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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Aira (Japan) Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Agung (Indonesia) Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019.

Suwanosejima (Japan) Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Great Sitkin (United States) Small steam explosions in early June 2019

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ebeko (Russia) Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Yasur (Vanuatu) Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

Ambae (Vanuatu) Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Sangay (Ecuador) Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows



Aira (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Sakurajima rises from Kagoshima Bay, which fills the Aira Caldera near the southern tip of Japan's Kyushu Island. Frequent explosive and occasional effusive activity has been ongoing for centuries. The Minamidake summit cone has been the location of persistent activity since 1955; the Showa crater on its E flank has also been intermittently active since 2006. Numerous explosions and ash-bearing emissions have been occurring each month at either Minamidake or Showa crater since the latest eruptive episode began in late March 2017. This report covers ongoing activity from January through June 2019; the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides regular reports on activity, and the Tokyo VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) issues tens of reports each month about the frequent ash plumes.

From January to June 2019, ash plumes and explosions were usually reported multiple times each week. The quietest month was June with only five eruptive events; the most active was March with 29 (table 21). Ash plumes rose from a few hundred meters to 3,500 m above the summit during the period. Large blocks of incandescent ejecta traveled as far as 1,700 m from the Minamidake crater during explosions in February and April. All the activity originated in the Minamidake crater; the adjacent Showa crater only had a mild thermal anomaly and fumarole throughout the period. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies inside the Minamidake crater several times each month.

Table 21. Monthly summary of eruptive events recorded at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater in Aira caldera, January-June 2019. The number of events that were explosive in nature are in parentheses. No events were recorded at the Showa crater during this time. Data courtesy of JMA (January to June 2019 monthly reports).

Month Ash emissions (explosive) Max. plume height above crater Max. ejecta distance from crater
Jan 2019 8 (6) 2.1 km 1.1 km
Feb 2019 15 (11) 2.3 km 1.7 km
Mar 2019 29 (12) 3.5 km 1.3 km
Apr 2019 10 (5) 2.2 km 1.7 km
May 2019 15 (9) 2.9 km 1.3 km
Jun 2019 5 (2) 2.2 km 1.3 km

There were eight eruptive events reported by JMA during January 2019 at the Minamidake summit crater of Sakurajima. They occurred on 3, 6, 7, 9, 17, and 19 January (figure 76). Ash plume heights ranged from 600 to 2,100 m above the summit. The largest explosion, on 9 January, generated an ash plume that rose 2,100 m above the summit crater and drifted E. In addition, incandescent ejecta was sent 800-1,100 m from the summit. Incandescence was visible at the summit on most clear nights. During an overflight on 18 January no significant changes were noted at the crater (figure 77). Infrared thermal imaging done on 29 January indicated a weak thermal anomaly in the vicinity of the Showa crater on the SE side of Minamidake crater. The Kagoshima Regional Meteorological Observatory (KRMO) (11 km WSW) recorded ashfall there during four days of the month. Satellite imagery indicated thermal anomalies inside Minamidake on 7 and 27 January (figure 77).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Incandescent ejecta and ash emissions characterized activity from Sakurajima volcano at Aira during January 2019. Left: A webcam image showed incandescent ejecta on the flanks on 9 January 2019, courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, January 2019). Right: An ash plume rose hundreds of meters above the summit, likely also on 9 January, posted on 10 January 2019, courtesy of Mike Day.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. The summit of Sakurajima consists of the larger Minamidake crater and the smaller Showa crater on the E flank. Left: The Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 January 2019 seen in an overflight courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, March 2019). Right: Two areas of thermal anomaly were visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 27 January 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased during February 2019, with 15 eruptive events reported on days 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 17, 22, 24, and 27. Ash plume heights ranged from 600-2,300 m above the summit, and ejecta was reported 300 to 1,700 m from the crater in various events (figure 78). KRMO reported two days of ashfall during February. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies at the crater on 6 and 26 February, and ash plumes on 21 and 26 February (figure 79).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. An explosion from Sakurajima at Aira on 7 February 2019 sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the Minamidake summit crater. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, February 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Thermal anomalies and ash emissions were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 6, 21, and 26 February 2019 originating from Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Top: Thermal anomalies within the summit crater were visible underneath steam and ash plumes on 6 and 26 February (closeup of bottom right photo). Bottom: Ash emissions on 21 and 26 February drifted SE from the volcano. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The number of eruptive events continued to increase during March 2019; there were 29 events reported on numerous days (figures 80 and 81). An explosion on 14 March produced an ash plume that rose 3,500 m above the summit and drifted E. It also produced ejecta that landed 800-1,100 m from the crater. During an overflight on 26 March a fumarole was the only activity in Showa crater. KRMO reported 14 days of ashfall during the month. Satellite imagery identified an ash plume on 13 March and a thermal anomaly on 18 March (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. A large ash emission from Sakurajima volcano at Aira was photographed by a tourist on the W flank and posted on 1 March 2019. Courtesy of Kratü.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. An ash plume from Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 March 2019 produced enough ashfall to disrupt the trains in the nearby city of Kagoshima according to the photographer. Image taken from about 20 km away. Courtesy of Tim Board.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An ash plume drifted SE from the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 13 March (left) and a thermal anomaly was visible inside the Minamidake crater on 18 March 2019 (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A decline in activity to only ten eruptive events on days 7, 13, 17, 22, and 25 was reported by JMA for April 2019. An explosion on 7 April sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the crater. Another explosion on 13 April produced an ash plume that rose 2,200 m above the summit. Most of the eruptive events at Sakurajima last for less than 30 minutes; on 22 April two events lasted for almost an hour each producing ash plumes that rose 1,400 m above the summit. Ashfall at KRMO was reported during seven days in April. Two distinct thermal anomalies were visible inside the Minamidake crater on both 12 and 27 April (figure 83).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Two thermal anomalies were present inside Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 12 (left) and 27 (right) April 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There were 15 eruptive events during May 2019. An event that lasted for two hours on 12 May produced an ash plume that rose 2,900 m from the summit and drifted NE (figure 84). The Meteorological Observatory reported 14 days with ashfall during the month. Two thermal anomalies were present in satellite imagery in the Minamidake crater on both 17 and 22 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. An ash plume rose 2,900 m above the summit of Sakurajima at Aira on 12 May 2019 (left); incandescent ejecta went 1,300 m from the summit crater on 13 May. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, May 2019).

During June 2019 five eruptive events were reported, on 11, 13, and 24 June; the event on 11 June lasted for almost two hours, sent ash 2,200 m above the summit, and produced ejecta that landed up to 1,100 m from the crater (figure 85). Five days of ashfall were reported by KRMO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. A large ash plume on 11 June 2019 rose 2,200 m above the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Courtesy of Aone Wakatsuki.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Mike Day, Minnesota, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM, photo at https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM/status/1083489400451989505/photo/1); Kratü, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue, photo at https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue/status/1101469595414589441/photo/1); Tim Board, Japan, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_, photo at https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_/status/1107789108754038789); Aone Wakatsuke, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki, photo at https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki/status/1138420031258210305/photo/3).


Agung (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Agung

Indonesia

8.343°S, 115.508°E; summit elev. 2997 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

After a large, deadly explosive and effusive eruption during 1963-64, Indonesia's Mount Agung on Bali remained quiet until a new eruption began in November 2017 (BGVN 43:01). Lava emerged into the summit crater at the end of November and intermittent ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit through the end of the year. Activity continued throughout 2018 with explosions that produced ash plumes rising multiple kilometers above the summit, and the slow effusion of the lava within the summit crater (BGVN 43:08, 44:02). Information about the ongoing eruptive episode comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and multiple sources of satellite data. This report covers the ongoing eruption from February through May 2019.

Intermittent but increasingly frequent and intense explosions with ash emissions and incandescent ejecta characterized activity at Agung during February through May 2019. During February, explosions were reported three times; events on seven days in March were documented with ash plumes and ashfall in surrounding villages. Five significant events occurred during April; two involved incandescent ejecta that traveled several kilometers from the summit, and ashfall tens of kilometers from the volcano. Most of the five significant events reported in May involved incandescent ejecta and ashfall in adjacent villages; air traffic was disrupted during the 24 May event. Ash plumes in May reached altitudes over 7 km multiple times. Thermal activity increased steadily during the period, according to both the MIROVA project (figure 44) and MODVOLC thermal alert data. MAGMA Indonesia reported at the end of May 2019 that the volume of lava within the summit crater remained at about 25 million m3; satellite information indicated continued thermal activity within the crater. Alert Level III (of four levels) remained in effect throughout the period with a 4 km exclusion radius around the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal activity at Agung from 4 September 2018 through May 2019 was variable. The increasing frequency and intensity of thermal events was apparent from February-May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Steam plumes rose 30-300 m high daily during February 2019. The Agung Volcano Observatory (AVO) and PVMBG issued a VONA on 7 February (UTC) reporting an ash plume, although it was not visible due to meteoric cloud cover. Incandescence, however, was observed at the summit from webcams in both Rendang and Karangasem City (16 km SE). The seismic event associated with the explosion lasted for 97 seconds. A similar event on 13 February was also obscured by clouds but produced a seismic event that lasted for 3 minutes and 40 seconds, and ashfall was reported in the village of Bugbug, about 20 km SE. On 22 February a gray ash plume rose 700 m from the summit during a seismic event that lasted for 6 minutes and 20 seconds (figure 45). The Darwin VAAC reported the plume visible in satellite imagery moving W at 4.3 km altitude. It dissipated after a few hours, but a hotspot remained visible about 10 hours later.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. An ash plume rose from the summit of Agung on 22 February 2019, viewed from the Besakih temple, 7 km SW of the summit. Courtesy of PunapiBali.

Persistent steam plumes rose 50-500 m from the summit during March 2019. An explosion on 4 March was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW); no ash plume was observed due to fog. A short-lived ash plume rose to 3.7 km altitude and drifted SE on 8 March (UTC) 2019. The seismic event lasted for just under 4 minutes. Ash emissions were reported on 15 and 17 March to 4.3 and 3.7 km altitude, respectively, drifting W (figure 46). Ashfall from the 15 March event spread NNW and was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. MAGMA Indonesia noted that two explosions on the morning of 17 March (local time) produced gray plumes; the first sent a plume to 500 m above the summit drifting E and lasted for about 40 seconds, while the second plume a few hours later rose 600 m above the crater and lasted for 1 minute and 16 seconds. On 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. An event on 20 March was measured only seismically by PVMBG because fog prevented observations. An eruption on 28 March produced an ash plume 2 km high that drifted W and NW. The seismic signal for this event lasted for about two and a half minutes. The Darwin VAAC reported the ash plume at 5.5 km altitude, dissipating quickly to the NW. No ash was visible four hours later, but a thermal anomaly remained at the summit (figure 47). Ashfall was reported in nearby villages.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Ash plumes from Agung on 15 (left) and 17 (right) March 2019 resulted in ashfall in communities 10-20 km from the volcano. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia (Information on G. Agung Eruption, 15 March 2019 and Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release March 17, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. A thermal anomaly was visible through thick cloud cover at the summit of Agung on 29 March 2019 less than 24 hours after a gray ash plume was reported 2,000 m above the summit. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The first explosion of April 2019 occurred on the 3rd (UTC); PVMBG reported the dense gray ash plume 2 km above the summit drifting W. A few hours later the Darwin VAAC raised the altitude to 6.1 km based on infrared temperatures in satellite imagery. The seismic signal lasted for three and a half minutes and the explosion was heard at the PGA Post in Rendang (12 km SW). Incandescent material fell within a radius of 2-3 km, mainly on the S flank (figure 48). Ashfall was reported in the villages of Telungbuana, Badeg, Besakih, Pempatan, Teges, and Puregai on the W and S flanks (figure 49). An explosion on 11 April also produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted W. A hotspot remained about six hours later after the ash dissipated.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Incandescent ejecta appeared on the flanks of Agung after an eruption on 4 April 2019 (local time) as viewed from the observation post in Rendang (8 km SW). Courtesy of Jamie Sincioco.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Ashfall in a nearby town dusted mustard plants on 4 April 2019 from an explosion at Agung the previous day. Courtesy of Pantau.com (Photo: Antara / Nyoman Hendra).

PVMBG reported an eruption visible in the webcam early on 21 April (local time) that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW. The ash spread W and S and ash fell around Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (8 km SW), Klungkung (25 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (50 km WSW), and at the Ngurah Rai-Denpasar Airport (60 km SW). About 15 hours later a new explosion produced a dense gray ash plume that rose to 3 km above the summit and produced incandescent ejecta in all directions as far as 3 km away (figure 50). The ash spread to the S and ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). Both of the explosions were heard in Rendang and Batulompeh. The incandescent ejecta from the explosions remained within the 4-km exclusion zone. A satellite image on 23 April showed multiple thermal anomalies within the summit crater (figure 51). A dense gray plume drifted E from Agung on 29 April (30 April local time) at 4.6 km altitude. It was initially reported by ground observers, but was also visible in multispectral satellite imagery for about six hours before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. An explosion at Agung on 21 April 2019 sent incandescent eject 3,000 m from the summit. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release April 21, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Multiple thermal anomalies were still present within the summit crater of Agung on 23 April 2019 after two substantial explosions produced ash and incandescent ejecta around the summit two days earlier. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG reported an eruption on 3 May 2019 that was recorded on a seismogram with a signal that lasted for about a minute. Satellite imagery reported by the Darwin VAAC showed a growing hotspot and possible ash near the summit at 4.3 km altitude moving NE. A few days later, on 6 May, a gray ash plume rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted slowly W before dissipating; it was accompanied by a seismic signal that lasted for about two minutes. Explosions on 12 and 18 May produced significant amounts of incandescent ejecta (figure 52). The seismic signal for the 12 May event lasted for about two minutes; no plume was observed due to fog, but incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks and the explosion was heard at Rendang. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume from the explosion on 17 May (18 May local time) at 6.1 km altitude in satellite imagery moving E. They revised the altitude a short while later to 7.6 km based on IR temperature and movement; the plume drifted N, NE, and E in light and variable winds. A few hours after that it was moving NE at 7.6 km altitude and SE at 5.5 km altitude; this lasted for about 12 hours until it dissipated. Ashfall was reported in villages downwind including Cutcut, Tongtongan, Bonyoh (20 km WNW), and Temakung.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Explosions on 12 (left) and 18 (right) May (local time) 2019 produced substantial ejecta on the flanks of Agung visible from a distance of 10 km or more in PVMBG webcams. The ash plume from the 18 May event resulted in ashfall in numerous communities downwind. Courtesy of PVMBG (Information Eruption G. Agung, May 13, 2019, Information Eruption G. Agung, May 18, 2019).

The initial explosion on 18 May was captured by a webcam at a nearby resort and sent incandescent ejecta hundreds of meters down the NE flank within 20 seconds (figure 53). Satellite imagery on 3, 8, 13, and 18 May indicated multiple thermal anomalies growing stronger at the summit. All of the images were captured within 24 hours of an explosive event reported by PVMBG (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The 18 May 2019 explosion at Agung produced an ash plume that rose to over 7 km altitude and large bombs of incandescent material that traveled hundreds of meters down the NE flank within the first 20 seconds of the explosion. Images taken from a private webcam located 12 km NE. Courtesy of Volcanoverse, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Satellite images from 3, 8, 13, and 18 May 2019 at Agung showed persistent and increasing thermal anomalies within the summit crater. All images were captured within 24 hours of explosions reported by PVMBG. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG issued a VONA on 24 May 2019 reporting a new ash emission. They indicated that incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5-3 km in all directions from the summit, and the seismic signal lasted for four and a half minutes (figure 55). A dense gray ash plume was observed from Tulamben on the NE flank rising 2 km above the summit. Satellite imagery indicated that the plume drifted SW and ashfall was reported in the villages of Besakih, Pempatan, Menanga, Sebudi, Muncan, Amerta Bhuana, Nongan, Rendang, and at the Ngurah Rai Airport in Denpassar. Additionally, ashfall was reported in the districts of Tembuku, Bangli, and Susut (20 km SW). The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude along with a thermal anomaly and incandescent lava visible in webcam imagery. The remains of the ash plume were about 170 km S of the airport in Denpasar (60 km SW) and had nearly dissipated 18 hours after the event. According to a news article several flights to and from Australia were cancelled or diverted, though the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport was not closed. On 31 May another large explosion produced the largest ash plume of the report period, rising more than 2 km above the summit (figure 56). The Darwin VAAC reported its altitude as 8.2 km drifting ESE visible in satellite data. It split into two plumes, one drifted E at 8.2 km and the other ESE at 6.1 km altitude, dissipating after about 20 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. A large explosion at Agung on 24 May 2019 produced incandescent ejecta that covered all the flanks and dispersed ash to many communities to the SW. Courtesy of PVMBG (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release 24 May 2019 20:38 WIB, Kasbani, Ir., M.Sc.).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. An explosion at Agung on 31 May 2019 sent an ash plume to 8.2 km altitude, the highest for the report period. Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks extend to the coast. The summit area extends 1.5 km E-W, with the high point on the W and a steep-walled 800-m-wide crater on the E. The Pawon cone is located low on the SE flank. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the largest in the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); The Jakarta Post, Mount Agung eruption disrupts Australian flights, (URL: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/05/25/mount-agung-eruption-disrupts-australian-flights.html); PunapiBali (URL: http://punapibali.com/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/punapibali, image at https://twitter.com/punapibali/status/1098869352588288000/photo/1); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (URL: Twitter: https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco. Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1113765842557104130/photo/1); Pantau.com (URL: https://www.pantau.com/berita/erupsi-gunung-agung-sebagian-wilayah-bali-terpapar-hujan-abu?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter); Volcanoverse (URL: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCi3T_esus8Sr9I-3W5teVQQ); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN ).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019.

Frequently active, Indonesia's Mount Kerinci on Sumatra has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, usually multiple times per month, have characterized activity since April 2018. Similar activity continued during February-May 2019, the period covered in this report with information provided primarily by the Indonesian volcano monitoring agency, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, notices from the Darwin Volcano Ash Advisory Center (Darwin VAAC), and satellite data. PVMBG has maintained an Alert Level II (of 4) at Kerinci for several years.

On 13 February 2019 the Kerinci Volcano Observatory (KVO), part of PVMBG, noted a brownish-white ash emission that was drifting NE about 400 m above the summit. The seismicity during the event was dominated by continuous volcanic tremor. A brown ash emission was reported on 7 March 2019 that rose to 3.9 km altitude and drifted NE. Ash also drifted 1,300 m down the SE flank. Another ash plume the next morning drifted W at 4.5 km altitude, according to KVO. On 10, 11, and 13 March KVO reported brown ash plumes drifting NE from the summit at about 4.0-4.3 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC observed continuous ash emissions in satellite imagery on 15 March drifting W at 4.3 m altitude that dissipated after about 3 hours (figure 10). A gray ash emission was reported on 19 March about 600 m above the summit drifting NE; local news media noted that residents of Kayo Aro reported emissions on both 18 and 19 March (figure 11). An ash emission appeared in satellite imagery on 25 March (figure 10). On 30 March the observatory reported two ash plumes; a brown emission at 0351 UTC and a gray emission at 0746 UTC that both drifted NE at about 4.4 km altitude and dissipated within a few hours. PVMBG reported another gray ash plume the following day at a similar altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Kerinci from 15 (left) and 25 (right) March 2019 showed evidence of ash plumes rising from the summit. Kerinci's summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Dense ash plumes from Kerinci were reported by local news media on 18 and 19 March 2019. Courtesy of Nusana Jambi.

Activity continued during April with a brown ash emission reported on 3 April by several different agencies; the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG daily reports noted that the plume was about 500 m above the summit (4.3 km altitude) drifting NE. KVO observed two brown ash emissions on 13 April (UTC) that rose to 4.2 km altitude and drifted NE. Satellite imagery showed minor ash emissions from the summit on 14 April; steam plumes 100-500 m above the summit characterized activity for the remainder of April (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. A dilute ash emission rose from the summit of Kerinci on 14 April 2019 (left); only steam emissions were present on a clear 29 April in Sentinel-2 imagery (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Ashfall on the NE and S flanks within 7 km of the volcano was reported on 2 May 2019. According to a news article, at least five villages were affected late on 2 May, including Tanjung Bungo, Sangir, Sangir Tengah, Sungai Rumpun, and Bendung Air (figures 13 and 14). The smell of sulfur was apparent in the villages. Brown ash emissions were observed on 3 and 4 May that rose to 4.6 and 4.1 km altitude and drifted SE. The Darwin VAAC reported an emission on 5 May, based on a pilot report, that rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted NE for about an hour before dissipating. A brown ash emission on 10 May rose 700 m above the summit and drifted SE. Satellite imagery captured ash emissions from the summit on 14 and 24 May (figure 15). For the remainder of the month, 300-700-m-high dense steam plumes were noted daily until PVMBG reported white and brown plumes on 26 and 27 May rising 500-1,000 m above the summit. Although thermal anomalies were not reported during the period, persistent weak SO2 emissions were identified in TROPOMI instrument satellite data multiple times per month (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Ashfall was reported from five villages on the flanks of Kerinci on 2 May 2019. Courtesy of Uzone.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. An ash plume at Kerinci rose hundreds of meters on 2 May 2019; ashfall was reported in several nearby villages. Courtesy of Kerinci Time.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Ash emissions from Kerinci were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 14 (left) and 24 (right) May 2019. The summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Weak SO2 anomalies from Kerinci emissions were captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite multiple times each month from February to May 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Nuansa Jambi, Informasi Utama Jambi: (URL: https://nuansajambi.com/2019/03/20/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-asap-tebal/); Kerinci Time (URL: https://kerincitime.co.id/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-abu-vulkanik.html); Uzone.id (URL: https://news.uzone.id/gunung-kerinci-erupsi-5-desa-tertutup-abu-tebal).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash plumes continued during January through June 2019

Suwanosejima is an active volcanic island south of Japan in the Ryuku islands with recent activity centered at Otake crater. The current eruption began in October 2004 and activity has mostly consisted of small ash plumes, ballistic ejecta, and visible incandescence at night. This report summarizes activity during January through June 2019 and is based on reports by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), and various satellite data.

Thermal activity recorded by the MIROVA system was low through January and February after a decline in November (figure 36), shown in Sentined-2 thermal infrared imagery as originating at a vent in the Otake crater (figure 37). During January an explosive event was observed at 1727 on the 3rd, producing a gray plume that rose 600 m above the crater. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1.5 km above the crater and nighttime incandescence was observed throughout the month. Reduced activity continued through February with no reported explosive eruptions and light gray plumes up to 900 m above the crater. Incandescence continued to be recorded at night using a sensitive surveillance camera.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared data at Suwanosejima during September 2018 through June 2019. There was reduced activity in 2019 with periods of more frequent anomalies during March and June. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image shows Suwanosejima with the active Otake crater in the center with elevated temperatures shown as bright orange/yellow. There is a light area next to the vent that may be a gas plume. False color (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There was an increase in thermal energy detected by the MIROVA system in mid-March and there was a MODVOLC thermal alert on the 15th. Occasional small explosions occurred but no larger explosive events were recorded. A white plume was noted on the 27th rising to 900 m above the crater and an event at 1048 on the 30th produced a light-gray plume that rose to 800 m. Incandescence was only observed using a sensitive camera at night (figure 38).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Incandescence from the Suwanosejima Otake crater reflecting in clouds above the volcano. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima March 2019).

No explosive events were observed through April. A white gas-and-steam plume rose to 1,200 m above the crater on the 19th and incandescence continued intermittently. Minor explosions were recorded on 5, 30, and 31 May, but no larger explosive events were observed during the month. The event on the 30th produced ash plume that reached 1.1 km above the crater. Similar activity continued through June with one explosive event occurring on the 2nd. Overall, there was a reduction in the number of ash plumes erupted during this period compared to previous months (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Observed activity at Suwanosejima for the year ending in July 2019. The black vertical bars represent steam, gas, or ash plume heights (scale in meters on the left axis), yellow diamonds represent incandescence observed in webcams, gray volcano symbols along the top are explosions accompanied by ash plumes, red volcano symbols represent large explosions with ash plumes. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanosejima June 2019).

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Great Sitkin (United States) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Great Sitkin

United States

52.076°N, 176.13°W; summit elev. 1740 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small steam explosions in early June 2019

The Great Sitkin volcano is located about 40 km NE of Adak Island in the Aleutian Islands and has had a few short-lived eruptions over the past 100 years. Prior to the latest activity in early June 2019 described below, small phreatic explosions occurred in June and August 2018 (BGVN 43:09). An eruption in 1974 produced a lava dome in the center of the crater. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

Low-level unrest occurred from September 2018 through February 2019 with slightly elevated seismic activity (figure 6). Small explosions were seismically detected by AVO on 30 October, 5 and 16 November, and 11 December 2018, but they were not seen in regional infrasound data and satellite data did not show an ash cloud.

On 1, 7, and 9 June 2019, AVO reported small steam explosions as well as slightly elevated seismic activity. Steam plumes and surficial evidence of an explosion were not observed during these events. On 18 June 2019 weakly elevated surface temperatures were recorded, field crews working on Adak observed some steam emissions, and a gas flight was conducted. Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide detected above the lava dome were likely associated with the steam explosions earlier in the month (figures 7 and 8). From 23 June through the end of the month seismicity began to decline back to background levels.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. A steam plume was seen at the summit of Great Sitkin on 7 December 2018. Photo by Andy Lewis and Bob Boyd; courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Some degassing was observed on the southern flank of the Great Sitkin during an overflight on 18 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor; image courtesy of AVO/USGS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. View of Great Sitkin with white plumes rising from the summit on 20 June 2019. Photo by Laura Clor, courtesy of AVO/USGS.

Geologic Background. The Great Sitkin volcano forms much of the northern side of Great Sitkin Island. A younger parasitic volcano capped by a small, 0.8 x 1.2 km ice-filled summit caldera was constructed within a large late-Pleistocene or early Holocene scarp formed by massive edifice failure that truncated an ancestral volcano and produced a submarine debris avalanche. Deposits from this and an older debris avalanche from a source to the south cover a broad area of the ocean floor north of the volcano. The summit lies along the eastern rim of the younger collapse scarp. Deposits from an earlier caldera-forming eruption of unknown age cover the flanks of the island to a depth up to 6 m. The small younger caldera was partially filled by lava domes emplaced in 1945 and 1974, and five small older flank lava domes, two of which lie on the coastline, were constructed along northwest- and NNW-trending lines. Hot springs, mud pots, and fumaroles occur near the head of Big Fox Creek, south of the volcano. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the late-19th century.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/).


Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ibu volcano on Halmahera island in Indonesia began the current eruption episode on 5 April 2008. Since then, activity has largely consisted of small ash plumes with less frequent lava flows, lava dome growth, avalanches, and larger ash plumes up to 5.5 km above the crater. This report summarizes activity during December 2018 through June 2019 and is based on Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) reports by MAGMA Indonesia, reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), and various satellite data.

During December PVMBG reported ash plumes ranging from 200 to 800 m above the crater. There were 11 MODVOLC thermal alerts that registered during 1-12 December. An explosion on 12 January 2019 produced an ash plume that reached 800 m above the crater and dispersed to the S (figure 15). A report released for this event by Sutopo at BNPB said that Ibu had erupted almost every day over the past three months; an example given was of activity on 10 January consisting of 80 explosions. There were four MODVOLC thermal alerts through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. An eruption at Ibu at 1712 on 21 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to 800 m above the crater. Courtesy of BNPB (color adjusted).

Throughout February explosions frequently produced ash plumes as high as 800 m above the crater, and nine MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued. Daily reports showed variable plume heights of 200-800 m most days throughout the month. Wind directions varied and dispersed the plumes in all directions. A VONA released at 1850 on 6 February reported an ash plume that rose to 1,925 m altitude (around 600 m above the summit) and dispersed S. Activity continued through March with the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reporting explosions producing ash plumes to heights of 200-800 m above the crater and dispersing in various directions. There were ten MODVOLC alerts through the month.

Similar activity continued through April, May, and June, with ash plumes reaching 200-800 m above the crater. There were 12, 6, and 15 MODVOLC Alerts in April, May, and June, respectively.

Planet Scope satellite images show activity at a two vents near the center of the crater that were producing small lava flows from February through June (figure 16). Thermal anomalies were frequent during December 2018 through June 2019 across MODVOLC, MIROVA, and Sentinel-2 infrared data (figures 17 and 18). Sentinel-2 data showed minor variation in the location of thermal anomalies within the crater, possibly indicating lava flow activity, and MIROVA data showed relatively constant activity with a few reductions in thermal activity during January and February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Planet Scope natural color satellite images showing activity in the Ibu crater during January through June 2019, with white arrows indicating sites of activity. One vent is visible in the 21 February image, and a 330-m-long (from the far side of the vent) lava flow with flow ridges had developed by 24 March. A second vent was active by 12 May with a new lava flow reaching a maximum length of 520 m. Activity was centered back at the previous vent by 23-27 June. Natural color Planet Scope Imagery, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Examples of thermal activity in the Ibu crater during January through May 2019. These Sentinel-2 satellite images show variations in hot areas in the crater due to a vent producing a small lava flow. Sentinel-2 false color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Ibu from September 2018 through June 2019. The registered energy was relatively stable through December, with breaks in January and February. Regular thermal anomalies continued with slight variation through to the end of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/).


Ebeko (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

The Ebeko volcano, located on the northern end of the Paramushir Island in the Kuril Islands, consists of many craters, lakes, and thermal features and has been frequently erupting since late February 2017. Typical activity includes ash plumes, explosive eruptions, and gas-and-steam activity. The previous report through November 2018 (BGVN 43:12) described frequent ash explosions that sometimes caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km E). The primary source of information is the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). This report updates the volcanic activity at Ebeko for December 2018 through May 2019.

Frequent moderate explosive activity continued after November 2018. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions sending up ash, which drifted N, NE, and E, resulting in ash falls on Severo-Kurilsk on 28 different days between December 2018 and March 2019. On 25 December 2018 an explosion sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and then drifted N for about 5 km. Explosions occurring on 8-10 March 2019 sent ash up to an altitude of 4 km, resulting in ashfall on Severo-Kurilsk on 9-10 March 2019. An ash plume from these explosions rose to a height of 2.5 km and drifted to a maximum distance of 30 km ENE.

Satellite data analyzed by KVERT registered 12 thermal anomalies from December 2018 through May 2019. According to satellite data analyzed by MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), only one thermal anomaly was recorded from December 2018-May 2019, and no hotspot pixels were recognized using satellite thermal data from the MODVOLC algorithm.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Klyuchevskoy has had alternating eruptive and less active periods since August 2015. Activity has included lava flows, a growing cinder cone, thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and ash explosions. Though some eruptions occur near the summit crater, major explosive and effusive eruptions have also occurred from flank craters (BGVN 42:04 and 43:05). Intermittent moderate gas-and-steam and ash emissions were previously reported from mid-February to mid-August 2018. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity, some of which contained a small amount of ash, and weak thermal anomalies occurred intermittently from the beginning of September 2018 through mid-April 2019. On 21-22 April 2019 webcam data showed a gas-and-steam plume extending about 160 km SE (figure 31). Moderate Strombolian-type volcanism began late April 2019 and continued intermittently through June 2019. On 11-12 June webcam data showed explosions that sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 6 km, with the resulting ash plume extending about 200 km WNW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Gas-and-steam plume containing some amount of ash rising from the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 22 April 2019. Photo by A. Klimova, courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS).

Thermal anomalies were noted by KVERT during two days in September 2018, six days in April 2019, eleven days in May 2019, and six days in June 2019. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed infrequent weak thermal anomalies December 2018 through early May 2019.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Yasur volcano on Tanna Island has been characterized by Strombolian activity with large incandescent bombs, frequent explosions, lava fountaining, and ash emissions for much of its known eruptive history. Melanesians from nearby islands are believed to have settled Tanna in about 400 BCE; it is now part of the nation of Vanuatu, independent since 1980. The Kwamera language (or Tannese) spoken on the SE coast of the island is thought to be the source of the name of the island. No known oral history describes volcanic activity; the first written English-language documentation of activity dates to 5 August 1774, when Captain James Cook saw "a great fire" on Tanna Island. Cook realized that it "was a Volcano which threw up vast quantities of fire and smoak and made a rumbling noise which was heard at a good distance" (The Captain Cook Society) (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Incandescence, steam, and dark ash from Yasur fill the sky in this sketch representing Captain James Cook's landing in the 'Resolution' at Tanna Island on 5 August 1774. The form of the volcano is behind the ship, the incandescence is in the upper right next to the ship's masts. "Landing at Tanna" by William Hodges, 1775-1776, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. The Maritime Museum noted that this is one of a group of panel paintings produced by Hodges of encounters with islanders during the voyage, in which the European perception of each society at the time is portrayed. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons.

Based on numerous accounts from ships logs and other sources, volcanic activity has been continuous since that time. During periods of higher activity, multiple vents within the summit crater send ejecta 100 m or more above the crater rim, with large bombs occasionally landing hundreds of meters away. Continued activity during February-May 2019 is covered in this report with information provided by the Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) which monitors the volcano and satellite data; photographs from tourists also provide valuable information about this remote location.

VMGD has maintained Alert Level 2 at Yasur since October 2016, indicating that it is in a major state of unrest. There is a permanent exclusion zone within 395 m of the eruptive vents where access is prohibited due to multiple hazards, primarily from large incandescent bombs up to 4 m in diameter which have been ejected from the vents onto the crater rim in the past, resulting in fatalities (BGVN 20:08).

Satellite and ground based information all support high levels of thermal activity during February -May 2019. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued 11 times in February, 27 times in March, and 20 times each in April and May. The MIROVA graph also indicated the ongoing consistently high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 52). Plumes of SO2 emissions are common from Vanuatu's volcanoes; newer higher resolution data available beginning in 2019 reveal a persistent stream of SO2 from Yasur on a near-daily basis (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. The MIROVA graph of thermal energy at Yasur from 3 September 2018 through May 2019 indicates the ongoing activity at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The SO2 plumes from Yasur were persistent during January-May 2019 when they were visible many days of each week throughout the period. Top left: On 12 January plumes were visible drifting E from both Ambrym (top) and Yasur (bottom). Top right: Plumes drifted W from three Vanuatu volcanoes on 7 February, Gaua (top), Ambrym (middle) and Yasur (bottom). Bottom left: On 12 March N drifting plumes could be seen from Ambae (top) and Yasur (bottom). On 27 April, only Yasur had an SO2 plume drifting W. Courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center.

Satellite imagery confirmed that the heat sources from Yasur were vents within the summit crater of the pyroclastic cone. Both northern and southern vent areas were active. On 7 March 2019 the N vent area had a strong thermal signal. Ten days later, on 17 March, similar intensity thermal anomalies were present in both the N and S vent areas (figure 54). On 6 April the S vent area had a stronger signal, and gas emissions from both vents were drifting N (figure 55). Satellite imagery from 21 May 2019 indicated a strong thermal signal inside the crater in the area of the vents, and included a weaker signal clearly visible on the inside E crater rim. Strong Strombolian activity or spatter sending large incandescent bombs as far as the crater rim are a likely explanation for the signal (figure 56), underscoring the hazardous nature of approaching the crater rim.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Strong thermal anomalies from the crater of Yasur's pyroclastic cone seen in satellite images confirmed the ongoing high level of activity. Left: 7 March 2019, a strong thermal anomaly from the N vent area, shown with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Right: 17 March 2019, thermal anomalies at both the N and S vent areas, shown with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Strong thermal anomalies (left) and gas emissions (right) at Yasur were captured with different bands in the same Sentinel-2 satellite image on 6 April 2019. Left: The thermal anomaly in the S vent area was stronger than in the N vent area, "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: Gas plumes drifted N from both vent areas, "Natural color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Thermal activity from the crater of Yasur on 21 May 2019 produced a strong thermal signal from the center of the crater and a weaker signal on the inside E crater rim, likely the result of hazardous incandescent bombs and ejecta, frequent products of the activity at Yasur. Left: "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). The crater is about 0.5 km in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Tourists visit Yasur on a regular basis. A former lake on the N side of Yasur has left ripples in the sand deposits over older volcanic rocks on the N side of the volcano (figure 57) since it drained in 2000 (BGVN 28:01). Visitors are allowed to approach the S rim of the crater where incandescence from both the N and S vents is usually visible (figure 58). Incandescent spatter from the convecting lava in the vents is highly dangerous and unpredictable and often covers the inner slopes of the rim as well as sending bombs outside the crater (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. The pyroclastic cone of Yasur viewed from the north on 6 May 2019. Ripples in volcaniclastic sand in the foreground are remnants of a lake that was present on the N side of the volcano until a natural dam breached in 2000. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Two glowing vents were visible from the south rim of Yasur on 6 May 2019. The S vent area is in the foreground, the N vent area is in the upper left. Copyrighted by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Incandescent spatter at Yasur on 6 May 2019 sent fragments of lava against the inside crater wall and onto the rim. The convecting lava in the vent can be seen in the lower foreground. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); The Captain Cook Society (URL: https://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/225-years-ago-july-september-1774); Royal Museums Greenwich (URL: https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/13383.html); Wikimedia Commons, (URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Landing_at_Tana_one_of_the_New_Hebrides,_by_William_Hodges.jpg); Nick Page, Australia,Flickr: (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/152585166@N08/).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

With historical eruptions reported back to 1842, Papua New Guinea's Bagana volcano on the island of Bougainville has been characterized by viscous andesitic lava flows down the steep flanks of its cone, along with intermittent ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Ongoing thermal anomalies and frequent ash plumes have been typical of activity during the current eruption since it began in early 2000. Activity declined significantly in December 2018 and remained low through May 2019, the period covered in this report (figure 33). Information for this report comes primarily from satellite images and thermal data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The MIROVA plot of radiative power at Bagana from 1 September 2018 through May 2019 shows a marked decline in thermal activity during December 2018 after ash explosions and satellite observations of flows during the previous months. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The last ash emission at Bagana was reported on 1 December 2018 by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). A Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a linear thermal anomaly trending NW from the summit on 14 December (BGVN 50:01). On 8 January 2019, an image contained a dense steam plume drifting E and a very faint thermal anomaly on the N flank a few hundred meters from the summit. A more distinct thermal anomaly at the summit appeared on 22 February 2019 (figure 34). A visitor to the region photographed incandescence on the flank, likely from the volcano, at dawn around 19 February 2019 (figure 35).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at Bagana in January and February 2019. Left: a very faint thermal anomaly was N of the summit at the edge of the E-drifting steam plume on 8 January 2019. Right: A thermal anomaly was located at the summit, at the base of the NE-drifting steam plume on 22 February 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A visitor near Bagana spotted incandescence on the flank at dawn, possibly from a lava flow. Posted online 19 February 2019. Courtesy of Emily Stanford.

Two faint thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 19 March; a single one appeared on 29 March 2019 (figure 36). No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 images during April or May, but steam plumes and gas emissions were visible through cloud cover on multiple occasions (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Faint thermal anomalies at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery twice during March 2019. Left: 19 March, two anomalies appear right of the date label. Right: 29 March, a small anomaly appears right of the date label. Sentinel-2 image rendered with "Atmospheric Penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Steam and gas emissions at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery during April and May 2019. Left: A steam plume drifted NW from the summit on 23 April, visible through dense cloud cover. Right: A gas plume drifted SW from the summit on 18 May. Sentinel-2 image with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Emily Stanford (Twitter: https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady, image posted at https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady/status/1098052063009792001/photo/1).


Ambae (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambae

Vanuatu

15.389°S, 167.835°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Ambae (Aoba) is a large basaltic shield volcano in the New Hebrides arc, part of the multi-island country of Vanuatu. Its periodic phreatic and pyroclastic explosions originating in the summit crater lakes have been recorded since the 16th century. A pyroclastic cone appeared in Lake Voui during November 2005-February 2006 (BGVN 31:12, figure 30); an explosive eruption from a new pyroclastic cone in the lake began in mid-September 2017 (BGVN 43:02). Activity included high-altitude ash emissions (9.1 km), lava flows, and Strombolian activity. Intermittent pulses of ash emissions during the following months resulted in extensive ashfall and evacuations; multiple communities were affected by lahars. The most recent episode of the eruption from July to September 2018 (BGVN 44:02) resulted in 11-km-altitude ash plumes and the evacuation of the entire island due to heavy ashfall and lahars. This report covers activity from February to May 2019, with information provided by the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) and satellite data from multiple sources.

Activity diminished after the extensive eruptive phase of July-September 2018 when substantial ash plumes and ashfall resulted in evacuations. An explosion with an ash plume on 30 October 2018 was the last activity reported for 2018. Thermal alerts were reported by the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC thermal alerts system through January 2019, and the Log Radiative Power graph prepared by the MIROVA project showed decreasing thermal anomalies into June 2019 (figure 92). Satellite images recorded in April and May 2019 (figure 93) showed the configuration of the summit lakes to be little changed from the previous November except for the color (BGVN 44:02, figure 89). No ash emissions or SO2 plumes were reported during the period. VMGD noted that the volcano remained at Alert Level 2 through May 2019 with a 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. The MIROVA log radiative power plot for Ambae showed ongoing intermittent thermal anomalies from early September 2018 through May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Satellite imagery in April and May 2019 showed little change in the configuration of lakes at the summit of Ambae since November 2018 (see BGVN 44:02, figure 89). Left: 24 April 2019. Right: 29 May 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The island of Ambae, also known as Aoba, is a massive 2500 km3 basaltic shield that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes (Manaro Ngoru, Voui, and Manaro Lakua) is located at the summit within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. That large central edifice is also called Manaro Voui or Lombenben volcano. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui (or Vui) about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sangay (Ecuador) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Sangay is the southernmost active volcano in Ecuador, with confirmed historical eruptions going back to 1628. The previous eruption occurred during August and December and was characterized by ash plumes reaching 2,500 m above the crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows descended the eastern and southern flanks. This report summarizes activity during January through July 2019 and is based on reports by Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

After the December 2018 eruption there was a larger reduction in seismicity, down to one event per day. During January, February, and most of March there was no recorded activity and low seismicity until the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume at 0615 on 26 March. The ash plume rose to a height of around 1 km and dispersed to the SW as seen in GOES 16 satellite imagery as a dark plume within white meteorological clouds. There was no seismic data available due to technical problems with the station.

More persistent eruptive activity began on 10 May with thermal alerts (figure 30) and an ash plume at 0700 that dispersed to the W. An explosion was recorded at 1938 on 11 May, producing an ash plume and incandescent material down the flank (figure 31). Two M 2 earthquakes were detected between 3.5 and 9 km below the crater on 10 May, possibly corresponding to explosive activity. By 17 May there were two active eruptive centers, the central crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Sangay for the year ending June 2019. The plot shows the August to December 2018 eruption, a break in activity, and resumed activity in May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. An explosion at Sangay on 10 May 2019 sent ballistic projectiles up to 650 m above the crater at a velocity of over 400 km/hour, an ash plume that rose to over 600 m, and incandescent blocks that traveled over 1.5 km from the crater at velocities of around 150 km/hour. Screenshots are from video by IG-EPN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. A photograph of the southern flank of Sangay on 17 May 2019 with the corresponding thermal infrared image in the top right corner. The letters correspond to: a) a fissure to the W of the lava flow; b) an active lava flow from the Ñuñurcu dome; c) the central crater producing a volcanic gas plume; d) a pyroclastic flow deposit produced by collapsing material from the front of the lava flow. Prepared by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 3 – 2019).

Activity at the central crater by 21 May was characterized by sporadic explosive eruptions that ejected hot ballistic ejecta (blocks) with velocities over 400 km/hour; after landing on the flanks the blocks travelled out to 2.5 km from the crater. Ash plumes reached heights between 0.9-2.3 km above the crater and dispersed mainly to the W and NW; gas plumes also dispersed to the W. The Ñuñurcu dome is located around 190 m SSE of the central crater and by 21 May had produced a lava flow over 470 m long with a maximum width of 175 m and an estimated minimum volume of 300,000 to 600,000 m3. Small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls resulted from collapse of the lava flow front, depositing material over a broad area on the E-SE flanks (figure 33). One pyroclastic flow reached 340 m and covered an area of 14,300 m2. During the 17 May observation flight the lava flow surface reached 277°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. A view of the ESE flanks of Sangay on 17 May 2019. The area within the black dotted line is the main area of pyroclastic flow deposition from the Ñuñurco Dome. Photo by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

At the end of June activity was continuing at the central crater and Ñuñurco Dome. At least three lava flows had been generated from the dome down the SE flank and pyroclastic flows continued to form from the flow fronts (figure 34). Pyroclastic material had been washed into the Upano river and steam was observed in the Volcán River possibly due to the presence of hot rocks. Ash plumes continued through June reaching heights of 800 m above the crater (figure 35), but no ashfall had been reported in nearby communities.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 natural color (left) and thermal (center) images (bands 12, 11, 4), and 1:50 000 scale maps (right) of Sangay with interpretation on the background of a 30 m numerical terrain model (WGS84; Zone 17S) (Prepared by B. Bernard). The dates from top to bottom are 17 May, 22 May, 27 May, 16 June, and 26 June 2019. Prepared by B. Bernard; courtesy IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Plots giving the heights and dispersal direction of ash plumes at Sangay during May and June 2019. Top: Ash plume heights measures in meters above the crater. Bottom: A plot showing that the dominant dispersal direction of ash plumes is to the W during this time. Courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 26, Number 07 (July 2001)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Bezymianny (Russia)

Explosive eruption on 7 August sends plume to ~10 km altitude

Fournaise, Piton de la (France)

11 June-7 July eruption; two lava flows block highway

Kikai (Japan)

Ashfall and volcanic tremor through July 2001

Long Valley (United States)

Decreased seismicity during 1999-2000

Merapi (Indonesia)

Volcanism continues at decreased intensity; Alert reduced from 4 to 2

Ruapehu (New Zealand)

Tremor episode peaks on 16 February, lahars predicted for near future

Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom)

29 July dome collapse and rockfalls

Stromboli (Italy)

Continued Strombolian activity during March-May 2001; crater morphology changes

Suwanosejima (Japan)

Explosive eruptions in May and July

Tungurahua (Ecuador)

Summary of August 2000-August 2001 eruptive activity



Bezymianny (Russia) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Bezymianny

Russia

55.972°N, 160.595°E; summit elev. 2882 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosive eruption on 7 August sends plume to ~10 km altitude

Weak fumarolic activity and gas-steam plumes, along with several small earthquakes, occurred from the latter months of the year 2000 through July 2001. AVHRR satellite data confirmed a one-pixel thermal anomaly on 20 November at 0650, and a weak thermal anomaly on 3 January.

On 23-24 July, seismic and satellite data showed gas-and-steam plumes, along with shallow earthquakes and long local seismic events that were possibly due to collapses and/or avalanches. With the beginning of an extrusive process at the dome, the level of concern was raised from Green (volcano is dormant; normal seismicity and fumarolic activity) to Orange (volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time). KVERT reported that an AVHRR image at 0718 on 26 July revealed a 3-pixel thermal anomaly that had a maximum band-3 temperature of 26.8°C within a background near 8°C. The anomaly had a linear shape and SE-trend from the summit. Afterward, a weakening of activity occurred and the level of concern was lowered to Yellow (volcano is restless; eruption may occur). Intermittent weak activity, including shallow earthquakes, fumarolic activity above the dome, and long local seismic events were observed through 31 July. Weak shallow earthquakes within the volcano's edifice, along with probable collapses and avalanches were recorded during 6-9 August.

On 7 August at 1128 (6 August at 2228 UTC) an explosive eruption began. The level of concern was raised to Red (significant eruption is occurring or explosive eruption expected at any time). Spasmodic volcanic tremor up to 11.7 x 10-6 m/s was recorded until 1300. Tremor amplitude increased up to 1.0 x 10-6 m/s until 1410, then decreased. Observers in Klyuchi town reported that an ash plume 5 km above the volcano rose to 10 km by 1215, and extended to the E-SE. At the same time observers at Kozirevsk village reported that an ash plume rose 2-2.5 km above the dome and extended to the SW. At 1300 a gas-ash plume rose 2 km above the dome and extended SW 40 km. Observers at Kronoki seismic station reported an ash fall (50 g per square m). Satellite images showed a plume centered off the E coast of Kamchatka about 200 km south of Kronotsky. The plume was approximately 200 km long and 100 km wide and headed due S. A thermal anomaly showed that a viscous lava flow had formed at the dome of volcano. After the 7 August eruption through 31 August, background seismicity was recorded and occasional gas-and-steam clouds were observed. The level of concern was dropped to Green.

Geologic Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of (a)U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA; Tokyo VAAC, Tokyo, Japan (URL: https://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


11 June-7 July eruption; two lava flows block highway

A short seismic crisis with 126 recorded events started at Piton de la Fournaise on 11 June 2001 at 1327. At 1350 extensometer variations indicated that a new eruption had started on the ESE flank, in the same area as the previous eruption on 27 March 2001. En echelon fissures started at about 2.5 km elevation on the S flank, 200 m below the Dolomieu summit caldera. More fissures were located between 1.8 and 2 km elevation on the E flank at the southern base of crater Signal de l'Enclos and N of the Ducrot crater. Several lava flows descended the Grand Brûlé but their progression was very slow; at 1700 the front of the lava flow was still located at an elevation of ~1.5 km. On the morning of 12 June, only the lower fissure at 1.8 km elevation was still active. It was ~200 m long, with several lava fountains 20-30 m high. The lava flow followed the northern border of the 27 March lava and descended to about 400 m elevation in the Grand Brûlé.

On 16 June a cone began to form and lava fountains rose up to 30 m above the surface in an area at 1.8 km elevation. An active fissure was located on the E flank at the S base of crater Signal de l'Enclos. Tremor weakened but continued under the volcano's E flank through late June. Lava fountains were visible at two vents; at one vent strong degassing occurred, while at the other vent a boiling lava lake occasionally overflowed, sending lava towards the NE. New lava flows were observed on 29 June in the Grand Brûlé area traveling to the N. On 1 July an increase in tremor occurred for about 1 hour and was accompanied by strong degassing at the cone and a strong amount of lava emission. Several dozen small flows were visible by the next day. Tremor and the intensity of local earthquakes increased during the first week of July. The earthquakes had magnitudes less than 3 and were located under Dolomieu crater at a depth near sea level. On 6 and 7 July two aa lava flows, 80 and 100 m wide and up to 5 m high, crossed the national highway in the Grand Brûlé area (see figure 65). On the afternoon of 7 July the end of the eruption was marked by the disappearance of tremor and a dramatic decrease in the intensity of local earthquakes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. On 6 July 2001, police and security personnel watch as molten lava from Piton de la Fournaise blocks the main national RN 2 road, which connects Réunion island from E to S.

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Thomas Staudacher and Georges Boudon, Observatoire du Piton de la Fournaise Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris - B89, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05, France.


Kikai (Japan) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Kikai

Japan

30.793°N, 130.305°E; summit elev. 704 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ashfall and volcanic tremor through July 2001

This report covers activity through July 2001. Volcanic tremor was recorded during 20 to 23 July 2001. A seismometer about 700 m SW of Iwo-dake crater recorded 50-110 earthquakes daily, in comparison to 30-90 earthquakes recorded daily during December 2000 and March 2001. The Iwo-jima branch of the Mishima village office reported that ash fell during 19-21 July. A white plume rose to ~ 20 m above the crater. Faint ashfall and weak volcanic tremor had occurred since December 2000.

Geologic Background. Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. Kikai was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6300 years ago. Rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred in the 20th century at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km east of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima.

Information Contacts: Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html).


Long Valley (United States) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Long Valley

United States

37.7°N, 118.87°W; summit elev. 3390 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Decreased seismicity during 1999-2000

The following summarizes activity at Long Valley during 1999 (Hill, 1999) and 2000 (Hill, 2000). Summaries of activity during 1996, 1997 and 1998 can be found in BGVN 22:11, 22:12, and 24:06.

Summary of activity during 1999. The lowest level of activity within Long Valley since the onset of unrest in 1979-80 occurred in 1999. Earthquake activity and ground deformation were subdued throughout the year. The two largest earthquakes within the caldera were M 2.9 and 3.1 events that occurred on 1 January beneath the S margin of the caldera (5 km ESE of Mammoth Lakes), and on 27 March beneath the S margin of the resurgent dome (9 km E of Mammoth Lakes), respectively. On 24-25 February, a swarm of ~42 small earthquakes was centered just outside the caldera 1-2 km E of Lake Mary (5 km WSW of Mammoth Lakes); the largest in this sequence were M 3.2 and 2.9 events.

Two aspects of caldera seismicity during 1999 were noteworthy. One was the abrupt decrease in seismicity rate within the caldera on 15 May coincident with a M 5.6 earthquake S of the caldera in the Sierra Nevada. The second was a brief swarm of small earthquakes beneath the N flank of Mammoth Mountain within the hour following the M 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake of 16 October, the epicenter of which was in the Mojave Desert ~430 km SE of the caldera. This latter set of events appear to be a subtle example of remote triggering similar to events in the Long Valley caldera and elsewhere following the M 7.3 Landers earthquake in June 1992. Aside from a transient response to the 16 October earthquake, deformation within the caldera remained stationary through 1999.

The rate of deep long-period (LP) "volcanic" earthquake activity beneath the W flank of Mammoth Mountain tapered off following the elevated rate that persisted through the end of 1998. Deep LP earthquakes in 1999 included ~30 events, compared to an average of ~200 events/year during 1997-98. Initial results from the analysis of data collected during a 1997 seismic experiment indicates that these LP events occurred within a N-striking planar distribution that dips steeply (roughly 80°) W at depths of 10-20 km.

Carbon dioxide (CO2) soil-gas concentrations measured at fixed depths in the Horseshoe Lake (HSL) tree-kill area continued to show annual variation with snow depth and occasional fluctuations during the snow-free months. The only notable fluctuation in CO2 concentrations during 1999 involved a three-week increase at the SKI monitoring site (near Chair 19 in the Mammoth Mountain Ski Area) that began four days after the 15 May earthquake; whether these two events are related is unclear. With respect to the cold CO2 emissions from the soils, radioactive carbon measurements on cores from trees at the margin of the HSL tree-kill area indicated that the CO2 discharge in that area has been relatively constant since about 1995. Analyses of helium isotopic composition on the N side of Mammoth Mountain showed that the trend of decreasing 3He/4He at the MMF steam vent since 1997 was interrupted by a rise in May 1999 following a period of increased LP activity in the fall of 1998.

Summary of activity during 2000. Continuing the trend set in 1999, activity levels in the Long Valley caldera and vicinity remained low throughout 2000 (figure 23). Low-level earthquake activity within the caldera was scattered beneath the S moat, the S and E margins of the resurgent dome, and Mammoth Mountain. The largest of these intra-caldera earthquakes was a M 2.3 event that occurred as part of a cluster of half a dozen small earthquakes beneath Mammoth Mountain on 27 April. Activity in the Sierra Nevada immediately S of the caldera was largely concentrated in the aftershock zone of the 8 June 1998, 14 July 1998, and 15 May 1999 earthquakes. The largest earthquake of the year in the region was a M 3.8 earthquake on 20 January located in the Sierra Nevada midway between Convict Lake and Mt. Morrison.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Earthquake epicenters in the Long Valley region during 2000. Courtesy of the USGS.

The rate of deep LP earthquakes beneath the W flank of Mammoth Mountain, which began in 1989-90, accelerated significantly in 1997 through early 1998, tapered off in early 1999, and increased again in mid-2000 (figure 24). The increased rate began with a burst of some 15 events in July and included several additional bursts of 5-10 events each in December. Altogether, about 50 deep LP earthquakes were recorded at depths of 10-25 km beneath Mammoth Mountain during 2000.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Time history of deep LP earthquakes in the Long Valley caldera beneath Mammoth Mountain from 1989 through 2000. The continuous line shows cumulative number (right ordinate), and vertical lines indicate number of LP events per week (left ordinate). Courtesy of the USGS.

Two very-long-period (VLP) earthquakes were detected with hypocenters roughly 4 km beneath the summit of Mammoth Mountain; one on 6 July (0356 UTC) and the other on 13 August (0007 UTC). These two events, together with a similar event on 12 October 1996, are the only VLP earthquakes that have been detected beneath Mammoth Mountain since instrumental capability for detecting seismic events in this frequency band was acquired sometime in the 1990's. The fact that both the 6 July and 13 August VLP events were accompanied by spasmodic bursts of brittle failure earthquakes, opens the possibility that the 1989 Mammoth Mountain earthquake swarm, which included multiple episodes of spasmodic bursts, may have also included significant VLP activity. These Mammoth Mountain VLP events are similar to those beneath Kilauea, which Bernard Chouet and colleagues interpret as the result of small slugs of magma, magmatic brine, or magmatic gas moving through a crack-like restriction. At this low rate, these VLP events do not indicate impending volcanic activity.

No significant deformation episodes were recorded during 2000. The two-color EDM data show small fluctuations about a slight contraction (subsidence) of the resurgent dome of 0.5-1.0 cm for the year. The center of the resurgent dome remains roughly 80 cm higher than in the late 1970's prior to the last two decades of caldera unrest. In contrast to Yellowstone and Campi Flegrei calderas, which showed pronounced uplift through the early 1980's followed by partial subsidence, Long Valley caldera has yet to show any significant subsidence. Rabaul, the other large caldera with well-documented deformation over the last couple of decades, showed sustained uplift at varying rates through the 1980's and early 1990's with no evidence of subsidence until the onset of eruptive activity in September 1994.

Hydrological monitoring in the caldera revealed no significant changes in water wells or stream flow that might be attributable to caldera unrest. Short-term CO2-flux variations during the snow-free months in the HSL tree-kill area appeared to be primarily related to local meteorological conditions. These measurements also show that the total CO2 flux has remained relatively steady over the past several years with no indication of a systematic decline with time. Soil-gas CO2 measured at fixed depths in the HSL tree-kill area continue to show an annual variation with snow depth and occasional temporary fluctuations during the snow-free months. The only notable fluctuation in CO2 concentrations during 2000 occurred at the Laurel Springs station (LSP), which showed a spike in late April and a number of spikes from mid-June through September. The process leading to these spikes remains to be determined. At this point, however, these spikes do not represent a hazard of the sort associated with the sustained high CO2 flux in the Mammoth Mountain tree-kill areas.

References: Hill, David P., 1999, Review of Long Valley Caldera activity for 1999: Long Valley Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey.

Hill, David P., 2000, Long Valley Observatory quarterly report October-December 2000 and annual summary for 2000: Long Valley Observatory, Volcano Hazards Program, U.S. Geological Survey.

Geologic Background. The large 17 x 32 km Long Valley caldera east of the central Sierra Nevada Range formed as a result of the voluminous Bishop Tuff eruption about 760,000 years ago. Resurgent doming in the central part of the caldera occurred shortly afterwards, followed by rhyolitic eruptions from the caldera moat and the eruption of rhyodacite from outer ring fracture vents, ending about 50,000 years ago. During early resurgent doming the caldera was filled with a large lake that left strandlines on the caldera walls and the resurgent dome island; the lake eventually drained through the Owens River Gorge. The caldera remains thermally active, with many hot springs and fumaroles, and has had significant deformation, seismicity, and other unrest in recent years. The late-Pleistocene to Holocene Inyo Craters cut the NW topographic rim of the caldera, and along with Mammoth Mountain on the SW topographic rim, are west of the structural caldera and are chemically and tectonically distinct from the Long Valley magmatic system.

Information Contacts: David Hill, Long Valley Observatory, U.S. Geological Survey, Volcano Hazards Program, MS 910, 345 Middlefield Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025 USA (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/calvo/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Volcanism continues at decreased intensity; Alert reduced from 4 to 2

After the large 10 February eruption (see BGVN 26:01), volcanic activity, including lava avalanches and pyroclastic flows, continued but decreased in intensity. Pyroclastic flows entered the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers to a maximum runout distance of 2-3 km. High fumarole temperatures around the summit indicated that magma remained near the surface. The W and S sides of "lava dome 2001" grew and covered "lava dome 1997" to the S. Several fumaroles appeared to mark a fracture in the area of the 10 February eruption. Fractures formed in a similar manner prior to the November 1994 eruption.

The hazard status was at its highest level, 4 (on a scale of 1-4), through the week of 21-27 February 2001. The Alert Level was reduced to 3 the following week, and then to 2 during 7-13 March, where it remained through August.

Over the interval 14 February to 28 August, ash emissions rose up to ~150 m above the summit, and fumaroles emitted gas that rose up to ~950 m above the summit. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity, though over time they continued to decrease in number and amplitude. Observations on 10 and 17 March revealed that high-pressure fumaroles appeared on most of the dome's surface. An observer reported that on 13 April a small amount of ash fell around the Babadan Post Observatory ~7 km W of the volcano. Activity at Merapi increased during 23-29 April, with reports of several medium-sized pyroclastic flows. Table 10 provides a more detailed description of weekly activity at Mt. Merapi from 14 February through 28 August.

Table 10. Summary of activity at Merapi from 14 February through 28 August 2001. Courtesy of VSI.

Interval Description of Activity
14 Feb-20 Feb 2001 Lava and pyroclastic flows continued but decreased in intensity, pyroclastic flows entered the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebung rivers. Maximum runut 2-3 km. Flows traveled 1.5-2.5 km to the WSW for 1-2 hours. High temperatures around Merapi indicated that magma was near the surface; the W and S sides of "lava dome bgvn_2001" grew and covered "lava dome 1997" to the S; several fumaroles appeared to mark a fracture along where the 10 February eruption occurred.
21 Feb-27 Feb 2001 Volcanic activity decreased. Daily ash emissions rose to ~150 m above the summit.
07 Mar-13 Mar 2001 Volcanic activity decreased, 100 avalanches per day. Maximum runout of 2.3-2.5 km SW. On 6 March a pyroclastic flow deposited material up to 1.5 km down the Sat river.
14 Mar-20 Mar 2001 Volcanic activity continued, hot avalanches continued to enter the Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat rivers. Maximum runout of 2.5 km in the Sat river, pyroclastic flows up to 2.75 km down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity but decreased. On 19 March high-pressure fumaroles appeared on most of the dome's surface.
21 Mar-27 Mar 2001 Volcanic activity continued. hot avalanches continued to enter the Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat rivers. Maximum runout of 3 km in the Sat river. Pyroclastic flows traveled up to 1 km down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity but decreased. On 17 March a summit visit revealed that high-pressure fumaroles remained on most of the dome's surface.
11 Apr-17 Apr 2001 Volcanic activity continued. Lava avalanches continued to enter upstream areas of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers. Maximum runout of 2.5 km in the Sat river; an observer reported that 10 pyroclastic flows traveled down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers, reaching as far as 2.3 km in the Sat river. Fumaroles emitted steam and gas up to 950 m above the volcano's summit; number and amplitude of earthquakes was high but decreasing, seismic activity was dominated by avalanche earthquakes.
18 Apr-24 Apr 2001 Lava avalanches continued to fill the upstream areas of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers. Maximum runout of 2 km in the Sat river; 11 pyroclastic flows entered the Sat and Lamat rivers, reaching as far as 3 km. Avalanche earthquakes dominated the seismicity but their amplitude and frequency decreased; on 13 April a small amount of ash fell around the Babadan Post Observatory ~7 km W of the volcano.
25 Apr-1 May 2001 Lava avalanches continued to flow down the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers. Maximum runout of 2 km. Fumaroles emitted gas that rose up to 500 m above the summit, seismic activity dominated by earthquakes.
02 May-08 May 2001 Activity increased, with reports of several medium-sized pyroclastic flows. Four pyroclastic flows were observed traveling into the upper reaches of the Sat, Senowo, Lamat, and Bebeng rivers. Maximum runout of 1.8 km in the Sat river; lava avalanches traveled up to 2.5 km down the Sat river. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity.
11 Jul-17 Jul 2001 Lava avalanches. Maximum runout of 2.5 km SW. Low-pressure emissions from fumaroles rose 700 m above the volcano.
18 Jul-25 Jul 2001 52 lava avalanches. Maximum runout of 2.8 km SW. Emissions from low-pressure fumaroles rose to 755 m above the summit.
22 Aug-28 Aug 2001 Lava avalanches. Maximum runout of 2.8 km to the SW. Seismic activity dominated by avalanche earthquakes.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin VAAC, Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, Northern Territory 0811, Australia; Australian Broadcasting Company; Associated Press; Meteorological and Geophysical Agency of Indonesia (Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika, BMG), Jalan Angkasa I/2 Kemayoran, Jakarta Pusat 10720, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bmg.go.id/).


Ruapehu (New Zealand) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Ruapehu

New Zealand

39.28°S, 175.57°E; summit elev. 2797 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tremor episode peaks on 16 February, lahars predicted for near future

Ruapehu showed no signs of volcanic unrest from the end of September 2000 (described in BGVN 25:09) until mid-January 2001, when small to moderate amounts of volcanic tremor occurred. Ruapehu continued to experience low-level seismic activity, including volcanic earthquakes, through the beginning of February 2001. In mid-February, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (IGNS) reported several periods of moderately elevated volcanic tremor. An episode of strong volcanic tremor peaked on 16 February and was the strongest tremor recorded since the 1996 eruptions, but direct observations of the crater revealed a lack of unusual surface activity. By approximately 23 February the tremor had declined to background levels. After the tremor event in February, no eruptive activity occurred, and seismic activity continued at a low level. Ruapehu remained at Alert Level 1 (signs of volcanic unrest) throughout the time period.

According to the New Zealand Herald, Ruapehu's summit crater lake had filled at twice its normal rate over the summer of 2000, causing fears of a catastrophic mudslide in the near future. A massive lahar has been predicted within 6 years from the summer of 2002-2003, with a peak flow 50% larger than the 1953 Christmas Eve disaster that wiped out the Tangiwai rail bridge, killing 151 travelers. A $370,000 early-warning system is planned that would provide 1 hour warning of the lahar's arrival on the Desert Road and 2 hours warning of its arrival at Tangiwai.

Geologic Background. Ruapehu, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is a complex stratovolcano constructed during at least four cone-building episodes dating back to about 200,000 years ago. The 110 km3 dominantly andesitic volcanic massif is elongated in a NNE-SSW direction and surrounded by another 100 km3 ring plain of volcaniclastic debris, including the Murimoto debris-avalanche deposit on the NW flank. A series of subplinian eruptions took place between about 22,600 and 10,000 years ago, but pyroclastic flows have been infrequent. A single historically active vent, Crater Lake, is located in the broad summit region, but at least five other vents on the summit and flank have been active during the Holocene. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred in historical time from the Crater Lake vent, and tephra characteristics suggest that the crater lake may have formed as early as 3000 years ago. Lahars produced by phreatic eruptions from the summit crater lake are a hazard to a ski area on the upper flanks and to lower river valleys.

Information Contacts: Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences (IGNS), Private Bag 2000, Wairakei, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/); The New Zealand Herald, PO Box 32, Auckland, New Zealand.


Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Soufriere Hills

United Kingdom

16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


29 July dome collapse and rockfalls

This report covers the interval from 9 March to 17 August 2001 and chronicles ongoing dome growth, including a vigorous episode of dome collapse and mass wasting on 28-29 July. As reported in BGVN 26:02, on 25 February 2001, the direction of the continuing dome growth changed markedly, shifting its predominant growth from the volcano's E side towards the S side. Then, as also reported in the Bulletin, the character of the seismicity changed dramatically in early March with the number of hybrid earthquakes exceeding 300/week (table 37). However, by mid-March, seismic activity had decreased significantly. Dome growth with attendant rockfalls, pyroclastic flows, and ash clouds continued at low levels until early-May. A small pyroclastic flow occurred on 9 May and traveled ~2.5 km down the White River to the S of the dome. The number of rockfalls increased substantially in the following week and remained at higher levels until early August. Observations during the week of 11-18 May indicated that the main dome growth was still concentrated in the S sector of the dome, and a lobe of new lava was observed over Galway. Reports from the week of 8-15 June noted that the summit over Galway appeared to contain the highest point on the dome.

Table 37. Seismic and SO2 data from Soufriere Hills during 16 February to 17 August 2001. Courtesy of MVO.

Week Rockfall Hybrid Volcano-tectonic Long-period Range of Average Daily SO2 (tons/day)
16 Feb-23 Feb 2001 486 18 6 53 210-720
23 Feb-02 Mar 2001 729 388 3 58 180-1400
02 Mar-09 Mar 2001 629 280 4 45 100-1230
09 Mar-16 Mar 2001 294 4 0 23 360-460
16 Mar-23 Mar 2001 84 5 2 8 120-190
23 Mar-30 Mar 2001 33 5 3 1 200-275
30 Mar-06 Apr 2001 62 18 1 1 200-370
06 Apr-13 Apr 2001 52 9 6 3 40-520
13 Apr-20 Apr 2001 54 48 1 9 20-70
20 Apr-27 Apr 2001 31 10 1 2 100-250
27 Apr-04 May 2001 98 10 3 7 130-220
04 May-11 May 2001 104 34 6 22 80-180
11 May-18 May 2001 240 17 1 31 170
18 May-25 May 2001 237 26 0 109 700
25 May-01 Jun 2001 266 36 3 383 90-370
01 Jun-08 Jun 2001 224 25 6 164 130-320
08 Jun-15 Jun 2001 373 71 0 169 770-1410
15 Jun-22 Jun 2001 462 11 1 77 460-630
22 Jun-29 Jun 2001 299 1 0 26 860
29 Jun-06 Jul 2001 295 4 1 28 120
06 Jul-13 Jul 2001 297 7 0 38 347
13 Jul-20 Jul 2001 719 5 2 57 709-943
20 Jul-27 Jul 2001 706 8 1 30 339-854
27 Jul-03 Aug 2001 453 15 0 67 --
03 Aug-10 Aug 2001 258 13 2 13 680-950
10 Aug-17 Aug 2001 186 6 3 3 --

Two notable events occurred during the week of 29 June-6 July. First, on the morning of 30 June, there were prolonged rockfalls that involved ~0.5 x 106 m3 of material transported down the N side of the talus apron in the Tar River valley. Second, on the evening of 4 July, two small pyroclastic flows passed down the W flank of the volcano in the Amersham area, stopping ~1 km short of the sea. Following the pyroclastic flows in the Amersham area, the daytime entry zone (DETZ) was closed until further notice and has remained that way through at least 17 August.

Lava dome collapse. Shortly after 1700 on 29 July, a large pyroclastic flow passed down the Tar River valley on the volcano's E flank and a continuous, dense plume of ash developed and blew W. Pyroclastic-flow output increased gradually over the next three hours, with many of the flows reaching the sea. The downwind plume deposited substantial amounts of wet ash with accretionary lapilli over the residential areas of Salem, Isles Bay, and Olveston.

Pyroclastic-flow activity peaked at ~1950, when surge clouds associated with the largest flow moved out over the sea, followed by rock fragments falling over a wide area in the NW of the island in the sector between Salem and St. Peters. Some fragments were pumiceous, although the majority consisted of angular, dense lithic fragments generally less than a few centimeters in size, but with maximum dimensions of 6 cm. A second peak in pyroclastic-flow output took place shortly after 2200, when another large flow entered the sea and extended out from the shore for 0.5 km or more and rock fragments fell in the Salem area again. After about 0200 on 30 July seismic signals indicated that this dome collapse had largely finished, and the activity level declined rapidly. The ash plume from the collapse dispersed for considerable distances to the NW. Ash was deposited as far away as Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

Observation flights indicated that a large portion of the dome had collapsed. The general summit region dropped ~150 m and there was a complex, amphitheater-shaped scar several hundred meters deep incised into the core of the dome at the head of the Tar River valley. Within this scar, a new dome began extruding. Observations indicated that minor pyroclastic flows also occurred in the upper reaches of White's, Tuitt's, and Gages ghauts, and also on the southern flanks of the dome in the upper reaches of White River. The main pyroclastic flows in the Tar River were highly erosive; they incised a deep canyon extending across the delta region to the shore and split the delta into two distinct lobes. Analysis of seismic data indicated that the two most intensive periods of pyroclastic-flow activity were associated with explosive events related to the collapse of the largest fragments of the dome.

Reports after 3 August noted that activity at Soufriere Hills was at a low level, and it continued that way to the end of the reporting period (17 August). Small-scale rockfalls and minor pyroclastic flows occurred, but clear views of the upper parts of the volcano were hampered by clouds. Occasional views of the dome noted that it was continuing to grow in the scar produced by the 29 July collapse.

Geologic Background. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

Information Contacts: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Mongo Hill, Montserrat, West Indies (URL: http://www.mvo.ms/).


Stromboli (Italy) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued Strombolian activity during March-May 2001; crater morphology changes

This report discusses the period March-May 2001, which included a 10-day interval of field observations. Observers and instruments documented variable volcanism and seismicity ongoing since the last report (BGVN 26:04).

Seismic activity increased in early March, as recorded by the University of Udine summit station, which is located 300 m from the craters at 800 m elevation. On 13 March the number of events per day reached 200. The latter half of March was characterized by a decrease of tremor intensity and by a noteworthy number of saturating events (peaking at 63 on 20 March). In April a reprise of the tremor intensity occurred but the number of triggering seismic events decreased. May was characterized by an increased number of seismic events.

During 14 days (10-24 May) of continuous seismic, thermal, and infrasonic measurements, the authors recorded a detailed 16-hour-long log of activity, and they updated the crater terrace map (figures 65 and 66). During the period, 1,050 seismically determined Strombolian events were recorded overall. These came from the NE, Central, and SW craters, with respective craters discharging 463, 42, and 545 events, respectively. These data provide an average daily rate (over the 62-hour period) that ranged from 5 to 31 events/hour and averaged 17 events/hour. Thus, the average repose time between eruptions was ~3.5 min; the largest measured repose time for the three vents was 22 minutes.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. A sketch map showing Stromboli's Crater. The Terrace was drawn during 10-24 May 2001 from Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and fitted to the map produced from the September 1995 EDM survey of the Crater. Note that, the prefix "2" has been used to denote Central Crater vents as opposed to the "3" prefix used BGVN 25:08. The map does not use contours, instead the long lines show the steepest gradient of the slope. Courtesy of Andy Harris.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. A panoramic view of Stromboli's crater terrace area taken on 10 May from Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and highlighting plumes from synchronous activity at the two SW Crater vents (3/3, 3/2). Brown ash rose from 3/2 and gray ash rose from 3/3. Courtesy of Dave Rothery.

Breaking these statistics down by individual crater, the NE, Central, and SW craters had respective daily averages that ranged as follows: 2-21, 0-3, and 1-19 events/hour. The crater's average event rates were 8, 1, and 9 events/hour, respectively. This gives average repose times for the craters of 8, 69, and 7 min, respectively. For comparison, the maximum repose times at NE, Central, and SW craters were 46, 420 and 105 minutes.

As in May 2000 (BGVN 25:08), the NE Crater consisted of two smaller pits separated by a low septum, the two pits being the location of one and two active vents, respectively. Of these, the western-most vent (1/1) and eastern-most vent (1/2) were most active, with average rates of 4 and 3 events/hour, respectively, compared with ~1 event/hour for vent 1/3. The SW crater contained three active vents that often showed paired or synchronous activity. However, the exact combination of paired eruptions varied daily. For example, on 16 May, an eruption from 3/1 would often be followed by one from 3/2 within a few seconds; but, on 19 May, an eruption from 3/1 would be followed by one from 3/3. As in previous years, eruptions from the SW crater had longer durations and were richer in ash than those from the NE crater.

The frequency and style of activity at the NE crater showed significant variations. During 10-11 May, the NE crater erupted up to 10 times/hour. Events at vent 1/1 were characterized by single-shot, ejecta-loaded Strombolian eruptions, while those at vent 1/2 were long duration (typically 10-20 s), gas-rich eruptions with diffuse ejecta sprays. During 14-15 May, the eruption rate increased to 12-17 events/hour, as eruptions at 1/1 switched to longer duration (~10 s), gas-rich ejections mixed with ash and small bombs. At the same time, events from vent 1/2 contained more bombs that reached ~300 m above the crater. On 16 May, maximum eruption rates declined to 8 events/hour, and ejections from 1/1 and 1/2 were characterized by diffuse sprays of small incandescent bombs mixed with ash to ~200 m. During 17-20 May, activity from both vents was characterized by strong eruptions, often occurring in multiple pulses, with heavy bomb loads to 200-300 m above the crater, and maximum eruption rates of 21 events/hour. Activity declined by 21 May and, by 23 May, activity consisted of gas-rich eruptions with rare-to-no bombs and maximum eruption rates of 5-6 events/hour.

During 11-20 May, the eruption rate at the SW crater increased from 1-12 events/hour (11-16 May) to 6-19 events/hour (18-20 May). Events were typified by 20- to 40-second-long emissions of gas, ash, and bombs. During this period, the ash component appeared to decline and the bomb component appeared to increase. The area inundated by bombs gradually increased, reaching the outer flank of the NE crater by 17 May. Activity peaked on 22 May when strong eruptions with heavy bomb loads were observed. At this time bombs hit the cliff below the Pizzo Sopra la Fossa and cleared the lower section of the pizzo ridge where the lowest tourist shelters are located. Bombs ~0.5 m in diameter fell within 20 m of that location and the path was littered with fresh scoria tens of centimeters in diameter. By 23 May, activity had changed entirely with the eruption rate down to 5-6 events/hour and activity characterized by gas- and ash-rich ejections with few or no bombs.

The Central Crater had evolved significantly since May 2000, when the a funnel-shaped pit that had developed during 1997-99 in the SE sector of the crater (BGVN 24:06) was active with a single degassing vent only (BGVN 25:08). Over the intervening period this pit has filled and now has an inactive hornito. Since May 2000, a new hornito (2B) has developed on the rim of this pit, with a 5-10 m wide vent (2A) at its base. The 2A vent was incandescent by night and radiometer-measured temperatures were in the range 726-577°C.

The summit of the 2B hornito was occupied by an open vent that was the source of continuous gas emission with weakly formed puffs, but no eruptions during the observation period. Vent 2A was the source of vigorous degassing with well-formed puffs. Frequent vigorous phases here often sent one or two pieces of scoria to a height of 10 m above the vent rim. This vent was also the location of rare Strombolian explosions, with just 11 observed during the entire 62-hour observation period.

A new ~2 m wide vent (2C) had also opened towards the center of the Central Crater, and appeared to be the source of a small lava flow that was not observed during May 2000. The surface shows a pahoehoe form, and the flow extends around the base of the inactive hornito 2E and laps up against the back wall of the Crater Terrace (figure 65). Vent 2C was also the source of rare (24 over the entire observation period) Strombolian eruptions, characterized by loud, emissions that created well-formed column-shaped ejecta-bearing plumes.

Explanation of seismic events. In the discussion above, the number of seismic "events" is not directly comparable to the number of "eruptions" for two reasons. First, not all eruptions produce a seismic signal in the frequency range recorded by the short-period seismometer installed by University of Udine. Second, the seismic acquisition at Udine employs a trigger algorithm, which, although not perfectly efficient, has been kept constant since the installation of the 3-component station in 1992 to guarantee coherency between the graphs presented in the Bulletin.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Andy Harris, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, U.K.; Roberto Carniel, Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Università di Udine, via Cotonificio 114, I-33100 Udine, Italy (URL: http://www.swisseduc.ch/stromboli/); Maurizio Ripepe, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, via G. La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze, Italy; Emanuele Marchetti, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, via G. La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze, Italy; John Bailey, Department of Geology and Geophysics, SOEST, University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; Scott Rowland, Department of Geology and Geophysics, SOEST, University of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; Jürg Alean, Kantonsschule Zürcher Unterland, CH8180 Bülach, Switzerland; Dave Rothery, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, U.K.; Jonathan Dehn, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA; Stromboli On-line, maintained by Jürg Alean and Roberto Carniel (URL: http://www.swisseduc.ch/stromboli/).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosive eruptions in May and July

Several eruptions occurred at Suwanose-jima in May-July 2001. Beginning on the morning of 9 May 2001 volcanic activity increased at Suwanose-jima when a tremor event commenced (figure 4). The tremor increased at 1100 and became more violent at 2100.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Daily eruptions, tremor events, and B and A earthquakes registered at Suwanose-jima up to 11 May. Here, an eruption is defined as a volcanic earthquake, associated with an acoustic signal of more than 1 Pa. Courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

On 11 May an eruption produced ash clouds that rose to 1.8-7.6 km altitude. A seismo-acoustical record of an eruption signal on 10 May is shown on figure 5. Abundant ash fell on 11 May [in the village ~4 km SSW of the active crater].

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Seismo-acoustical record of an eruption signal received at Suwanose-jima on 10 May. The bottom panel shows the requisite acoustic signal that was recorded by a microphone. Courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

Vigorous eruptions on the evening of 12 May and the morning of 13 May deposited up to 3 cm of ash in the village (figure 6). At 0900 on 14 May the eruption seemed to have stopped.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Photo taken from a helicopter of the beginning of the 12 May eruption at Suwanose-jima. Courtesy of the Japanese Meteorological Agency.

The Sakurajima Volcano Observatory also reported that plumes associated with volcanic tremor events have been observed at Suwanose-jima since the new crater was formed during the December 2000 eruption.

Volcanic tremor was also detected near Suwanose-jima's On-take (Otake) crater beginning at 2200 on 25 July and lasting until at least 26 July. JMA reported that an eruption on 26 July at 1430 produced a volcanic plume that rose to 1.3 km above the crater and drifted to the S. That day seismometers ~2 km SW of the crater recorded explosions at 0501, 0558, 0935, and 1055. Ash fell [in the village] the morning of 26 July.

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan; Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan (URL: http://www.dpri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/); Setsuya Nakada and Hidefumi Watanabe, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html).


Tungurahua (Ecuador) — July 2001 Citation iconCite this Report

Tungurahua

Ecuador

1.467°S, 78.442°W; summit elev. 5023 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Summary of August 2000-August 2001 eruptive activity

Tungurahua was last discussed in BGVN 25:07, in a report covering the first half of the year 2000. This report was taken chiefly from available updates on the Instituto Geofísico (IG) website. Some of the graphics currently available there and discussed in this report cover the interval 1998-2000.

The subsequent part of this report focuses on activity from August 2000 through 15 August 2001. During this latter interval, aviation reports were issued daily, often several times a day. The final section of this report presents some statistics on Tungurahua's recent human impact from a report issued on 5 September 2001.

Tunguharua's continued eruptions were accompanied by varying SO2 fluxes, tremor, and earthquakes. Hazard concerns remained high, and plume heights reached over 11 km altitude (5 km over the summit) on three days in the first half of August 2001.

Observations during 2000. Between January and October 2000 Tungurahua produced significant discharges and explosions, some of which included impressive ash columns and shows of lava in the crater documenting the presence of shallow magma in the edifice. Seismically inferred magmatic intrusions took place in January, April-May, and August-October 2000. The critical seismicity included intense tremor and swarms of long-period and volcano-tectonic earthquakes.

As shown on figure 7, earthquakes of long-period (LP) and volcano-tectonic (VT) types both underwent progressive increases during the year 2000 but decreased again by November 2000. (More recent data were unavailable at the time of this writing.) Earthquakes attributed to explosions grew in number suddenly during November 1999 and then subsequently proceeded to decrease in number until becoming inconspicuous during late 2000. Elevated numbers of earthquakes, particularly LP earthquakes, correlated with eruptive outbursts (arrows). High numbers of LP earthquakes also persisted between outbursts.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Monthly number of earthquakes registered at Tungurahua during January 1998 to December 2000. High numbers of volcano-tectonic and long-period earthquakes generally occurred starting in middle to late 1999. Around this time, earthquakes with explosion signatures were sometimes abundant as well. Arrows indicate times of seismically inferred magmatic intrusions. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.

Figure 8 illustrates how during September 1999-December 2000 the energy contained in combined harmonic tremor and hydrothermally generated tremor underwent a sudden peak in January 2000, a time when the numbers of earthquakes seen on figure 1 also showed a strong rise. Two subsequent, progressively smaller peaks in tremor energy occurred at roughly 4-month intervals. Intervals of high tremor energy strongly correlated with eruptive outbursts.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. At Tungurahua, the energy contained in tremor (both harmonic and hydrothermal types) during September 1999-December 2000. The interval of maximum tremor energy, around January 2000, developed rapidly and then decreased through time at least as late as December 2000. The intervals that included the highest tremor energy were inferred to reflect magmatic intrusions (arrows). Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.

SO2 flux climbed to over 10,000 tons/day during late 1999 and early 2000, but dropped thereafter stabilizing in the hundreds of tons per day range in late 2000 (figure 9). A synopsis of SO2 flux has yet to be reported for 2001. A statement discussing the week of 10-16 January 2001 noted that SO2 flux had been in the 1,000 tons/day range but had risen to 2,000-2,400 tons/day. During that same week, new fumaroles were noted at an inaccessible spot on the NW flank above Baños. Plumes that week rose at least one kilometer over the summit (table 4).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. SO2 flux measured at Tungurahua during July 1999-December 2000. After the large peaks (~10,000 tons/day) the SO2 values dropped significantly and then tended to decrease through the end of 2000. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.

Table 4. A summary of hazard status and plume height observations for Tungurahua, 1 November 2000 to 21 August 2001. These data were summarized from GVP / USGS WeeklyRreports derived from IG data. Some of the taller plume heights came from the Washington VAAC and were based on satellite imagery and local aviation reports.

Dates Description of Activity
01 Nov-07 Nov 2000 Plumes 0.5 km above crater.
08 Nov-14 Nov 2000 13 November small ash cloud near the summit level blown SE.
22 Nov-28 Nov 2000 27 November small ash-and-gas discharges reached 0.5 km above the summit.
29 Nov-05 Dec 2000 Sporadic gas column. Plumes 0.3-0.5 km above crater.
06 Dec-12 Dec 2000 9 December ash cloud moving SW at summit height.
13 Dec-19 Dec 2000 14 December ash cloud moving NE at 0.5 km above the summit.
20 Dec-26 Dec 2000 21 December ash cloud at 1 km above the summit but not seen on GOES-8 imagery.
03 Jan-09 Jan 2001 Plumes seen several times during this week; no ash visible. Emissions on 3-4 January were moderate sized and ash bearing. 2.9-km maximum plume height.
10 Jan-16 Jan 2001 Plumes ~ 2 km above crater.
17 Jan-23 Jan 2001 Plumes ~ 2 km above crater.
14 Feb-20 Feb 2001 19 February lahars down NW flank via Cusua Gorge; steam column to 1 km.
21 Feb-27 Feb 2001 Plumes ~ 4 km above crater.
14 Mar-20 Mar 2001 13 March ash cloud moving NW at 4.6 km above the summit. 15 March ash cloud 3.2 km above the summit. 16 March ash cloud 3.8 km above the summit.
21 Mar-27 Mar 2001 22 March incandescent eruption column 2 km above the summit; 23 March ash cloud ~2 km above the summit resulting from a half-hour emission.
28 Mar-03 Apr 2001 29 March ash cloud moving W at 1 km above the summit; another small eruption on 2 April.
11 Apr-17 Apr 2001 Plumes ~2 km above crater.
18 Apr-24 Apr 2001 Incandescent dome followed by small steam columns.
25 Apr-01 May 2001 25 April ash cloud at 2 km; more eruptions followed but poor visibility. 29 and 30 April lahars to the Pampas, Cusua, Hacienda, and Achupashal sectors; river levels rose in the Ulba and Mandur sectors. Lahars in Pampas sector blocked the Pelileo-Banos channel during 0710 to 1100 on 29 April and destroyed the highway.
02 May-08 May 2001 Small steam-and-ash plumes during the week. Possible small lahar on 3 May.
09 May-15 May 2001 Heavy rainfall caused remobilization of ash deposited on the upper flanks, producing several lahars. Lahars went down the Cusua, Basural, Mandur, Bascun, and Ulba gorges and closed the Banos-Riobamba highway and blocked a route to the town of Banos.
16 May-22 May 2001 Small 15 May eruptions sent ash up to 3 km above the summit. Light ash fell in the towns of Cotalo and Bilbao. 17 May ash cloud 4 km above the summit drifted SW. Intense activity suggested by seismicity but cloudy conditions. 19 May ash cloud rose to 1.7 km.
23 May-29 May 2001 2-km-high ash plume on 26 May, poor visibility.
30 May-05 Jun 2001 Activity increased. A large number of long-period earthquakes accompanied several small eruptions and near-continuous ash clouds. 31 May eruption sent an ash cloud up to 2.9 km above the summit, which drifted W. Incandescent blocks ejected and a sound like a cannon shot was heard kilometers away. Eruptions on 29 May at 2012 sent ash 2.2 km above the summit, on 30 May at 1211 (ash plume to unknown height), and on 2 June at 1709 with an ash plume 2.9 km above the summit. Incandescent material visible in the crater.
06 Jun-12 Jun 2001 Several small eruptions. 5 June ash cloud moving W at 2 km above the summit.
13 Jun-19 Jun 2001 4.7-7 km maximum plume height.
20 Jun-26 Jun 2001 22 June eruptions at 0630 and 0652 sent ash clouds 0.8 and 3.8 km above the summit, respectively. No ash visible on satellite imagery. Small explosions 25 June at 0138 and 1328 produced ash clouds that rose ~1 km above the summit and drifted W. Small amounts of ash deposited in the town of Ambato, ~40 km NW.
27 Jun-03 Jul 2001 17 and 28 June ash clouds to 2 km above the summit; ash fell W, damaging crops. 3 July W-drifting ash 0.8-2.6 km above the summit.
04 Jul-10 Jul 2001 5 July a larger-than-average ash plume rose to 2.6 km above the summit; however, satellite imagery and additional information suggested that a dense, SE-drifting ash cloud rose to 4 km above the summit.
11 Jul-17 Jul 2001 12 July an eruption sent a cloud to ~3.3 km above the summit; it drifted W to NW.
18 Jul-24 Jul 2001 Heavy rain remobilized ash deposited on the flanks, generating lahars, and several small-to-moderate eruptions produced ash clouds. On 19 July lahars down the W flank reached the Banos-Riobamba highway. Larger eruption on 20 July produced an ash cloud that rose to ~2.9 km above the summit.
25 Jul-31 Jul 2001 25 July the highest ash cloud of the week rose ~4 km above the summit and drifted SW.
01 Aug-07 Aug 2001 2 August until at least 3 August there was an increase in activity. Continuous tremor began on 3 August; maybe associated with continuous ash emission. Several eruptions during the week; largest on 5 August produced ash cloud to ~7.5 km above the summit.
08 Aug-14 Aug 2001 Ongoing eruptions since at least 6 August, sending steam-and-ash clouds to 2.5-8 km above the summit. Ash clouds primarily drifted W. On 13 August three particularly strong emissions at about 0630, 1200, and 1315. Two distinct areas of ash visible in satellite imagery; one contained ash from the strong emissions, rose to ~6.6 km above the summit and drifted E; the other ash cloud was fed from continuous emissions and possibly rose to ~5 km above the summit and drifted SW. On 14 August one of about five explosions ascended to 8 km above the summit. It was emitted at 0746 and had a reduced displacement of 13.2 cm2.
15 Aug-21 Aug 2001 Series of eruptions that began on 6 August continued during the week. Seismicity characterized by many long-period earthquakes and seismic signals that represented ash emissions. Several sporadic explosions occurred, with the largest explosion beginning on 15 August. The eruption produced an ash cloud that rose to 7.2 km above the summit. On 17 August volcanic activity increased slightly and incandescent material was ejected up to 1 km W of the crater. According to news reports, as of 15 August ash affected more than 23,000 people, blanketed approximately 89,000 acres of crops, and killed an undetermined number of livestock.

Reports noted an inferred intrusion during 9-12 October 2000. On 13 October, a debris flow occurred, but volcanism diminished considerably. The last explosion around this time took place on 23 October.

At the beginning of December 2000, IG survey crews detected a slight swelling in the EDM lines on the volcano's NW flank. An electronic inclinometer that could have helped confirm this deformation was located above the Refugio station. Unfortunately it was damaged when struck by rocks.

Summary of activity during November 2000-August 2001.Variable ash-cloud heights and other activity are summarized in table 1, which covers the time interval 1 November 2000 through 15 August 2001. Stated in terms of height above the summit, ash clouds rose to more than 7 km on two days in August; to 6 km on 1 day in August; and to 2-4 km on 38 days, mostly in June and July. Smaller ash clouds ascended 1-2 km on 28 days in the early months of 2001. Plumes ascended

During 17 October 1999-12 November 2000 ash plume heights exceeded 7 km over the summit on 8 days, chiefly during late 1999 through early 2000. In October 1999 an ash plume rose to ~13 km over the summit.

Observations during 2001. In early January 2001, two volcano-tectonic (VT) events were located 4-5 km below the NW flank. After 3 January, Tungurahua's 300-m-diameter summit crater had an increase in ash emissions, seen visually from the Guadalupe branch observatory, 11 km N of the volcano (table 1).

New fumaroles became apparent in late November 2000 at 4,400 m elevation on the NW flank, in the main drainage that feeds into the town of Baños (population 18,000). The fumaroles were located in a 100- to 150-m-long area.

During 10-12 June 2001, uncommonly intense and prolonged rains fell over the eastern provinces and the Andean foothills of Ecuador. At one pluviometer (rain gauge) that the IG operates on Tungurahua's NW flank, 120 mm of rain fell in two days. The rain-generated lahars that flowed down Tungurahua's flanks were the largest ever recorded, carrying volcanic blocks the size of small cars. The lahars closed the road between Ambato and Baños for hours and totally destroyed the road between Baños and Penipe. Other floods and lahars were recorded in rivers born on the volcano. Along the Vascun and Ulba rivers, some houses on the flood plains were inundated but not destroyed. The Rio Pastaza, on the N flank of Tungurahua, registered a record water flow rate of 1,760 m3/s.

The rains triggered a landslide that overcame two people living downstream of Baños in the vicinity of Rio Negro. Out milking cows, they were swept into the nearby Pastaza river. These two deaths, although in Tungurahua province, were not related to the lahars. As of July 2001, no one had died from the recent lahars. All together, the rainy season left a death toll of ~80 people in Ecuador, including losses from landslides and flooding away from the volcano.

An explosion on 17 June 2001 rose 4.8-7 km above the summit. Owing to clear weather, it was witnessed by many of the region's inhabitants. No pyroclastic flows were produced, and the explosion ceased after about a minute. After that time, the volcano produced about 1 explosion/day. These mid-June explosions were relatively small (their seismic signatures had reduced displacements of 2-5 cm2), but they generally came without warning.

Light ashfalls were also frequent W of the volcano. They affected many crops (including corn, peas, beans, potatoes, tomatoes, blackberries, and squash; as well as orchards of peaches and apples). A 27 August report by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) stated that by late August 2001 various areas had received up to 2.5 cm of ash.

Scientists came to believe that a weak seal was forming in the volcano's conduit system. The seal was thought to break under sufficient recharge pressure. In addition, this new spurt of mid-June activity could be attributed to a small injection of magma that was believed to have occurred during 17-18 May. The fresh injection rose up through the conduit and was seen as incandescence on 26 May and when Strombolian fountaining was observed. Later explosions could stem from residual gases and heat.

Earth Probe TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) detected a weak ash and SO2 plume from Tungurahua on 6 August at around 0630. The plume was directed generally WSW and extended to approximately 4°S, 83°W, containing an estimated SO2mass of

Practice evacuation and maps. On 26 June 2001, 2,000-3,000 people in Baños conducted a simulated evacuation, the first in over a year. It was organized by "Ojos del Volcán" ("Eyes of the Volcano"), a local organization whose members include hotel owners, climbing guides, and tour operators. Other organizers included the IG, local civil defense authorities, the Red Cross, police, firefighters, and health officials. Participants walked to three previously identified zones of temporary refuge. The exercise was successful and revealed some unforseen shortcomings in the local disaster plans. Figures 10 and 11 show maps indicating topography and potential hazard zones.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Diagram showing Tunguharua's landscape as seen from the SW. Note N arrow along left margin. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Generalized Tunguharua hazards map (N is towards the top) indicating areas of relative risk. The city of Baños lies within the zone of highest potential risk (central, darker shaded area). The town of Patate lies within the zone of lowest potential risk (lightly shaded); Pelileo Nuevo and Pelileo Viejo lie just outside this zone. Lahar risks continue hundreds of kilometers off the map towards the E along the downstream portions of the Rio Pastaza (dark strand intersecting the map's E margin). The Pastaza is confined by a dam ~4 km E of Baños. Solid and dashed curves represent areas with inferred risks from airfall ash. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico.

Human impact. A report was issued by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs on 5 September 2001, following a multi-agency meeting the day before. The report cited updated Civil Defense statistics on Tungurahua's impact.

As of 5 September, no ash had fallen in the previous 10 days; still, 39,000 people (8,000 families) had been affected by the volcano. Respiratory infections had increased. Ash had affected potable water supplies in some rural communities prompting more water-quality monitoring. There were 3,107 houses damaged.

A total of 53,597 hectares (ha) of farmland and pastures have been affected, of which 17,017 ha lie in the province of Tungurahua, 28,580 ha in Chimborazo, and 8,000 ha in Bolivar. Due to stress and new feed, 13,113 cattle developed health problems. Some were evacuated. The report also discussed a system for enlisting and tracking relief contributions.

Geologic Background. Tungurahua, a steep-sided andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano that towers more than 3 km above its northern base, is one of Ecuador's most active volcanoes. Three major edifices have been sequentially constructed since the mid-Pleistocene over a basement of metamorphic rocks. Tungurahua II was built within the past 14,000 years following the collapse of the initial edifice. Tungurahua II itself collapsed about 3000 years ago and produced a large debris-avalanche deposit and a horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the west, inside which the modern glacier-capped stratovolcano (Tungurahua III) was constructed. Historical eruptions have all originated from the summit crater, accompanied by strong explosions and sometimes by pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached populated areas at the volcano's base. Prior to a long-term eruption beginning in 1999 that caused the temporary evacuation of the city of Baños at the foot of the volcano, the last major eruption had occurred from 1916 to 1918, although minor activity continued until 1925.

Information Contacts: Geophysical Institute (Instituto Geofísico), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Apartado 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador; Associated Press; NOAA Operational Significant Events Imagery Support Team (OSEI), NOAA/NESDIS, World Weather Building, Room 510, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20748 (URL: https://www.nnvl.noaa.gov/); Washington VAAC, Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/); Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), U.S. Geological Survey, 5400 MacArthur Blvd, Vancouver, WA 98661 (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vdap/); Simon Carn and Arlin Krueger, Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology (NASA/UMBC), University of Maryland Baltimore County, Academic IV-/a, Room 114J, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250; Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), United Nations, New York, NY 10017 USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/); Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), United Nations, 525-23rd Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 USA (URL: http://www.paho.org/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).