km radius of the volcano for 30 minute intervals on 23, 25, 26, and 28 December 2018. Courtesy of Chris Vagasky.

Damage resulting from the 22 December tsunami. On the 29 December the damage reported by BNPB was 1,527 heavily damaged housing units, 70 with moderate damage, 181 with light damage, 78 damaged lodging and warung units, 434 damaged boats and ships and some damage to public facilities. Damage was recorded in the five regencies of Pandenglang, Serang, South Lampung, Pesawaran and Tanggamus. A BNPB report on 14 January gave the following figures: 437 fatalities, 10 people missing, 31,943 people injured, and 16,198 people evacuated (figure 69). The eruption and tsunami resulted in damage to the surrounding islands, with scouring on the Anak-Krakatau-facing slope of Rakata and damage to vegetation on Kecil island (figure 70 and 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. The impacts of the tsunami that was triggered by a partial collapse of Anak Krakatau from an update given on 14 January 2019. Translations are as follows. Korban Meninggal: victims; Korban hilang: missing; Korban luka-luka: injured; Mengungsi: evacuated. The color scale from green to red along the coastline indicates the breakdown of the human impacts by area. Courtesy of BNPB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. Damage on Rakata Island from the Krakatau tsunami. This part of the island is facing Anak Krakatau and the scoured area was estimated to be 25 m high. Photographs taken on 10 January 2019 by James Reynolds.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Damage to vegetation on Kecil island to the East of Krakatau, from the Krakatau December 2018 eruption. Photographs taken on 10 January 2019 by James Reynolds.

Activity during January 2019. Surtseyan activity continued into January 2019. Øystein Lund Andersen observed the eruption on 4-5 January. Activity on 4 January was near-continuous. The photographs show black cock's-tail jets that rose a few hundred meters before collapsing (figure 72), accompanied by white lateral base surge that spread from the vent across the ocean (figure 73), and white steam plumes that were visible from Anyer-Carita, West Java. In the evening the ash-and-steam plume was much higher (figure 74). It was also noted that older pumice had washed ashore at this location and a coating of sulfur was present along the beach and some of the water surface. Activity decreased again on the 5th (figure 75) with a VONA reporting an ash plume to 1.5 km towards the WSW. SO2 plumes were dispersed to the NE, E, and S during this time (figure 76).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Black ash plumes and white steam plumes from the Surtseyan eruption at Krakatau on 4 January 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. An expanding base surge at Krakatau on 4 January 2019 at 0911. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Ash-and-steam plumes at Krakatau at 1702-2250 on 4 January 2018. Lightning is illuminating the plume in the bottom image. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Ash plumes at Krakatau on 5 January 2019 at 0935. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions produced by Krakatau and drifting to the NE, E, and SE on 3-6 January 2018. Dates and times of the periods represented are listed at the top of each image. Courtesy of the NASA Space Goddard Flight Center.

During 5-9 January intermittent explosions lasting 20 seconds to 13 minutes produced ash plumes rising up to 1.2 km and dispersing E. From 11 to 19 January white plumes were observed up to 500 m. Observations were prevented due to fog during 20-31 January. MIROVA thermal data show elevated thermal anomalies from July through January, with a decrease in energy in November through January (figure 77). The radiative power detected in December-January was the lowest since June 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS thermal infrared data for June 2018-January 2019. The peaks in energy correlate with observed lava flows. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Morphological changes to Anak Krakatau. Images taken before and after the collapse event show changes in the shoreline, destruction of vegetation, and removal of the cone (figure 78). A TerraSAR-X image acquired on 29 January shows that in the location where the cone and active vent was, a bay had formed, opening to the W (figure 79). These changes are also visible in Sentinel-2 satellite images, with the open bay visible through light cloud cover on 29 December (figure 80).

By 9 January a rim had formed, closing off the bay to the ocean and forming a circular crater lake. Photos by James Reynolds on 11 January show a new crater rim to the W of the vent, which was filled with water (figure 81). Steam and/or gas emissions were emanating from the surface in that area. The southern lava delta surface was covered with tephra, and part of the lava delta had been removed, leaving a smooth coastline. By the time these images were taken there was already extensive erosion of the fresh deposits around the island. Fresh material extended the coast in places and filled in bays to produce a more even shoreline.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Krakatau on 5 August 2018 (top) and on 11 January 2019 showing the edifice after the collapse event. The two drone photographs show approximately the same area. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen (top) and James Reynolds (bottom).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. TerraSAR-X radar images showing the morphological changes to Krakatau with the changes outlined in the bottom right image as follows. Red: 30 August 2018 (upper left image); blue: 29 December 2018 (upper right image); yellow: 9 January 2019 (lower left image). Part of the southern lava delta was removed and material was added to the SE and NE to N shoreline. In the 29 December image the cone has collapsed and in its place is an open bay, which had been closed by a new rim by the 9 January. Courtesy of BNPB, JAXA Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Sentinel-2 satellite images showing the changing morphology of Krakatau. The SW section is where the cone previously sat and collapsed in December 2018. In the upper right image the cone and southern lava delta are gone and there are changes to the coastline of the entire island. Natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Drone footage of the Krakatau crater and new crater rim taken on 11 January 2019. The island is coated in fresh tephra from the eruption and the orange is discolored water due to the eruption. The land between the crater lake and the ocean built up since the collapse and the hot deposits are still producing steam/gas. Courtesy of James Reynolds.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An aerial view of Krakatau with the new crater on 13 January 2019. Courtesy of BNPB.

References. Simkin, T., and Fiske, R.S., 1983, Krakatau 1883: the volcanic eruption and its effects: Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington DC, 464 p. ISBN 0-87474-841-0.

Sudradjat (Sumartadipura), A., 1982. The morphological development of Anak Krakatau Volcano, Sunda Straight. Geologi Indonesia, 9(1):1-11.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 or 535 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan, and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan, and left only a remnant of Rakata. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN ); Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI), 1 Kitasato, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0811, Japan. (URL: http://www.gsi.go.jp/ENGLISH/index.html); Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG), Jl. Raya Jakarta - Bogor KM. 46 Cibinong 16911, Indonesia. (URL: http://www.big.go.id/atlas-administrasi/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 7-44-1 Jindaiji Higashi-machi, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8522 (URL: https://global.jaxa.jp/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: https://www.oysteinlundandersen.com/krakatau-volcano-witnessing-the-eruption-tsunami-22december2018/); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCLKYsEXfI0PGXeKYL1KV7qA); Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc., Louisville, Colorado (URL: https://www.vaisala.com/en?type=1, Twitter: @COweatherman, URL: https://twitter.com/COweatherman).


Masaya (Nicaragua) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake persists with decreased thermal output, November 2018-February 2019

Nicaragua's Volcan Masaya has an intermittent lava lake that has attracted visitors since the time of the Spanish Conquistadores; tephrochronology has dated eruptions back several thousand years. The unusual basaltic caldera has had historical explosive eruptions in addition to lava flows and an actively circulating lava lake. An explosion in 2012 ejected ash to several hundred meters above the volcano, bombs as large as 60 cm fell around the crater, and ash fell to a thickness of 2 mm in some areas of the park. The reemergence of the lava lake inside Santiago crater was reported in December 2015. By late March 2016 the lava lake had grown and intensified enough to generate a significant thermal anomaly signature which has varied in strength but continued at a moderate level into early 2019. Information for this report, which covers the period from November 2018 through February 2019, is provided by the Instituto Nicareguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER) and satellite -based imagery and thermal data.

The lava lake in Santiago Crater remained visible and active throughout November 2018 to February 2019 with little change from the previous few months (figure 70). Seismic amplitude RSAM values remained steady, oscillating between 10 and 40 RSAM units during the period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. A small area of the lava lake inside Santiago Crater at Masaya was visible from the rim on 25 November 2018 (left) and 17 January 2019 (right). Left image courtesy of INETER webcam; right image courtesy of Alun Ebenezer.

Every few months INETER carries out SO2 measurements by making a transect using a mobile DOAS spectrometer that samples for gases downwind of the volcano. Transects were done on 9-10 October 2018, 21-24 January 2019, and 18-21 February 2019 (figure 71). Average values during the October transect were 1,454 tons per day, in January they were 1,007 tons per day, and in February they averaged 1,318 tons per day, all within a typical range of values for the last several months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. INETER carries out periodic transects to measure SO2 from Masaya with a mobile DOAS spectrometer. Transects taken along the Ticuantepe-La Concepcion highway on 9-10 October 2018 (left) and 21-24 January 2019 (right) showed modest levels of SO2 emissions downwind of the summit. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua. Octubre 2018 and Enero 2019).

During a visit by INETER technicians in early November 2018, the lens of the Mirador 1 webcam, that had water inside it and had been damaged by gases, was cleaned and repaired. During 21-24 January 2019 INETER made a site visit with scientists from the University of Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, to measure halogen species in gas plumes, and to test different sampling techniques for volcanic gases, including through spectroscopic observations with DOAS equipment, in-situ gas sampling (MultiGAS, denuders, alkaline traps), and using a Quadcopter UAV (drone) sampling system.

Periodic measurements of CO2 from the El Comalito crater have been taken by INETER for many years. The most recent observations on 19 February 2019 indicated an emission rate of 46 +/- 3 tons per day of CO2, only slightly higher than the average value over 16 measurements between 2008 and 2019 (figure 72).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. CO2 measurements taken at Masaya on 19 February 2019 were very close to the average value measured during 2008-2019. Courtesy of INETER (Boletín Sismos y Volcanes de Nicaragua, Febrero 2019).

Satellite imagery (figure 73) and in-situ thermal measurements during November 2018-February 2019 indicated constant activity at the lava lake and no significant changes during the period. On 14 January 2019 temperatures were measured with the FLIR SC620 thermal camera, along with visual observations of the crater; abundant gas was noted, and no explosions from the lake were heard. The temperature at the lava lake was measured at 107°C, much cooler than the 340°C measured in September 2018 (figure 74).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery (geology, bands 12, 4, and 2) clearly indicated the presence of the active lava lake inside Santiago crater at Masaya during November 2018-February 2019. North is to the top, and the Santigo crater is just under 1 km in diameter for scale. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Thermal measurements were made at Masaya on 14 January 2019 with a FLIR SC620 thermal camera that indicated temperatures over 200°C cooler than similar measurements made in September 2018.

Thermal anomaly data from satellite instruments also confirmed moderate levels of ongoing thermal activity. The MIROVA project plot indicated activity throughout the period (figure 75), and a plot of the number of MODVOLC thermal alerts by month since the lava lake first appeared in December 2015 suggests constant activity at a reduced thermal output level from the higher values in early 2017 (figure 76).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Thermal anomalies remained constant at Masaya during November 2018-February 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA project. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. The number of MODVOLC thermal alerts each month at Masaya since the lava lake first reappeared in late 2015 reached its peak in early 2017 and declined to low but persistent levels by early 2018 where they have remained for a year. Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Alun Ebenezer (Twitter: @AlunEbenezer, URL: https://twitter.com/AlunEbenezer).


Santa Maria (Guatemala) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Santa Maria

Guatemala

14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily explosions cause steam-and-ash plumes and block avalanches, November 2018-February 2019

The dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex on the W flank of Guatemala's Santa María volcano has been growing and actively erupting since 1922. The youngest of the four vents in the complex, Caliente, has been erupting with ash explosions, pyroclastic, and lava flows for more than 40 years. A lava dome that appeared within the summit crater of Caliente in October 2016 has continued to grow, producing frequent block avalanches down the flanks. Daily explosions of steam and ash also continued during November 2018-February 2019, the period covered in this report, with information primarily from Guatemala's INSIVUMEH (Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meterologia e Hidrologia) and the Washington VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center).

Activity at Santa Maria continued with little variation from previous months during November 2018-February 2019. Plumes of steam with minor magmatic gases rose continuously from the Caliente crater 100-500 m above the summit, generally drifting SW or SE before dissipating. In addition, daily explosions with varying amounts of ash rose to altitudes of around 2.8-3.5 km and usually extended 20-30 km before dissipating. Most of the plumes drifted SW or SE; minor ashfall occurred in the adjacent hills almost daily and was reported at the fincas located within 15 km in those directions several times each month. Continued growth of the Caliente lava dome resulted in daily block avalanches descending its flanks. The MIROVA plot of thermal energy during this time shows a consistent level of heat flow with minor variations throughout the period (figure 89).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. Persistent thermal activity was recorded at Santa Maria from 6 June 2018 through February 2019 as seen in the MIROVA plot of thermal energy derived from satellite thermal data. Daily explosions produced ash plumes and block avalanches that were responsible for the continued heat flow at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

During November 2018 steam plumes rose to altitudes of 2.8-3.2 km from Caliente summit, usually drifting SW, sometimes SE. Several ash-bearing explosions were reported daily, rising to 3-3.2 km altitude and also drifting SW or SE. The highest plume reported by INSIVUMEH rose to 3.4 km on 25 November and drifted SW. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 9 November that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted W; it dissipated within a few hours about 35 km from the summit. On 11 November another plume rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted NW. INSIVUMEH issued a special report on 2 November noting an increase in block avalanches on the S and SE flanks, many of which traveled from the crater dome to the base of the volcano. Nearly constant avalanche blocks descended the SE flank of the dome and occasionally traveled down the other flanks as well throughout the month. They reached the bottom of the cone again on 29 November. Ashfall was reported around the flanks more than once every week and at Finca Florida on 12 November. Finca San Jose reported ashfall on 11, 13, and 23 November, and Parcelamiento Monte Claro reported ashfall on 15, 24, 25, and 27 November.

Constant degassing from the Caliente dome during December 2018 formed white plumes of mostly steam that rose to 2.6-3.0 km altitude during the month. Weak explosions averaging 9-13 per day produced gray ash plumes that rose to 2.8-3.4 km altitude. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 4 December that extended 25 km SW of the summit at 3.0 km altitude and dissipated quickly. Small ash plumes were visible in satellite imagery a few kilometers WNW on 8, 12, 30, and 31 December at 4.3 km altitude; they each dissipated within a few hours. Ashfall was reported in Finca Monte Claro on 1 and 4 December, and in San Marcos Palajunoj on 26 and 30 December along with Loma Linda. On 28 December ashfall on the E flank affected the communities of Las Marías, Calahuache, and El Nuevo Palmar. Block avalanches occurred daily, sending large blocks to the base of the volcano that often stirred up small plumes of ash in the vicinity (figure 90).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 90. Activity during December 2018 at Santa Maria included constant degassing of steam plumes, weak explosions with ash plumes, and block avalanches rolling down the flanks to the base of the cone. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Diciembre 2018).

Multiple explosions daily during January 2019 produced steam-and-ash plumes (figure 91). Constant degassing rising 10-500 m emerged from the SSE part of the Caliente dome, and ashfall, mainly on the W and SW rim of the cone, was a daily feature. Seismic station STG-3 detected 10-18 explosions per day that produced ash plumes, which rose to between 2.7 and 3.5 km altitude. The Washington VAAC noted a faint ash emission in satellite imagery on 1 January that was about 25 km W of the summit at 4.3 km altitude. A new emission appeared at the same altitude on 4 January about 15 km NW of the summit. A low-density emission around midday on 5 January produced an ash plume that drifted NNE at 4.6 km altitude. Ash plumes drifted W at 4.3 km altitude on 11 and 14 January for short periods of time before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 91. Explosions during January produced numerous steam-and-ash plumes at the Santiaguito complex of Santa Maria. A moderate explosion on 31 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to about 3.1 km altitude (top). A thermal image and seismograph show another moderate explosion on 18 January 2019 that also rose nearly vertically from the summit of Caliente. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad Volcanica enero 2019, Volcan Santiaguito).

Ash drifted mainly towards the W, SW, and S, causing ashfall in the villages of San Marcos Palajunoj, Loma Linda, Monte Bello, El Patrocinio, La Florida, El Faro, Patzulín and a few others several times during the month. The main places where daily ashfall was reported were near the complex, in the hilly crop areas of the El Faro and San José Patzulín farms (figure 92). Blocks up to 3 m in diameter reached the base of the complex, stirring up ash plumes that settled on the immediate flanks. Juvenile material continued to appear at the summit of the dome during January; the dome had risen above the edge of the crater created by the explosions of 2016. Changes in the size and shape of the dome between 23 November 2018 and 13 January 2019 showed the addition of material on the E and SE side of the dome, as well as a new effusive flow that travelled 200-300 m down the E flank (figure 93).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. Near-daily ashfall affected the coffee plants at the El Faro and San José Patzulín farms (left) at Santiaguito during January 2019. Large avalanche blocks descending the flanks, seen here on 23 January 2018, often stirred up smaller ash plumes that settled out next to the cone. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad Volcanica enero 2019, Volcan Santiaguito).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. A comparison of the growth at the Caliente dome of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria between 23 November 2018 (top) and 13 January 2019 (bottom) shows the emergence of juvenile material and a 200-300 m long effusive flow that has moved slowly down the E flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe mensual de actividad Volcanica enero 2019, Volcan Santiaguito).

Persistent steam rising 50-150 m above the crater was typical during February 2019 and accompanied weak and moderate explosions that averaged 12 per day throughout the month. White and gray ash plumes from the explosions rose to 2.8-3.3 km altitude; daily block avalanches usually reached the base of the dome (figure 94). Ashfall occurred around the complex, mainly on the W, SW, and NE flanks on a daily basis, but communities farther away were affected as well. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume on 7 February in visible satellite imagery moving SW from the summit at 4.9 km altitude. The next day a new ash plume was located about 20 km W of the summit, dissipating rapidly, at 4.3 km altitude. Ashfall drifting SW affected Palajuno Monte Claro on 5, 9, 15, and 16 February. Ash drifting E and SE affected Calaguache, Las Marías and surrounding farms on 14 and 17 February, and fine-grained ash drifting SE was reported at finca San José on 21 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Activity at the Caliente dome of the Santiaguito complex at Santa Maria included daily ash-and-steam explosions and block avalanches descending the sides of the dome in February 2019. A typical explosion on 2 February 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to about 3 km altitude and drifted SW (left). A block avalanche on 14 February descended the SE flank and stirred up small plumes of ash in the vicinity (right, top); the avalanche lasted for 88 seconds and registered with seismic frequencies between 3.46 and 7.64 Hz (right bottom). Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Semanal de Monitoreo: Volcán Santiaguito (1402-03), Semana del 01 al 08 de febrero de 2019).

Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is part of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rise above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The sharp-topped, conical profile is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank, and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four vents, with activity progressing W towards the most recent, Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Reventador (Ecuador) — March 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Multiple daily explosions with ash plumes and incandescent blocks rolling down the flanks, October 2018-January 2019

The andesitic Volcán El Reventador lies well east of the main volcanic axis of the Cordillera Real in Ecuador and has historical eruptions with numerous lava flows and explosive events going back to the 16th century. The eruption in November 2002 generated a 17-km-high eruption cloud, pyroclastic flows that traveled 8 km, and several lava flows. Eruptive activity has been continuous since 2008. Daily explosions with ash emissions and ejecta of incandescent blocks rolling hundreds of meters down the flanks have been typical for many years. Activity continued during October 2018-January 2019, the period covered in this report, with information provided by Ecuador's Instituto Geofisico (IG-EPN), the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and infrared satellite data.

Multiple daily reports were issued from the Washington VAAC throughout the entire October 2018-January 2019 period. Plumes of ash and gas usually rose to altitudes of 4.3-6.1 km and drifted about 20 km in prevailing wind directions before either dissipating or being obscured by meteoric clouds. The average number of daily explosions reported by IG-EPN for the second half of 2018 was more than 20 per day (figure 104). The many explosions during the period originated from multiple vents within a large scarp that formed on the W flank in mid-April (BGVN 43:11, figure 95) (figure 105). Incandescent blocks were observed often in the IG webcams; they traveled 400-1,000 m down the flanks.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. The number of daily seismic events at El Reventador for 2018 indicated high activity during the first and last thirds of the year; more than 20 explosions per day were recorded many times during October-December 2018, the period covered in this report. LP seismic events are shown in orange, seismic tremor in pink, and seismic explosions with ash are shown in green. Courtesy of IG-EPN (Informe Anual del Volcán El Reventador – 2018, Quito, 29 de marzo del 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. Images from IG's REBECA thermal camera showed the thermal activity from multiple different vents at different times during the year (see BGVN 43:11, figure 95 for vent locations). Courtesy if IG (Informe Anual del Volcán El Reventador – 2018, Quito, 29 de marzo del 2019).

Activity during October 2018-January 2019. During most days of October 2018 plumes of gas, steam, and ash rose over 1,000 m above the summit of Reventador, and most commonly drifted W or NW. Incandescence was observed on all nights that were not cloudy; incandescent blocks rolled 400-800 m down the flanks during half of the nights. During episodes of increased activity, ash plumes rose over 1,200 m (8, 10-11, 18-19 October) and incandescent blocks rolled down multiple flanks (figure 106).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Ash emissions rose over 1,000 m above the summit of Reventador numerous times during October 2018, and large incandescent blocks traveled hundreds of meters down multiple flanks. The IG-EPN COPETE webcam that captured these images is located on the S caldera rim. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, numbers 2018-282, 292, 295, 297).

Similar activity continued during November. IG reported 17 days of the month with steam, gas, and ash emissions rising more than 1,000 m above the summit. The other days were either cloudy or had emissions rising between 500 and 1,000 m. Incandescent blocks were usually observed on the S or SE flanks, generally travelling 400-600 m down the flanks. The Washington VAAC reported a discrete ash plume at 6.1 km altitude drifting WNW about 35 km from the summit on 15 November. The next day, intermittent puffs were noted moving W, and a bright hotspot at the summit was visible in satellite imagery. During the most intense activity of the month, incandescent blocks traveled 800 m down all the flanks (17-19 November) and ash plumes rose over 1,200 m (23 November) (figure 107).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Ash plumes rose over 1,000 m above the summit on 17 days during November 2018 at Reventador, and incandescent blocks traveled 400-800 m down the flanks on many nights. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, numbers 2018-306, 314, 318, 324).

Steam, gas, and ash plumes rose over 1,200 m above the summit on 1 December. The next day, there were reports of ashfall in San Rafael and Hosteria El Hotelito, where they reported an ash layer about 1 mm thick was deposited on vehicles during the night. Ash emissions exceeded 1,200 m above the summit on 5 and 6 December as well. Incandescent blocks traveled 800 m down all the flanks on 11, 22, 24, and 26 December, and reached 900 m on 21 December. Ash emissions rising 500 to over 1,000 m above the summit were a daily occurrence, and incandescent blocks descended 500 m or more down the flanks most days during the second half of the month (figure 108).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Ash plumes that rose 500 to over 1,000 m were a daily occurrence at Reventador during December 2018. Incandescent blocks traveled as far as 900 m down the flanks as well. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, numbers 2018-340, 351, 353, 354, 358, 359).

During the first few days of January 2019 the ash and steam plumes did not rise over 800 m, and incandescent blocks were noted 300-500 m down the S flank. An increase in activity on 6 January sent ash-and-gas plumes over 1,000 m, drifting W, and incandescent blocks 1,000 m down many flanks. For multiple days in the middle of the month the volcano was completely obscured by clouds; only occasional observations of plumes of ash and steam were made, incandescence seen at night through the clouds confirmed ongoing activity. The Washington VAAC reported continuous ash emissions moving SE extending more than 100 km on 12 January. A significant explosion late on 20 January sent incandescent blocks 800 m down the S flank; although it was mostly cloudy for much of the second half of January, brief glimpses of ash plumes rising over 1,000 m and incandescent blocks traveling up to 800 m down numerous flanks were made almost daily (figure 109).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Even during the numerous cloudy days of January 2019, evidence of ash emissions and significant explosions at Reventador was captured in the Copete webcam located on the S rim of the caldera. Courtesy of IG Daily Reports (Informe diario del estado del Volcan Reventador, number 2019-6, 21, 26, 27).

Visual evidence from the webcams supports significant thermal activity at Reventador. Atmospheric conditions are often cloudy and thus the thermal signature recorded by satellite instruments is frequently diminished. In spite of this, the MODVOLC thermal alert system recorded seven thermal alerts on three days in October, four alerts on two days in November, six alerts on two days in December and three alerts on three days in January 2019. In addition, the MIROVA system measured moderate levels of radiative power intermittently throughout the period; the most intense anomalies of 2018 were recorded on 15 October and 6 December (figure 110).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Persistent thermal activity at Reventador was recorded by satellite instruments for the MIROVA system from 5 April 2018 through January 2019 in spite of frequent cloud cover over the volcano. The most intense anomalies of 2018 were recorded on 15 October and 6 December. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 23, Number 09 (September 1998)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Ambrym (Vanuatu)

Long-active lava lake continues to hold bubbling lava

Azul, Cerro (Ecuador)

Flank and caldera eruptions continue

Colima (Mexico)

Explosion on 6 July follows seven months of seismic unrest

Etna (Italy)

Summary of summit eruptive activity during August 1997-January 1998

Fournaise, Piton de la (France)

Activity ends with fissure eruptions outside the caldera

Guagua Pichincha (Ecuador)

Phreatic discharges and shallow, near-vent seismicity continue

Hokkaido-Komagatake (Japan)

Phreatic eruption spreads ash 25 October

Iwatesan (Japan)

Nearby M 6.2 earthquake on 3 September, but volcano still slumbering

Klyuchevskoy (Russia)

Explosions, ash 2-3 September raise concern to yellow alert

Lengai, Ol Doinyo (Tanzania)

New cones, vigorous activity since February

Masaya (Nicaragua)

Integrated scientific studies of the caldera area

Popocatepetl (Mexico)

Several episodes of ash emission during September

Sete Cidades (Portugal)

Seismic swarm on submarine flank

Sheveluch (Russia)

Ash explosions and pyroclastic flow during 3 September

Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom)

Continuing decrease in activity; hazards reassessed

Yasur (Vanuatu)

Ongoing eruption, felt earthquake, and fresh glass chemical analysis



Ambrym (Vanuatu) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambrym

Vanuatu

16.25°S, 168.12°E; summit elev. 1334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Long-active lava lake continues to hold bubbling lava

This long-active caldera was visited by John Seach during 4-7 September 1998. At Niri Mbwelesu Taten, a small collapse pit, strong degassing was observed as well as yellow sulfurous deposits on the NW wall. During the night, degassing was heard from a distance of 4 km and white vapor tinged with blue was constantly emitted from the pit.

Niri Mbelesu crater was constantly full of vapor resulting in poor visibility. But bubbling lava was heard and at night the clouds reflected a red glow from the crater.

At Mbwelesu crater, an active elongated lava lake (~100 x 30 m) was observed. The larger explosions threw lava high into the air and onto the crater wall. To the east of the lava lake a smaller elongated vent contained lava. On the NW wall of the crater was a circular vent 20 m in diameter from which no lava was extruded.

Benbow crater was climbed from the S. The sound of bubbling lava was heard but not observed, and there was a very intense night glow.

Geologic Background. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Information Contacts: John Seach, P.O. Box 16, Chatsworth Island, N.S.W. 2469, Australia.


Cerro Azul (Ecuador) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Cerro Azul

Ecuador

0.92°S, 91.408°W; summit elev. 1640 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Flank and caldera eruptions continue

This eruption began between 1229 and 1304 on 15 September (BGVN 23:08). The event was first recognized by University of Hawaii scientists monitoring thermal images from the GOES-8 geostationary satellite. A dominant plume reaching over 150 km SW developed between 1345 and 1545 on 15 September, and a minor plume trended NW carried by the prevailing surface winds. Overflights revealed two new vents in the summit caldera, and a flank fissure eruption 8 km SE of the caldera (figure 1).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the S part of Isabela Island, taken from the Space Shuttle in 1983, showing the site of the September 1998 flank eruption. Puerto Villamil and the scientific station at Tomas de Berlanga (or Santo Tomas) are the only inhabited locations on the island. White zones over the island are clouds. Courtesy of the GOES Hotspot Monitoring System.

The first scientists reaching the volcano were from Ecuador's Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN) and ORSTOM. They described the flank eruption site as a SE-directed radial fissure, 400-500 m long, and between 680 and 630 m elevation. Lava fountaining (to ~200 m) built an elongate cinder cone 50 m high during the team's 19-25 September observations. The main cone was breeched on the E, issuing flows that traveled over 8 km E before turning S toward the sea. During the night of 24-25 September a break in the main cone fed a new flow to the SE. All were 3-5-m-thick aa flows, and the longest ended 2 km from the coast.

University of Idaho graduate student Rachel Ellisor arrived on the night of 22 September, and described additional details of the flank eruption, including a smaller cone (NW of the main cone) with low fountains feeding a flow moving more directly S toward the sea. This flow was sampled daily; its velocity ranged from 0.001 to 10-20 km/hour and its thickness was described as 2-3 m at the front but 10-12 m in the interior. Gas clouds billowed from the fissure's SE end, and fountains issued from the main vent.

Ellisor took a 1 October overflight and described the intracaldera flows. One issued from a small vent (20-30 m high) on the S bench and flowed NW onto the caldera floor, while a larger cone (~60 m high) on the W caldera floor fed flows eastward into the shallow lake. Intracaldera activity had ended by 1 October.

Returning to the flank eruption, Ellisor reported that three large cones (60-80 m high) had been built in a N-S orientation. The mid-September flows (to the E, then S) had stagnated on the coastal flats, and their thickness was estimated at 5-15 m (interior) to 1-3 m (fronts). Increased activity on 6 October fed new flows building a channel system directly S of the main fissure. Ellisor's most recent report was dated 13 October, but GOES-8 images showed a thermal anomaly continuing through 4 November, the eruption's 51st day.

During 19-25 September, scientists from IG-EPN and ORSTOM installed three digital and one analog seismic station between the coast and the active vent. The distance between end stations was 8.5 km. Seismic signals registered during the study were composed of permanent tremor with an amplitude of 20 µm/s (2.4 km from the vent) and with a dominant frequency of 1.6 Hz. No rock-fall or long-period events were registered. One station 4 km from the vent continued working after the group returned to Quito.

Geologic Background. Located at the SW tip of the J-shaped Isabela Island, Cerro Azul contains a steep-walled 4 x 5 km nested summit caldera complex that is one of the smallest diameter, but at 650 m one of the deepest in the Galápagos Islands. The shield volcano is the second highest of the archipelago. A conspicuous bench occupies the SW and west sides of the caldera, which formed during several episodes of collapse. Youthful lava flows cover much of the caldera floor, which has also contained ephemeral lakes. A prominent tuff cone located at the ENE side of the caldera is evidence of episodic hydrovolcanism. Numerous spatter cones dot the western flanks. Fresh-looking lava flows, many erupted from circumferential fissures, descend the NE and NW flanks. Historical eruptions date back only to 1932, but Cerro Azul has been one of the most active Galápagos volcanoes since that time. Solfataric activity continues within the caldera.

Information Contacts: P. Samaniego, F. Desmulier, J.P. Metaxian, M. Ruiz, and M. Vaca, Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, AP 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador; ORSTOM (L'Institut Français de Recherche Scientifique pour le Développement en Coopération), AP 17-11-6596, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.ird.fr/); Rachel Ellisor and Dennis Geist, Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83843 USA (URL: https://www.uidaho.edu/sci/geology/); Peter Mouginis-Mark and Luke Flynn, GOES Hotspot Monitoring System, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Colima (Mexico) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 6 July follows seven months of seismic unrest

After seven months of seismic unrest (small swarms, with durations lasting some few hours to as much as 90 hours), at 1858 on 6 July an explosion at the summit dome was similar in behavior and about half of the magnitude of an explosion in 1994.

A microbarograph 8 km SW of the summit at La Yerbabuena failed to register the explosion's shock wave, and the events were not noticed by residents of that settlement or La Becerrera (12 km SW of the summit), nor were these effects noticed by rangers at Rancho El Jabali (12 km SSW of the summit). Residents did report light rain and a bit of thunder and lightning at 1900, which may have helped conceal, or have been confused with, the sound of the explosion.

Seen through a microscope, plant leaves contained ash residue left after rainfall: mineral particles and hydrothermally altered rock fragments under 0.5 mm in diameter, often of light cream color, and similar to those collected at Yerbabuena after the 1994 explosion.

Melchor Ursua of the Civil Defense reported that at 1900 residents of Tonila (13.5 km SE of the summit) observed a small black mushroom cloud rise above the summit accompanied by the sound of thunder or explosion. At 2300 that day from La Yerbabuena, observers Navarro, Breton, and Santaana saw fumarolic gases blown around the W face of the volcano, but in the faint moonlight he failed to discern any glow or ash from the crater.

The last seismic crisis started around 2200 on 2 July 1998 and ended at 1858 on 6 July: a vigorous swarm of earthquakes, which according to Gabriel Reyes comprised ~1,000 events a day for the last 3 days. One event with coda magnitude (Mc) 3.5-4.0 gained registry at all network stations including those near the coast at Tecoman and Armeria; it was interpreted as related to the above-discussed explosion. The seismic quiet afterwards consisted of zero events in a pattern reminiscent of 1994 when quiet prevailed for about 12 hours.

Noteworthy swarms during 1997 occurred on 20 March, 16, 21, and 30 June, 28 November, and 5 December. Compared to the 1997 swarms, this one (2-6 July 1998) was the largest and most energetic.

During the latest swarm the volcano was only visible from 0800 to 1000. After 160 mm of rain had fallen at La Yerbabuena, a lahar swept downslope between 1400 and 1800 on 2 July, blocking passage across the Becerrera River valley 12.5 km SW of the summit.

During 1900-2000 on 7 July, the seismic station closest to the W flank (SOMA, 1.7 km NW from the summit) registered strong, continuous mass wasting and later, during 2200-2300, a relatively strong volcanic event. Seismic quiet returned later, but vigorous fumarolic emissions were blown W. An update on 28 October noted that for a few weeks after the explosion the volcano displayed unrest, including about 23 seismic swarms, each enduring for 2 to 6-8 hours. All the seismic information was provided by the Colima seismic network (RESCO). The last swarm occurred on 25 October and prevailed for 13 hours.

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: Carlos Navarro Ochoa, Colima Volcano Observatory, Universidad de Colima, Ave. 25 de Julio 965, Colima 28045, Colima, México.


Etna (Italy) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3295 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summary of summit eruptive activity during August 1997-January 1998

The following report summarizes activity observed at each of the four summit craters of Etna from August 1997 through 15 January 1998. Events through 8 January 1998 at Bocca Nuova, Southeast Crater, Northeast Crater, and Voragine are described below separately. A seismic crisis during 9-12 January was followed by a brief decrease in activity at all of the craters. Significant eruptive episodes after mid-January 1998 will be described in future issues.

Information for this report was compiled by Boris Behncke at the University of Catania and published on his internet web site. The compilation was based on personal visits to the summit, telescopic observations from Catania, monitoring of images posted on the internet from the camera maintained by the Istituto Internazionale di Vulcanologia (IIV), and other sources.

Visits to the summit craters in late September and early October 1997 revealed continuing vigorous activity from Bocca Nuova and Southeast Crater while more sporadic activity was occurring at the Voragine and Northeast Crater. This pattern continued through November and December. The overall activity on 8 January 1998 at Bocca Nuova, Northeast Crater, and Voragine was notably diminished; it was the lowest observed in six months.

Activity at Bocca Nuova. During late August, lava ejections from Bocca Nuova (BN) became significantly more vigorous. Both eruptive centers in this crater often ejected lava bombs outside the crater, with many falling on its S rim. Occasional explosions ejected bombs on the lower S flank of the central cone. The number of active vents in Bocca Nuova increased to seven on 28 August, but was down to five just two days later. The bombardment and explosions led to collapse on the E side of Bocca Nuova, lowering the septum between BN and Voragine (informally named "diaframma" among local volcanologists), and eroding the remains of a 1964 cone.

Visits to the summit in late September and early October revealed continuing activity. As of 14 October, Bocca Nuova's activity was gradually increasing, and the crater was being filled in. The northern of its two eruptive centers had a broad cone with a crater 50-100 m wide, which at times was completely filled with fountaining lava. Fountains often sent spatter and bombs high above the rim, and large ejecta fell outside the crater up to 100 m away. Bombs as large as 40 cm in diameter fell onto the area where the best views of the erupting cone in BN are obtained. Explosions in the SE eruptive center at times sent pyroclastic material all over the S flank of Etna's summit cone.

On 6 November the northern eruptive center was vigorously active. The cone at that site had grown to ~50 m below the NW crater rim. The SE eruptive center was much less violent than in previous months; on the crater wall above it a large overhanging hollow had been carved out by explosions. On the evening of 6 November, Strombolian explosions occurred at intervals of 1-5 seconds, with some jets rising up to 200 m above the cone's summit. An episode of spectacular lava fountaining from BN occurred on 25 November when huge bursts of incandescent bombs developed into a continuous fountain from the SE eruptive center. On 28 November the clouds over the mountain cleared, permitting the view of a huge vapor column rising almost vertically to about 1,500 m above the summit. This unusually large plume was due to an approaching cold front that led to increased condensation.

Explosive activity and gas emissions within BN accompanied a lava flow from Southeast Crater during 9-11 December. Intermittent activity on 12 December, stronger than during the previous 17 days, ejected high bursts of incandescent bombs from BN's southeastern vents. Activity through 15 December was very vigorous, and eruptions continued through 21 December. Glow was visible above BN's two eruptive centers on 26 December and over the E part of the crater on 31 December.

On the evening of 7 January, several jets of incandescent bombs rose over the SE crater lip, and a few bombs fell onto the remains of the 1964 cone. As of 8 January the large cone in the N part of the crater floor had partially collapsed, creating a crater ~150 m in diameter. Frequent rockfalls occurred within this crater. Subsidence of the cone and the adjacent crater floor had created a set of circumferential fractures several meters wide. The most recent activity at this eruptive center appears to have been the extrusion of a lava flow that covered the E and SE sides of the BN floor. The vents at the SE eruptive center were the site of weak Strombolian explosions every 10-15 minutes. Most, if not all, activity occurred from the lowermost vent in the SW part of the eruptive center. A complex cone around these vents had grown notably since the visit on 6 November 1997, with the rim of the highest vent being at about the same elevation as the N rim of Bocca Nuova. Large parts of the crater wall above the SE eruptive center had collapsed, probably before the most recent cone growth (all collapse debris was buried).

Activity at Southeast Crater. Strombolian and effusive activity continued from Southeast Crater (SEC), whose intracrater cone could be seen on 1 September through a gap in the NE crater rim from coastal areas to the E. During a visit on 30 August, lava fountains rose up to 150 m above the cone, and three vents were active. There had been significant infilling of the deep southern part of SEC since effusive activity shifted to the cone's NW flank sometime before 11 August. Before then, lava had repeatedly spilled onto the SE flank of the cone.

Visits to the summit craters in late September and early October revealed continuing vigorous activity. While effusive vents were active on the W base of the cone from 10 August to mid-September, lava again issued from E-flank vents in late September, causing renewed overflows onto the outer SW flank of the cone. By mid-October the cone within SEC had grown to about the height of the highest point on the crater rim. Explosive activity was the same as during previous months, and lava effusion continued from the flanks of the cone.

At dusk on 2 November there were continuous Strombolian bursts from SEC. A visit on 6 November revealed very weak and erratic Strombolian activity. For the first time in many months there was no lava effusion at SEC, although guides at Torre del Filosofo reported that a small lava flow had spilled over the low SE rim of the crater three days earlier. After sunset on 6 November, Strombolian bursts from SEC could be seen from Catania (Palazzo delle Scienze).

Telescope observations from the roof of the Palazzo delle Scienze in Catania on 3-4 December revealed vigorous Strombolian activity at SEC and significant growth of its central conelet, which stood much higher than the surrounding crater rims. Activity on the evening of 5 December was documented with the IIV camera until bad weather hid the summit. At dusk, activity at SEC increased, and strong explosions heralded lava emission to the NE side of the intracrater cone. A more significant lava flow was erupted from SEC on the late afternoon of 9 December, accompanied by vigorous explosive activity at the intracrater cone and within Bocca Nuova. The SEC lava flow overrode previous flows on the SE flank of the cone.

The 9 December lava flow was visible on 11 December, contrasting against freshly fallen snow. Seen from Palazzo delle Scienze, this flow extended much farther downslope than previous flows on the SE flank of the cone, but its front was still several hundred meters from the steep W flank of Valle del Bove. The flow had apparently stopped (no steam was visible at the contact of the lava with the snow). Two smaller lava lobes were erupted onto the SE flank of SEC's cone, about two-thirds of the way down the cone's flank. The active central cone appeared to have lost some height during the strong explosions; Strombolian activity was still vigorous and at times accompanied by weak ash emissions. Vigorous activity at SEC, with some large explosions, continued during 12-15 December, with lava flows spilling over the SE rim and some SE-flank lava extending far beyond the base of the cone. The new flow passed only about 600 meters NE from the Torre del Filosofo mountain hut, ~1 km from SEC. As of 17 December the lava flows erupted from SEC during the previous few days were still confined to the SE flank of the cone. None of the new flows had extended as far as those on 9 and 12-13 December. Over 20-21 December, nearly continuous explosive activity at the SEC intracrater cone sent lava onto its SE and SSE flanks. The cone regained the height lost after 5 December. A 22 December afternoon episode of vigorous lava fountaining as high as 200 m from SEC lasted about 1 hour. A lava flow erupted onto the SE flank of SEC appeared to be no longer than ~200 m.

Activity at SEC in late December and early January was spectacular. On 25 December, continuous Strombolian activity occurred from the central conelet and lava flowed down the SE flank to its base, covering previous flows. Three active lava flows were visible on the SE flank on the 26th. Sometime between early 29 and early 30 December, more lava flows spilled down the S flank of SEC, and a peculiar flow moved down on the SW flank, bifurcating on the lower slope. On the evening of the 30th, active flows were visible on the S flank while the SW flow only showed incandescence in its upper part. On the evening of 31 December, incandescent lava was visible on the lip of SEC in many places while active flows were descending on the S flank. On 7 January the SW flow was incandescent along its full length, with the W lobe extending to the base of the SEC cone.

On 8 January Southeast Crater gave off continuous Strombolian explosions from two vents at the summit of the intracrater cone and lava emission from its SE base. The summit of the cone was distinctly (~5-7 m) higher than the highest point ("Fortino") on the NE rim of SEC. Lateral growth of the cone was most significant in the N and NE parts of SEC where all lava flows and effusive vents active between July and September 1997 had been buried. The lava field surrounding the central cone had risen significantly, causing overflows on the E, SE, S, and SW sides. Only a segment of the NE crater rim stood a few meters above the lava fill; the W and NW part of the rim stood 20 m above the lava field and the cone's base. Three craters were present on the central cone, two of which were erupting. Activity would occur from one vent at any given time while the other was silent. The N vent ejected bombs and scoriae onto the N and NW crater rim and beyond. The S vent produced loud bangs and showered the E and SE flanks of the cone with pyroclastics. The effusive vent on the SE side of the cone had crusted over, and lava issued only on the SW rim of SEC where it overflowed, forming a narrow (1.5 m) flow with distinct lateral levees extending to the base of the SEC cone. The flow bypassed a cone formed in 1971 on its E side; when reaching the almost horizontal plain below the steep SW flank of SEC, it broadened and thickened notably and advanced slowly in the direction of the 1971 "Observatory cone." Within 3.5 hours on 8 January, the flow front advanced ~15 m through thick snow, forming an offshoot on the W side of the ~20-m-wide lava front. None of the other flows on the S flank of SEC showed any signs of movement or incandescence. The distance from the Torre del Filosofo mountain hut to the nearest flow front was ~1 km; the active flow did not threaten this structure.

Activity at Northeast Crater. During the second half of July Northeast Crater (NEC) occasionally ejected incandescent bombs from a deep pit in the central part of the crater; fine ash fell outside the pit. Visits to the summit craters in late September and early October revealed sporadic activity. NEC frequently emitted ash plumes during the first week of October, and on the evening of 10 October, incandescent ejections rose as high as 50 m above the crater rim. Strong gas emission was occurring from NEC on 11 December. NEC was essentially quiet on 8 January, with only light steam emissions from its central pit and some of the June-August 1996 vents in the SW part of the crater. Steam emission was more abundant, and at times pulsating, from a collapse pit in the S part of the crater. This pit was also the site of frequent avalanching and rockfalls that generated plumes of brown ash. No fresh magmatic products were found in the vicinity of the central and southern pits.

Activity at Voragine. A small cone began to form on the floor of Voragine in late July, and Strombolian activity was observed on 5 August. On 30 August, the cone was mildly steaming, and the surrounding deposit of black scoriae was partly covered by blocks that had collapsed from the septum between Voragine and Bocca Nuova. The first effusive activity from the Voragine in many years occurred in late September, forming a small lava field on the crater floor. Strombolian activity was weak on 28 September but very vigorous on 9 October; one day later it was again weak. The Voragine was explosively active from the central conelet on 6 November, and another weakly explosive vent had formed at the SW base of the diaframma between the Voragine from Bocca Nuova.

The cone in the central part of the Voragine was quiet on 8 January, with only slight emission of bluish gas. Its horseshoe-shaped crater was open to the SE; a small lava flow had issued from the open side of the cone. The vent on the SW side of the crater floor, which was first observed on 6 November 1997, had enlarged and was surrounded by a low half-cone leaning against the base of the diaframma. This vent produced weak explosions that mainly expulsed hot gas and a few pyroclasts. When viewed from the E rim of the Voragine, the conduit of this vent was seen to be inclined SW, diving below the diaframma.

Seismic crisis of 9-12 January 1998. The most intense seismic crisis during the current eruptive cycle occurred during 9-12 January and caused widespread media attention. From the afternoon of 9 January through 11 January about 200 earthquakes occurred in an area on the W and SW flanks of the volcano. The strongest shock (M 3.7) damaged a church in Biancavilla. No other damage or injuries were reported. Most epicenters were between Monte Nunziata and Monte Palestra, two ancient cones on the W flank. Seismicity diminished late on 10 January.

Strong ash emissions from BN on the morning of 11 January indicated further collapse in that crater, caused by earlier subsidence of the magmatic column. It is assumed that the magma intruded into a new fracture within the W side of the volcanic edifice. On 12 January ash emission from BN was almost continuous, but strong ash emissions also occurred from NEC. Activity at SEC continued with Strombolian bursts and emission of lava flows onto the SW, S, and SE flanks of the cone. The peculiar SW flow seemed to be waning; during the previous few days it had formed several minor lobes adjacent to the main one; the flow front seemed to have reached the base of the 1971 "Observatory cone."

Another seismic swarm occurred below the W flank on the afternoon of 12 January, with twelve earthquakes in 20 minutes, the strongest being M 3.1. Epicenters were closer to the summit craters than those of the preceding swarm, clustering 2-3 km E of Monte Palestra. Focal depths were ~4 km below sea level; no damage was reported. No significant change was noted in the eruptive activity at Southeast Crater, which had three active flows moving down its SW, S, and SE flanks.

Summit activity during 13-15 January 1998. Strombolian activity on the evening of 13 January at the intracrater cone in SEC was vigorous, while active lava was only visible near the crater rim in three places. A very faint glow reappeared at the SE eruptive center in BN. Strong ash emissions occurred from BN throughout the day. Seismic and eruptive activity were low on 14 January. The only visibly active crater was SEC, which was vigorous on the 13th but showed a marked diminution of activity towards midnight. At nightfall on 14 January SEC had very few and weak explosions, and there was no active lava flow on its outer flanks. No glow was visible above BN. This was the lowest level of activity observed in about a year. Seismic activity resumed late on 14 January with a series of about ten weak earthquakes below the W flank (Monte Palestra area) and several shocks beneath the SW slope, some 5 km above Biancavilla. Hypocenters were ~6 km below the surface on the W flank but much shallower on the SW flank. Activity at SEC dropped to very low levels: very few and weak explosions from the intracrater cone were observed on 14 January and no active lava was visible on the outer flanks of the crater.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: Boris Behncke, Istituto di Geologia e Geofisico, Palazzo delle Scienze, Università di Catania, Corso Italia 55, 95129 Catania, Italy.


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity ends with fissure eruptions outside the caldera

The eruption that began in March (BGVN 23:03) diminished during August and September. Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) considers the eruption ended. The most significant activity during the last two months took place outside the caldera.

A small fissure eruption began on 9 August north of the caldera. Lava issued from this fissure, which was located ~500 m from the caldera wall near Nez Coupé Sainte Rose (figure 49). The initial eruption lasted only 24 hours, but a second fissure eruption began 14 August in the same area closer to the caldera wall. No fountains were observed with the second fissure, although the lava was very fluid. Flows eventually measured 200-300 m wide and ~2 km long. They moved parallel to the caldera wall until 14 September when they stopped ~500 m above Trou Caron. Some of the lava reached the edge of the caldera and spilled over onto the Plaine des Osmondes through three separate rivulets. A flow that was moving towards the upper part of Bois Blanc (a village located on the east coast) stopped by 25 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Map of the NE quadrant of Piton de la Fournaise showing important craters and other features. The dark tone represents the caldera wall, the light-gray areas indicate the extent of lava flows dating from 1972. The medium-gray shows flows since March 1998. Courtesy of OVPF.

During September, some night incandescence due to the lava lake at Piton Kapor was seen. Only weak tremor was observed. Beginning 5 September some gas-piston events were recorded; these had likely taken place before, but had remained undetected during stronger episodes of tremor.

This eruption, including all tremor and degassing at Piton Kapor, ended 21 September, after 196 days of activity. It thus comprised the volcano's longest and one of it's most voluminous eruptions of this century.

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Thomas Staudacher, Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), 14 RN3, le 27Km, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, La Réunion, France.


Guagua Pichincha (Ecuador) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Guagua Pichincha

Ecuador

0.171°S, 78.598°W; summit elev. 4784 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phreatic discharges and shallow, near-vent seismicity continue

The volcanic crisis near Quito (figure 10) continued with a series of phreatic discharges and an E-dipping zone of earthquakes that rose to within a few kilometers of the surface (figure 2). With potentially dramatic significance to Ecuador's Capital (1995 urban population, 1,270,000 residents; suburban, 258,000 residents), the eruption has spurred a strong educational response in both the regional press and on an official web site. These discourses have repeated noteworthy points: the volcano's last vigorous eruption was in 1660; its recurrence intervals have oscillated between about 400 and 600 years; its last major eruption took place 338 years ago; and its phreatic eruptions have repeated during the past 15 years. Phreatic eruptions began on on 7 August (BGVN 23:08); since then the Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG-EPN) has made available daily reports on activity during 30 September to 27 October, which we summarize here.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Simplified schematic showing Guagua Pichincha, Quito's urban areas (elongate zone with selected roads), and hazard designations associated with the volcano. Revised from a color hazard map on the IG-EPN website and keyed as follows: 1) Maximum danger (including major risks of hot volcanic flows, lahars, and ashfall - requiring total evacuation); 2) Minor danger (minor risk of ash clouds, hot volcanic flows, and lahars - areas immediately abandoned should an eruption be either imminent or large); 3) Lahar risk along drainage areas; and 4-6) graded risk of ashfalls. The bold arrows help identify the location of source vents and portray ejecta trajectories representative of those that might occur during an eruption. For more detail, see Hall and von Hillebrandt (1988). Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional.

Activity and observations. The epicenters of located earthquakes during April-October 1988 generally clustered around the caldera (figure 11). This was particularly the case for volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes, which in cross-section view tended to lie underneath the caldera. The located long-period (LP) events generally propagated from greater depths and in cross-section view defined a broad E-dipping zone. Thus far in the crisis there has been an alternating pattern of seismicity and seismically detected explosions (figure 12). During late September through late October there were often 1-2 daily explosions.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. (top) Located seismic events at Guagua Pichincha during April-October 1998 were mainly centered around the caldera. The abbreviations VT and LP refer to volcano-tectonic and long-period events. The LP events showed a tendency to lie farther outboard, on the volcano's E slopes. (bottom) A cross section showing hypocenters for the same seismic events, which reveals the E-dipping attitude of located events. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. Histograms for Guagua Pichincha showing both the daily number of earthquakes, including (a) volcano tectonic (VT), (b) long-period (LP), (c) multiphase (MP), and (d) the daily number of seismically detected explosions. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional.

On 3 October observers confirmed the presence of new fumaroles on the dome's W edge; nearby, in the headwaters of the Rio Cristal, they noted a new fumarole field. A phreatic explosion was heard at 0400 on 5 October by residents of Lloa. The explosion was the thirty-first such event in the sequence initiated on 7 August. It ranked among the most energetic seen to this point of the crisis, comparable to those on 8 and 24 August, and 29 September. The 5 October explosion followed 50 minutes of tremor registered at station YANA (7 km NE of the crater; "C" on figure 13). Small seismic events continued until 0800 that day. This explosion left a fresh ash layer in the caldera that revealed a new vent near the older one but above it to the S.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Contour map (200-m interval) indicating noteworthy sites surrounding Guagua Pichincha, including the valley embracing Quito and some of the key W-slope rivers that drain the breached caldera and environs. The map indicates settlements of Nono and Lloa (darkened rectangles) and seismic stations installed and maintained by various groups (open rectangles). These stations are designated by the following call letters: A, FARH; B, NONO; C, YANA; D, PINO; E, QWR; F, TERV; G, GGP; H, (uncertain); J, TOAZ; K, PIEZ; L, JORG; and M, MGUL. Courtesy of the Instituto Geofisico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional.

The seismic swarm NE of the caldera (BGVN 23:08) continued; between June and early October there were 3,200 events; ~10 had a magnitude (MR) over 3.9. On 4 October instruments detected ~30 earthquakes, the strongest MR 3.5. A MR 3.6 earthquake struck this zone on 10 October and was felt locally in the settlements of Pomasqui and San Antonio.

Measured deformation was not detected for the interval 15 September-7 October. Although not plotted, tremor has occurred. For example, at 2214 on 7 October station PINO detected tremor for 19 minutes while station YANA registered it for 7 minutes. On 11 and 12 October tremor followed phreatic explosions and in the former case, prevailed for 20 minutes at stations near the crater.

Mass wasting on the SE flank ~11 km from the caldera (in Quito's San Roque sector) on 9 October covered an old school, part of a church, threatened several smaller structures, and blocked vehicular traffic. Roughly 20 people were evacuated.

On 12 October condensing gases escaping the dome at a fumarole called "La Locomotora" rose 200 m. Around this time the 1981 explosion crater also emitted a moderate flow of gray gases but new fractures or fumaroles were absent.

At 1621 on 14 October a phreatic explosion at the 1981 vent sent fine material over the NE part of the caldera and left a visible coating ~300 m up the caldera walls. The associated grayish-white plume formed a ~3-km-tall column. Clear weather enabled residents of Quito to see the plume. Geophysical instruments detected the event at widely scattered locations. COSPEC registered the first clear SO2 signal, a 300 ppm concentration in the plume. Guards at a local observation post smelled strong sulfur, particularly when gases from La Locomotra fumarole blew past.

An explosion at 0947 on 16 October sent a plume to ~2 km. Again, Quito residents saw the plume, but an explosion the next morning was shrouded from view by weather clouds. The latter explosion was considered moderate; it was associated with ~5 minutes of tremor centered around 1.2-Hz frequency and scientists working nearby (at station PINO) saw a gray-white cloud develop. A 17 October explosion was shrouded in clouds. The phreatic explosions on 14, 15, 16, and 17 October yielded respective reduced seismic displacements of 11, 4.2, 9.8, and 3.2 cm2.

A view into the caldera on the morning of 18 October disclosed relatively passive outgassing from the 1981 and 1988 explosion craters. La Locomotra and other fumaroles on the central dome had clearly increased their output, feeding a plume ~700 m high. Another moderate explosion on 25 October was followed by 3 hours of tremor.

A flight on the morning of 27 October revealed only modest degassing, a 300-m-high plume, and an SO2 concentration below the COSPEC's detection limit. Minard Hall also recognized that the 1981 crater and one formed in September 1998 had coalesced. The wall isolating them had apparently been weakened by repeated phreatic eruptions.

Risk mapping. The highest risk settlements include Lloa (figures 1 and 4) and Mindo. The latter lies on the river of the same name about 22 km NW of the caldera; it lies off of maps in this report but is depicted on the larger hazard map of Hall and von Hillebrandt (1988). One branch of the Mindo river's headwaters begin just N of the breach in the caldera (figure 4). Rivers draining the breached W-flank and nearby NW-flank (e.g. Rio Cristal and Rio Mindo) were assigned a higher category of risk for lahars than any lahar-risk zones on the E flanks (figure 1).

New fieldwork has been aimed at inspecting older lahar deposits in vicinity of the settlements of Mindo and Nono. Nono, on the NNE flank (figures 2 and 4), lies at mouth of a narrow N-S valley that cuts across much of the volcano's E to NNE flanks.

Partnerships. The following describes some of the civic and media efforts to communicate volcanic hazards. On 30 September Ecuador's president requested that a safety committee be formed (Comité Especial de Seguimento, CES). The committee was charged with integrating Civil Defense, the IG-EPN, and the City of Quito. In overcast conditions on 24 August a film crew from TeleAmazonas shot footage of an explosion plume not otherwise visible in Quito. These glimpses, and later examples of widely visible plumes, surely helped residents grasp the immediacy and some of the power of the eruption.

Authorities raised the hazard status to Yellow on 1 October. On 3 October a new video system started to monitor the inner crater. This advance was supported by "Ecuavista" in coordination with "911 of the City of Quito," the phone number for the City's communications base.

A 2 October announcement told of a downtown Quito information center implemented to release daily circulars at bearing official volcanological information. Thanks to a partnership between the information center and IBM of Ecuador, the former gained access to the internet, email, and a modern computing environment The radio station "Zaracay," which can be received widely, including the urban and Mindo areas, was also designated as a conduit for public announcements.

By 7 October the seismic network consisted of 12 stations with real-time data transmission. Collaborating scientific teams and monitoring equipment have come from both the U.S. Geological Survey as well as ORSTOM (the French Scientific Research Institute for Development through cooperation). Contingency plans have surfaced, dealing with the issue of transportation during the higher stages of alert (Orange and Red). Public announcements have broached the need to maintain the integrity of the municipal infrastrucure in the event of an eruption, including crews to clean ash (from roads, power lines, etc.).

Reference. Hall, Minard, and von Hillebrandt M., Christa G., 1988, Mapa de los peligros volcanicos poteciales asociados con el volcan Guagua Pichincha; Republica del Ecuador (1:50,000).

Geologic Background. Guagua Pichincha and the older Pleistocene Rucu Pichincha stratovolcanoes form a broad volcanic massif that rises immediately to the W of Ecuador's capital city, Quito. A lava dome is located at the head of a 6-km-wide breached caldera that formed during a late-Pleistocene slope failure ~50,000 years ago. Subsequent late-Pleistocene and Holocene eruptions from the central vent in the breached caldera consisted of explosive activity with pyroclastic flows accompanied by periodic growth and destruction of the central lava dome. One of Ecuador's most active volcanoes, it is the site of many minor eruptions since the beginning of the Spanish era. The largest historical eruption took place in 1660, when ash fell over a 1000 km radius, accumulating to 30 cm depth in Quito. Pyroclastic flows and surges also occurred, primarily to then W, and affected agricultural activity, causing great economic losses.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Apartado 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador; El Comercio newspaper, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.elcomercio.com); El Universo newspaper, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.eluniverso.com); La Hora newspaper, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.lahora.com); Volcanic Disaster Assistance Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 5400 MacArthur Blvd., Vancouver, Washington 98661 USA (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/cvo/); ORSTOM, A.P. 17-11-6596, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.ird.fr/).


Hokkaido-Komagatake (Japan) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Hokkaido-Komagatake

Japan

42.063°N, 140.677°E; summit elev. 1131 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phreatic eruption spreads ash 25 October

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued an advisory and three observation reports concerning Hokkaido-Komaga-take volcano on 25 October following a small-scale phreatic eruption that began at 0912 the same day. Ash rose in a column to a height of ~1,200 m above the crater. The eruptive activity soon declined. There were no report of injuries or damage caused by the eruption, and no evacuation order was issued.

Volcanologists surveyed the activity from a helicopter the afternoon of 25 October (figure 2). They reported that the eruption originated from the same crater that opened during the 1929 eruption, which was also the site of the March 1996 eruption. Ash covered a significant area around and to the E of the crater. The scale of this eruption apparently was smaller than that of the March 1996 eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. An aerial view of Komaga-take showing fuming activity from the 1929 Crater about 6 hours after the 25 October 1998 eruption. View is from the SE looking towards the Komanose Rim (back) and the Sawaradake Rim (back right). The 1942 Large Fissure (middle, diagonal) and the 1996 Southern Fissure Crater (middle center) can also be seen. Hyoutan Crater (front center) is adjacent to the 1929 Crater. Photograph by Bousai Heli; courtesy of Hiromu Okada, Usu Volcano Observatory.

Volcanic tremor lasting six minutes was associated with this eruption. In addition, five volcanic earthquakes were recorded in the 12 hours following the first eruption signs.

Komaga-take is located 30 km N of Hakodate City (population 320,000). The andesitic stratovolcano has a 2-km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the E. The volcano has generated large pyroclastic eruptions, including major historical eruptions in 1640, 1856, and 1929. In the 1640 eruption, debris from a partial summit collapse entered the sea resulting in a tsunami that killed 700 people. Although the 1929 eruption was one of the largest 20th-century eruptions in Japan, it may not have had clear geophysical precursors.

Geologic Background. Much of the truncated Hokkaido-Komagatake andesitic volcano on the Oshima Peninsula of southern Hokkaido is Pleistocene in age. The sharp-topped summit lies at the western side of a large breached crater that formed as a result of edifice collapse in 1640 CE. Hummocky debris avalanche material occurs at the base of the volcano on three sides. Two late-Pleistocene and two Holocene Plinian eruptions occurred prior to the first historical eruption in 1640, which began a period of more frequent explosive activity. The 1640 eruption, one of the largest in Japan during historical time, deposited ash as far away as central Honshu and produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. The resulting tsunami caused 700 fatalities. Three Plinian eruptions have occurred since 1640; in 1694, 1856, and 1929.

Information Contacts: J. Miyamura, Sapporo District, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan; Hiromu Okada, Usu Volcano Observatory, Institute of Seismology and Volcanology, Hokkaido University, Sohbetsu-cho, Hokkaido 052-0103, Japan.


Iwatesan (Japan) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Iwatesan

Japan

39.853°N, 141.001°E; summit elev. 2038 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Nearby M 6.2 earthquake on 3 September, but volcano still slumbering

A strong earthquake occurred 10 km SW of the summit of Iwate volcano at 1658 on 3 September. The Richter magnitude was 6.1 and the depth ~7 km. The mechanism was E-W compression on a reverse fault. A N-S-trending surface rupture appeared, despite the event's non-extreme magnitude. The aftershock area resulting from the earthquake differed from typical earthquakes on Iwate and the relationship between the earthquake and the volcano, if any, is not understood. This was the largest earthquake since August 1996 when a M 5.9 tremor struck.

A 3 September Reuters news article mentioned that a powerful earthquake took place, centered in the ski resort area of Shizukuishi, a mountainous region near Iwate volcano. The report claimed the epicenter was 5 km underground and police said that the event slightly injured at least nine people.

Geologic Background. Viewed from the east, Iwatesan volcano has a symmetrical profile that invites comparison with Fuji, but on the west an older cone is visible containing an oval-shaped, 1.8 x 3 km caldera. After the growth of Nishi-Iwate volcano beginning about 700,000 years ago, activity migrated eastward to form Higashi-Iwate volcano. Iwate has collapsed seven times during the past 230,000 years, most recently between 739 and 1615 CE. The dominantly basaltic summit cone of Higashi-Iwate volcano, Yakushidake, is truncated by a 500-m-wide crater. It rises well above and buries the eastern rim of the caldera, which is breached by a narrow gorge on the NW. A central cone containing a 500-m-wide crater partially filled by a lake is located in the center of the oval-shaped caldera. A young lava flow from Yakushidake descended into the caldera, and a fresh-looking lava flow from the 1732 eruption traveled down the NE flank.

Information Contacts: Yukio Hayakawa, Faculty of Education, Gunma University, Aramaki, Maebashi 371, Japan; Reuters Limited, 1700 Broadway, New York, NY 10019 USA (URL: http://www.reuters.com/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions, ash 2-3 September raise concern to yellow alert

During 2-28 September, seismicity under the volcano was generally above background levels. Hypocenters were concentrated at two levels: near the summit crater and at depths of 25-30 km. Clouds often prevented observations.

On 2 September a fumarolic plume was observed during the daylight hours rising 50 m above the summit. Beginning at 2218 that day, a 33-minute series of explosive earthquakes was recorded, and at 2245 an ash explosion produced a plume that rose 4-5 km above the crater. On 3 September, scientists noticed that ash had been deposited in a 2-km-long zone on the NE slope. A plume of gas, with no ash content, rose 500 m above the volcano during 3-4 September, but had stopped by 5 September. Because of the increase in activity, the alert status was changed to Yellow, meaning more significant eruptions may occur.

No fumarolic plumes were seen during 8, 18, and 27 September, but plumes rising up to 100 m above the summit were seen during 13, 16, 17, 21, and 24 September. The alert color code returned to Green on 21 September, indicating normal activity.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.


Ol Doinyo Lengai (Tanzania) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Tanzania

2.764°S, 35.914°E; summit elev. 2962 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New cones, vigorous activity since February

From February through August 1998, several visitors to the crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai produced photographs and descriptions of eruptive activity. The following are taken from a summary of those visits provided by Celia Nyamweru, including detailed observations of certain hornitos made by Fred Belton and Chris Weber during their visits in June and August.

Orientation. Figure 51 locates the prominent features in the crater based on a photograph taken on 23 February 1998. A similar sketch map based on a photograph taken in February 1997 from nearly the same perspective appeared in a previous report (BGVN 23:06). Among the conspicuous new features appearing in 1998 are three large hornitos labeled T45, T46, and T47. T45 was described in February 1998 as being "possibly a new cone," but it may have been active as early as December 1997; by August it had grown to a height of ~7 m and was the dominant landmark in the E of the crater. T46 is a broad, darkly colored feature near the T20/T44 cluster. T46 was erroneously identified as T47 in the last Bulletin report. T47 is a tall, very narrow cone with a pointed top. It is located in the south-central area of the crater near the site of T23, which has nearly vanished. The cone cluster known as "A" has completely disappeared beneath recent lava.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. View of the crater of Ol Doinyo Lengai looking N from the S crater wall as it appeared 23 February 1998. The oblique view has a variable scale: it is ~ 300 m from T47 to C, and ~ 100 m from T47 to both T37S and T26/T27. Courtesy of C. Nyamweru from a photo by J.S. Antonio.

General appearance. During a visit to the summit on 12 March, observers noted no major changes to the crater since 23 February. Pale-brown, brown, and gray lava of differing ages covered the floor (figure 52). Pahoehoe flow patterns were clear in some areas, particularly N and NE of T45. An open vent in the T23 area contained a bubbling lava pool and steam issued from various vents. T47 was described as a very tall cone with a vertical crack and sharp peak, making it easily distinguishable from other nearby cones.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Composite panoramic view to the SW from the E crater rim taken on 12 March. T45 is prominent in the foreground. The scale is oblique: it is ~ 150 m from T45 to T47 and ~ 100 m from T45 to T40. Courtesy of C. Nyamweru; photos by B.A. Gadiye.

An aerial photograph taken during May showed no important changes (figure 53). No steam or fresh lava was seen. The crater floor was covered with white or pale gray lava. A summit visit on 12 June revealed few changes (figure 54). No fresh lavas were seen, but recent flows of gray and brown lava were noticed, particularly in the area of T45 and from T37S in the direction of T24.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. Aerial view of the Ol Doinyo Lengai crater looking to the SE in May 1998. Courtesy of C. Nyamweru; photo by B. Wangermez.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Composite panoramic view of Ol Doinyo Lengai looking SW from the E crater rim (compare with figure 52) taken on 12 June. Courtesy of C. Nyamweru; photos by B.A. Gadiye.

There were no signs of fresh surface activity when observers arrived on 17 June. The entire crater floor was grayish white and mostly soft, and no new spatter was visible on any hornito. The lowest point on the crater rim, to the NW, was 30 cm above the crater floor. T47 was the tallest cone in the crater (~11 m) and was lightly steaming. A 150-m-long steaming fracture, rich in sulfur deposits, was oriented SW-NE; the fracture passed over the site of T41 and T42, both of which had disappeared.

During visits through the first week of August, the steaming fissure was no longer visible, but a new fissure of the same type had developed. This was oriented NW-SE with its SE end located near the base of T20. T37S had two small cones recently added to the S part of its summit and a small lava flow down its W flank. A few clots of lava were ejected from T44C around 1300 on 2 August; although no taller, it showed recently added lava cascades on its N flank. At 0615 on 7 August T44 splashed black liquid lava out of its 6-m-high peak.

T37N1. On 17 June, T37N1 was open to the SE and contained a lava platform consisting of a 2-m-diameter circular pit beneath a 5-m overhanging wall. The pit opened into a cave that was ~4 m deep. A small spatter cone, 4 m W and 2.5 m above the pit, was located on the shoulder of the overhanging wall. At 0630 on 18 June a vigorously sloshing pond of very gas-rich lava rose slowly inside the circular pit. Lava was also visible through the vent of the spatter cone. Within an hour the pond overflowed and the spatter cone began ejecting lava clots up to 2 m above the cone, eventually producing pahoehoe and aa flows that traveled ~100 m ESE. This activity continued until 1200. At 1815 on 19 June a 20-minute eruption resulted in an overflow of the pond. Continuous lava fountains rose up to 1 m above the spatter cone, covering the flows from the previous day. At 1600 on 20 June an eruption lasting more than 15 hours began with a high-volume pond overflow and explosions every 2 seconds from the spatter cone. By 2245 the explosions had stopped and an orange flame was seen at the cone's vent. Lava continued to pour from the pond all night. A tube-fed flow first traveled N, then curved E as a narrow strip ~80 m long containing a single tube, and finally spread out into a wide stacked flow-field that piled up against the E rim.

At 1800 on 5 August a lava lake was seen in the cave under the spatter cone, ~5 m below the rim. At 1930 the lake began to glow dull red in the darkness, revealing that the cave was much larger than it had first appeared. The entire T37N1 hornito was hollow with a lake slowly rising inside that flowed toward the SW and entered a westward-directed tube or cave. As the lake rose higher lava appeared on the crater floor at the W base of T37N1, flowing slowly along the bottom of an old tube. Within 10 minutes the lake rose up to vent level and began to slosh over the rim, but lava could no longer be seen on the crater floor. From 2000 to 2330 the lake overflowed numerous times and lava advanced to a point near the base of T5T9. Due to frequent fluctuations in lake level, no long tubes developed; instead the flows were short and thickly stacked.

Similar activity occurred in the early morning hours of 6 August; just before 0715 the lake was ~3 m below the rim of the spatter cone, which had been increased in height and reduced in diameter during the eruption. The open interior of T37N1 filled with lava to a depth of 2 m, completely burying the pit that had contained the overflowing lava pond in June. The T37N1 spatter cone, positioned on the W side of the new, higher lava platform, was taller and had a larger vent than in June. Foaming white to pale gray carbonatite lava splashed out and fed short lava flows a few meters long down the W slope. Its vent opened into a large cave, ~8 m deep. A recent tube-fed flow from the vent extended to the W crater wall. The vesiculation of the gas-rich lava was high. Activity stopped around 1100 causing a 4-m drop of the lava level.

T48. At 0800 on 18 June (while T37N1 was erupting) T48 produced lava fountains up to 3 m high for 10 minutes, forming short aa flows on its N side. Throughout the morning of 19 June it occasionally ejected solid lapilli along with loud puffs of steam. At 2335 that night it began exploding loudly every 2 seconds and produced lava fountains up to 7 m high. After less than 2 minutes of these explosions the fountains decreased in height to 3 m but increased in volume. Each explosion covered the NW half of T48 with a thick layer of spatter that glowed dull red.

By August T48 had increased in height by at least 2 m and had produced many fresh flows extending in all directions. Aerial photographs taken by Benoit Wangermez on 1 August showed several fresh lava flows originating from vents in the approximate location of T48 and T49 extending to the NE and W crater rims. At 1300 on 2 August, low lava fountaining began from the summit vent and within an hour a lava stream was cascading down the nearly vertical SW flank of T48. Over the next 7 hours a large tube formed from the summit down the SW flank. Lava from this tube advanced past the N slope of T20 more than halfway to the WNW crater wall. Near the base of T48 the tube was ~60 cm in diameter and had several skylights from which lava often overflowed. The lava was gas-rich with a surface that appeared to be covered with gray foam.

The eruption continued all night but lava never reached the crater wall. At 0800 on 3 August a close inspection of the vertical lava tube revealed a small crack expelling hot air. Near 1000 the tube ruptured at that point, creating a powerful horizontal lava fountain that played on the N flank and base of nearby T44C. As the rupture progressed, other fountains directed at various angles of inclination developed, and eventually a flow began to form a second tube. The original tube was still full of flowing lava. By 1800 no lava was visible in the skylights. At 1930 a thin lava stream was spraying horizontally from the E side of T48's summit. At 0600 on 4 August T48 was inactive but at 0800 fountains developed on its upper east flank, creating pahoehoe and aa flows that reached the base of T40B. Similar activity continued until 2000. There was no further activity until 2330 on 5 August when a wide lava fountain sprayed horizontally for 20 minutes from just above a small ledge on the E flank, 2 m below the summit.

On 6 August at 1400 lava splashed out of two openings close to the peak of T48. Black, degassed, very liquid lava fed little lava flows reaching 8 m down the E slope. The activity stopped shortly after 1600.

T40. Sloshing lava was heard inside T40 during the entire June visit. During the night of June 19 a pahoehoe flow traveled ~10 m from a small vent in its base. Lava flowed into a cave under a low, broad hornito just NE of T40. This new lava flow was ~1 m thick. The cave had contained an impressive group of white lava stalactites. On 20 June a 3-m2 section of the SW flank collapsed into its interior.

On 2 August at 1000 occasional lava clots were being ejected from T40's summit, but this continued for only ~30 minutes. During the August visit T40 was noisily degassing. The collapse pit that formed on 20 June in the SW flank of T40 was no longer visible, having been filled in by lava. Recent flows extended a short distance SW and SE of T40, partially covering a low mound to the SE. A tall, narrow cone had very recently been formed on the summit of T40 and was the source of several very fresh aa flows extending to the base of T40.

T49. A small cone just NE of T49 extended toward the NW and grew in height between visits. Sloshing lava was frequently heard there. After several earthquakes during the night of 6 August, at 0408 on 7 August a loud explosion blew off the top and N side of T49. Rocks up to 1 m3 were thrown or rolled a few meters. A dark-red lava fountain ~15 m high continued until 0413 with a loud, jet-like noise. Pahoehoe lava with little viscosity (1-5 Pa s) splashed N of T49 and traveled NW. The flow was thin (10-20 cm) and stopped shortly after the end of the eruption. The amount of erupted lava was ~70-100 m3. Lava pearls up to 4 mm diameter and fine ash were blown over 200 m NW.

Geologic Background. The symmetrical Ol Doinyo Lengai is the only volcano known to have erupted carbonatite tephras and lavas in historical time. The prominent stratovolcano, known to the Maasai as "The Mountain of God," rises abruptly above the broad plain south of Lake Natron in the Gregory Rift Valley. The cone-building stage ended about 15,000 years ago and was followed by periodic ejection of natrocarbonatitic and nephelinite tephra during the Holocene. Historical eruptions have consisted of smaller tephra ejections and emission of numerous natrocarbonatitic lava flows on the floor of the summit crater and occasionally down the upper flanks. The depth and morphology of the northern crater have changed dramatically during the course of historical eruptions, ranging from steep crater walls about 200 m deep in the mid-20th century to shallow platforms mostly filling the crater. Long-term lava effusion in the summit crater beginning in 1983 had by the turn of the century mostly filled the northern crater; by late 1998 lava had begun overflowing the crater rim.

Information Contacts: Celia Nyamweru, Department of Anthropology, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY 13617 USA (URL: http://blogs.stlawu.edu/lengai/); Fredrick A. Belton, 3555 Philsdale Ave., Memphis, TN 38111; Christoph Weber, Kruppstr 171, 42113 Wuppertal, Germany.


Masaya (Nicaragua) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Integrated scientific studies of the caldera area

Four teams of Canadian, British, and Nicaraguan volcanologists carried out studies of Masaya caldera during January-April and September 1998. The volcano was examined using correlation spectroscopy (COSPEC), microgravity, Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR), and soil-gas studies.

Vent degassing appeared to have increased significantly. COSPEC measurements during February-April 1998 showed SO2 flux varying from 680 t/d to a maximum of 5,580 t/d. Measurements made during the previous year (January-March 1997) showed more stable fluxes of approximately 380 t/d. Measurements in September 1998 showed flux levels varying from 320 to 1,420 t/d.

OP-FTIR measured from the Plaza Oviedo overlooking the "Santiago" pit crater showed consistent SO2/HCl and HCl/HF volume ratios of 2 and 7, respectively. Using the COSPEC-derived SO2 flux, scientists inferred HCl fluxes of 340 to 2,790 t/d and HF fluxes of 97 to 797 t/d.

CO2 soil-gas measurements at the foot of the Comalito cinder cone increased from 23 to 31.3% between March 1997 and February 1998. Fumarole temperatures also increased from 70 to 84°C during February 1998.

Microgravity surveys during March 1997-February 1998 showed a slight increase in gravity immediately beneath the Santiago pit crater. They also showed evidence (increased noise recorded on the meter) of significant seismic activity around the Santiago crater. Similar measurements acquired in September 1998 indicated increased seismic activity throughout the caldera.

Temperatures at the active vent, measured using a Cyclops infrared camera, ranged between 170 and 400°C. The higher measurements occurred when incandescence of the vent walls was visible. In March, a small fumarole emitting low levels of gas appeared, ~15 m from the active vent.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Glyn Williams-Jones, Dave Rothery, Hazel Rymer, Peter Francis, and Lisa Boardman, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, United Kingdom; Alexandre Beaulieu, Dany Harvey, Pierre Delmelle, Katie St-Amand, and John Stix, Département de Géologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7, Canada; Mike Burton, Clive Oppenheimer, and Matthew Watson, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Downing Place, Cambridge, CB2 3EN, United Kingdom (URL: http://www.geog.cam.ac.uk/); Hélène Gaonac'h, Département des sciences de la Terre, Université du Québec - Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3C 3P8, Canada; Martha Navarro and Wilfried Strauch, INETER, Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua; Benjamin van Wyk de Vries, Departement des Sciences de la Terre, Universite Blaise Pascal, 63038 Clermont-Ferrand, France.


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Several episodes of ash emission during September

Following a large ash exhalation on 8 September (BGVN 23:08), eruptive activity at Popocatépetl decreased in intensity and duration. CENEPRED reported a few moderate emissions during September that caused local ashfall.

Small-volume, discrete, short-duration emissions containing ash, sometimes accompanied by steam and gas, were recorded occasionally during the period 9-15 September. Brief episodes of harmonic tremor were also recorded. During the night of 14 September glow reflected from clouds over the crater was seen.

Moderate exhalations of steam, gas, and light ash took place during 16 September. Several brief episodes of high-frequency tremor were recorded that afternoon; the largest emissions occurred at 1546-1552, 1604, and 1611. Ashfall was reported at Amecameca, 20 km NW of the volcano. Despite bad weather that reduced visibility most of the day, a dense column of steam and gas was seen rising 700 m above the summit before being blown to the NW. Activity decreased to stable background levels on 17 September. A dense steam and gas cloud seen on the morning of 18 September dispersed to the NE; as the cloud gained altitude, its direction changed to the south. SO2 measurements showed significant increases following the 16 September explosion over levels earlier in the month.

Another moderate increase in eruptive activity began a few days later. A steam and gas column rising 1 km above the summit was observed during 20 September. Brief, moderately intense emissions of steam and gas, sometimes with light ash puffs, took place throughout the morning of 21 September. An explosion at 1148 that morning produced light ashfall in towns up to 20 km NW of Popocatépetl. A similar but less intense event occurred at 1543. Emissions decreased to relatively low levels until 1225 on 22 September when a moderate explosion lasting 7 minutes produced a steam, gas, and ash plume that rose 4 km above the summit. Visibility during 22 August was poor due to bad weather, but a large ash cloud near the crater was detected by Doppler radar. Ash was dispersed during the afternoon NW of the volcano, producing light ash falls in the suburban SE of metropolitan México City.

Following the explosion on 22 September, eruptive activity paused until a similar explosion occurred at 1829 on 23 September. This explosion lasted 6 minutes and produced a 3-km high column of steam, gas, and ash. Ash fall was reported in towns SW of the volcano. Eruptive activity soon decreased again, stabilizing at low levels of small, isolated emissions of steam and gas, typical of earlier in September. An exhalation at 1025 on 24 September was followed by 30 minutes of low-frequency harmonic tremor. An A-type earthquake of M 2.1 located 1.8 km E of the crater at a depth of 3.9 km was recorded at 2224 on 24 September, and another moderate exhalation lasting 7 minutes began at 2332.

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Servando De la Cruz-Reyna1,2 Roberto Quaas1,2 Carlos Valdés G.2 and Alicia Martinez Bringas1; 1 Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED) Delfin Madrigal 665, Col. Pedregal de Santo Domingo, Coyoacan, 04360, México D.F. (URL: https://www.gob.mx/cenapred/); and 2 Instituto de Geofisico, UNAM, Coyoacán 04510, México D.F., México.


Sete Cidades (Portugal) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Sete Cidades

Portugal

37.87°N, 25.78°W; summit elev. 856 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic swarm on submarine flank

Since June 1998, increasing seismic activity in the vicinity of Sete Cidades volcano has resulted in occasional seismic swarms. On the night of 2-3 August about 120 events were registered in 3 hours. During that period, five earthquakes were felt along the W coast, the strongest with a magnitude of 3.1 reached a maximum intensity of V (MM) at Ginetes e Varzea. Similarly, on 2 September in Sao Miguel more than 120 events occurred beneath the sea floor over a period of about 4 hours near shore between Ponta da Ferraria and Mosteiros. One of the five felt earthquakes during this period also reached an intensity of V (MM). There were no reports of injury or damage from any of these events.

Geologic Background. Sete Cidades volcano at the western end of Sao Miguel Island contains a 5-km-wide summit caldera, occupied by two caldera lakes, that is one of the scenic highlights of the Azores. The steep-walled, 500-m-deep caldera was formed about 22,000 years ago, and at least 22 post-caldera eruptions have occurred. A large group of Pleistocene post-caldera trachytic lava domes, lava flows, and pyroclastic-flow deposits is found on the western-to-northern flanks. A nearly circular ring of six Holocene pyroclastic cones occupies the caldera floor. These have been the source of a dozen trachytic pumice-fall deposits erupted during the past 5000 years. Sete Cidades is one of the most active Azorean volcanoes. Historical eruptions date back to the 15th century and have occurred from within the caldera and from submarine vents off the west coast.

Information Contacts: João Luis Gaspar and Nicolau Wallenstein, Departamento de Geociencias, Centro de Vulcanologia, Universidade dos Açores, Rua Mae de Deus, 9500 - Ponta Delgada, Sao Miguel, Açores, Portugal.


Sheveluch (Russia) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash explosions and pyroclastic flow during 3 September

Seismicity remained generally at background levels during 2-28 September. A plume on 2-3 September was seen rising 200 m above the volcano. At 1622 on 3 September, ash explosions produced a cloud that rose 5 km above the summit, and extended 100 km NNE. Pyroclastic flows moving SW were observed at this time. The explosion was also accompanied by a 9-minute series of shallow earthquakes and tremor. The level-of-concern color code remained Green. Observation was restricted by cloud during much of the month.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.


Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Soufriere Hills

United Kingdom

16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuing decrease in activity; hazards reassessed

The following summarizes the Montserrat Volcano Observatory's (MVO) scientific reports for July and August, except information concerning the 3 July pyroclastic flows, which was reported in BGVN 23:07.

Summary. In the weeks following the 3 July pyroclastic flows, no fresh magma reached the surface; however, vesicular ballistic blocks were recovered from craters on Perches Mountain suggesting that there may have been a small Vulcanian explosion. SO2-flux levels declined steadily throughout July to an average of 1,000 metric tons/day (t/d). Vigorous steam-and-ash venting continued from the dome-collapse scar until the end of July. Activity in August was dominated by several small dome-collapse events and a period of enhanced steam-and-ash venting in the middle of the month. The dome-collapse events were caused by the gravitational collapse of weakened dome rock. The ash venting was intense one day but waned over following days to normal levels. MiniCOSPEC results showed a peak that coincided with the enhanced venting, but there was an overall decline from ~1,000 t/d at the beginning of the month to ~500 t/d at the end of the month.

Visual observations. Ash-and-steam venting immediately after the 3 July event was vigorous. Significant pulses of steam-and-ash continued for 2-3 weeks and fumarolic activity was evident on the S and N flanks of the dome.

A steep buttress overhanging the 3 July scar collapsed on 16 August generating pyroclastic flows that reached the Tar River delta. Large fragments of the buttress were left in the area of the scar's mouth. On 19 August fumarolic activity in the scar increased in intensity: fumaroles on the back wall and at the base of the scar discharged copious quantities of steam and ash in jets. The next day activity decreased in intensity and the fumaroles were generally issuing steam only. Some of the fumaroles were temporarily buried following a rockfall within the scar on 20 August. The fumarolic activity declined steadily, and by 22 August activity had declined to levels observed in the first week of August.

Mudflows continued to be a problem in July. Mudflow deposits built up beneath the Belham Bridge until there was a clearance of only about 30 cm.

Seismicity. After 5 July, seismicity returned to levels similar to the previous month, with the exception of a swarm of volcano-tectonic earthquakes on 25 July (figure 43). This swarm had no outward manifestation at the volcano and activity returned to low levels by the next day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Seismicity recorded at Soufriere Hills by type during July and August 1998. Data courtesy of MVO.

Seismicity during August was generally low. Activity was dominated by small volcano-tectonic earthquakes located ~3 km below the dome, with occasional rockfalls and pyroclastic-flow signals. On 13 August there were two episodes (at 0519 and 1455) of pyroclastic flow in the White River valley. These flows traveled 1.8 km from the dome and were caused by the collapse of weakened dome rock. Active fumaroles on the Galways side of the dome near Chances Peak undermined part of the dome. A scar immediately above the fumarolic area is believed to be the source of the pyroclastic flows. Each episode was followed by about an hour of continuous rockfall activity. On 19 August a rockfall signal was followed by tremor, which corresponded to vigorous ash venting. The signal lasted two days and varied in amplitude. At times of highest amplitude the tremor was nearly monochromatic at 4 Hz.

Ground deformation. Measurements from GPS survey sites on the flanks of the volcano and in the N of the island indicated widespread major reductions in movement during July. The Hermitage site indicated continued slow movement NE at rate of ~0.5 cm/month. The GPS site at Perches was destroyed in the 3 July event; ballistics were scattered over Perches Mountain and the GPS site was later found at the edge of a 3.4 m diameter impact crater. The rates of movement of sites in August were within the instrumental error. The GPS kit was used for one week by volcanologists from the University of Rhode Island who were conducting a bathymetric survey of the fans at the mouths of the Tar River and White Rivers valleys.

The EDM reflector on Peak B was measured from Windy Hill. The increase in distance of 5 cm during the period May-July may have been caused partially by release associated with the 3 July collapse. The line had shortened by 9 cm between 25 January and 13 May, but between May and August the distance lengthened by a total 8 cm (within 1 cm of its original length) possibly indicating a relaxation in the confining pressure.

Volume measurements. A kinematic GPS survey of the Tar River fan was completed in July. The total volume of the fan was estimated to be 22.1 x 106 m3. A previous survey in August 1997 gave a volume of 15.7 x 106 m3. Much of the increase resulted from the 3 July collapse, which extended the fan 350 m N, although a small part of the increase was due to the accumulation of pyroclastic-flow deposits during the September-October 1997 explosion sequence (BGVN 22:10 and 22:11). The E limit of the fan, defined by a steep shelf extending into the sea, was unchanged. A small deposit was left on the S side of the fan, although above the established shoreline there was only a thin layer of pyroclastic-flow deposits.

No volume measurements were made in August. Attempts to survey the 3 July collapse scar were foiled by deteriorating weather conditions and a lack of helicopter fuel.

Environmental monitoring. MiniCOSPEC observations recommenced on 5 July. In early July SO2 flux was generally between 1,000 and 2,500 metric tons/day (t/d). On 13 July SO2 flux measured 4,150 t/d, the highest ever recorded at Montserrat. Throughout the remainder of July there was a gradual decline in SO2 flux to an average of 1,000 t/d at the end of the month. The cause of the relatively high gas flux in the apparent absence of magmatic activity was being investigated, but may relate to perturbations in the hydrothermal system caused by the dome collapse on 3 July 1998.

MiniCOSPEC measurements in early August showed a consistent SO2 flux of ~500-1000 t/d. On 19 August levels rose to 1,400 t/d as a result of enhanced venting. Towards the end of the month poor weather limited the number of COSPEC measurements, but there appeared to be a slight decrease to an average of ~500 t/d. Throughout late August the wind direction was variable due to tropical storms in the area. On occasions when the wind blew to the N or NW a strong smell of sulfurous gases was detected in the inhabited area of Montserrat.

Sulfur dioxide diffusion tubes exposed between 29 June and 13 July clearly reflect the high emissions in early July (table 31). The Plymouth area in particular was subjected to very high concentrations of gas. In the second half of July SO2 concentrations in Plymouth were reduced by half. Populated areas N of the Belham River valley were, as usual, only subjected to very low SO2 levels in July. In August there was a general decline of SO2 in the atmosphere. An additional monitoring site in the N of the island was installed to assess SO2 during shifts in wind direction.

Table 31. Sulfur dioxide diffusion-tube results, 29 June-11 August 1998. Levels are in parts per billion (ppb). Courtesy of MVO.

Station 29 Jun-13 Jul 1998 13 Jul-27 Jul 1998 27 Jul-11 Aug 1998
Police HQ, Plymouth 207.9 116.5 131.5
St. George's Hill 22.05 8.55 9.55
Weekes 5.75 4.1 2.85
MVO south 4.3 3.85 --
Lawyers 2.2 0 3.8
Vue Pointe Hotel -- -- 3.25

Hazard assessment. A meeting was held 14-16 July at McChesney's Estate to assess the current hazards and risks associated with Soufriere Hills Volcano. The meeting brought together many of the senior scientists who have worked at MVO during the three-year volcanic crisis. Those who took part were Richie Robertson, Lloyd Lynch and John Shepherd from the Seismic Research Unit in Trinidad; Simon Young, Sue Loughlin, Tony Reedman, and Gill Norton from the British Geological Survey; and many other senior scientists from around the world including Steve Sparks from Bristol University, Peter Baxter from Cambridge University, Barry Voight from Penn State University, Joe Devine from Brown University, Peter Francis from the Open University, Keith Rowley, and Willy Aspinall. Richard Luckett and Richard Herd from MVO provided up-to-date information about the current status of Soufriere Hills volcano.

Discussion was held on various aspects of the activity over the previous six months, including the event on 3 July. Related issues, including the safety of Bramble airport, were also addressed. An assessment of the level of risk associated with the volcano was undertaken. A report was presented to the government of Montserrat and the U.K. on 29 July after which the findings were made public.

According to the report, MVO judged it likely that the volcano has entered a period of repose, with the probability of no further magmatic eruptions in the next 6 months set at about 95%. MVO was confident that renewed magma ascent and escalation to dangerous levels of activity could be identified, although they cautioned that escalation might take place in a very short period of time (e.g. a matter of hours). Most of the island was perceived to be under reduced risk, but areas S of the Belham River Valley remain vulnerable to serious volcanic hazards including pyroclastic flows related to the collapse of the dome, mud flows, and exposure to fine ash. Further dome collapses were deemed likely and could affect all flanks of the volcano, especially the Tar River, Gages Valley, Plymouth area, Galways, and the NE slopes. There is potential for a variety of events to take place, including steam explosions, mud flows, and ash falls, for many years to come but the risks will decline with time. Health risk analysis showed that if magmatic activity does not resume, the potential for harmful exposure to ash will be limited and the risk of developing silicosis will be low in Zones 1 to 3. The same would apply to Population Zone 4 north of the Belham Valley after a clean-up operation has been safely completed. A public education program on the health risks of ash was recommended, including guidance on protection measures during the clean up. Certain groups could be at risk from much higher exposure (e.g. outdoor workers and asthma sufferers) and there may be unknown long-term health risks to young children.

The Volcanic Executive Group (VEG), chaired by Governor Tony Abbott, met to consider the Scientific Review. A statement from the Governor's Office following the meeting rescinded the recommendation that residents leave the Central Zone. Also, there was no longer any objection to commercial organizations operating within the Central Zone. The clean up of Friths, Salem, and Old Towne, which commenced some weeks ago, was intensified. The VEG sought advice on how to ensure that the Zone will be cleaned so that children and those with respiratory problems will not be affected on reoccupation.

Geologic Background. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

Information Contacts: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), c/o Chief Minister's Office, PO Box 292, Plymouth, Montserrat, West Indies (URL: http://www.mvo.ms/); Richard Aspin, Information & Education Unit, Emergency Dept., St Johns Village, Montserrat, Leeward Islands, West Indies.


Yasur (Vanuatu) — September 1998 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing eruption, felt earthquake, and fresh glass chemical analysis

On 9 September 1998, an earthquake was felt in a village 3 km from Yasur; simultaneously, loud explosions were heard from the volcano. When the summit was visited by John Seach during 10-11 September, five craters inside the main summit crater in the pyroclastic cone were found to be active. Crater A, large and on the S, displayed quiet explosions followed by brown ash emission. Other craters were quiet with only gas emissions. These included the smaller Crater B, in the center of the main crater; the larger Crater C, on the N; the small Crater D located W of Crater B; and Crater E, on the SW wall of the main crater.

During 4 hours of observation on 10 September, 51 explosions were observed from four craters: Crater A, 25 explosions; Crater B, 9; Crater C, 13; and Crater D, 4. Bombs thrown from Craters B, C, and D fell back into the vent or onto the crater wall. Some larger explosions, every 20-30 minutes, threw bombs 350 m high. During the night, bombs thrown onto the crater wall glowed for up to 6 minutes. The explosions and shaking were felt up to 3 km away.

A fresh bomb collected in August 1997 (BGVN 22:08) was recently analyzed by microprobe (table 1).

Table 1. Major element analysis of Yasur glass taken from an average of five analyses on fresh glass bomb collected in August 1997. All iron is shown as FeO. Microprobe analysis courtesy of Timothy O'Hearn; sample courtesy of Steve and Donna O'Meara, and Robert Benward.

Component Weight %
SiO2 58.61
TiO2 0.95
Al203 15.07
FeOt 8.68
MnO 0.25
MgO 2.49
CaO 5.44
Na2O 3.52
K2O 3.78
P2O5 0.66
Total 99.46

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: John Seach, P.O. Box 16, Chatsworth Island, N.S.W. 2469, Australia; Tim O'Hearn, Department of Mineral Sciences, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20560-0119 USA.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).