Logo link to homepage

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Heard (Australia) Thermal hotspots persist at Mawson Peak, lava flows visible in satellite data November 2017-September 2018

Krakatau (Indonesia) Strombolian, lava flow, and explosive activities resume, June-October 2018

Saunders (United Kingdom) Intermittent thermal pulses and satellite imagery hotspots during September 2016-September 2018

Karymsky (Russia) Thermal anomalies and ash explosions during August-September 2018

Nishinoshima (Japan) Quiescence interrupted by brief lava flow emission and small explosions in July 2018

Mayon (Philippines) Low activity during April-September with some ash plumes and ongoing crater incandescence

Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies in the crater and Coastal Vent through September 2018

Ketoi (Russia) Plume of uncertain composition reported based on satellite data one day in September

Semeru (Indonesia) Small ash plumes in February, April, July, and August 2018; persistent thermal hotspot in the crater

Sinabung (Indonesia) No significant ash plumes seen after 22 June 2018; minor ash in early July

Telica (Nicaragua) Explosions on 21 June and 15 August 2018; local ashfall from June event

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Intermittent weak phreatic explosions during January-March and July-August 2018



Heard (Australia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Heard

Australia

53.106°S, 73.513°E; summit elev. 2745 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal hotspots persist at Mawson Peak, lava flows visible in satellite data November 2017-September 2018

Remote Heard Island in the southern Indian Ocean is home to the snow-covered Big Ben stratovolcano, which has had confirmed intermittent activity since 1910. The nearest continental landmass, Antarctica, lies over 1,000 km S. Visual confirmation of lava flows on Heard are rare; thermal anomalies and hotspots detected by satellite-based instruments provide the most reliable information about eruptive activity. Thermal alerts reappeared in September 2012 after a four-year hiatus (BGVN 38:01), and have been intermittent since that time. Information comes from instruments on the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-2 satellite and MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomaly data from other satellite instruments. This report reviews evidence for eruptive activity from November 2017 through September 2018.

Satellite observations indicated intermittent hot spots at the summit through 12 December 2017. A few observations in January and February 2018 suggested steam plumes at the summit, but no significant thermal activity. An infrared pixel indicative of renewed thermal activity appeared again on 7 March, and similar observations were made at least twice each month in April and May. Activity increased significantly during June and remained elevated through September 2018 with multiple days of hotspot observations in satellite data each of those months, including images that indicated lava flowing in different directions from Mawson Peak. MODVOLC and MIROVA data also indicated increased thermal activity during June-September 2018.

Activity during October-December 2017. MIROVA thermal anomalies recorded during October 2017 indicated ongoing thermal activity at Heard (figure 32). This was confirmed by Sentinel-2 satellite imagery that revealed hotpots at the summit on ten different days in October (3, 6, 8, 13, 16, 21, 23, 26, 28, and 31), and included images suggesting lava flows descending from the summit in different directions on different days (figure 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. MODVOLC thermal alerts indicated significant thermal activity at Heard during October 2017 that tapered off during November. Intermittent signals appeared in December 2017, March, and April 2018, and a strong signal returned in June 2018 that continued through September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano during October 2017 showed strong evidence of active effusive activity. a) 3 October 2017: at least three hot spots were visible through cloud cover at the summit and W of Mawson Peak, suggesting active lava flows. b) 6 October 2017: a small hot spot is visible at the peak with a small steam plume, and a larger hotspot to the NW suggested a still active lava flow. c) 16 October 2017: a small hotspot at the summit and larger hotspots W of the summit were indicative of ongoing flow activity. d) 23 October 2017: a steam plume drifted SE from a small summit hotspot and a larger hotspot to the W suggested a lava lake or active flow. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The MODVOLC thermal alert data showed no further alerts for the year after 22 October 2017, and the MIROVA system anomalies tapered off in mid-November 2017. The Sentinel-2 satellite imagery, however, continued to record intermittent hotspots at and around Mawson Peak, the summit of Big Ben volcano, into December 2017 (figure 34). Hotspots were visible during six days in November (7, 15, 20, 25, 27, and 30) and three days during December (5, 7, and 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed reduced but ongoing thermal activity during November and December 2017. a) 7 November 2017: a steam plume drifts NE from a hotspot at Mawson Peak. b and c) 15 November and 12 December 2017: a small hotspot is distinct at the summit. d) 20 December 2017: a steam plume drifts east from the peak, but no clear hotspot is visible. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January-May 2018. The satellite images during January and February 2018 were indicative of steam plumes at the summit, but distinct thermal signals reappeared on 7 and 12 March 2018 (figure 35). In spite of extensive cloud cover, the Sentinel-2 imagery also captured thermal signals twice each month in April (4 and 14) and May (9 and 14) (figure 36).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed only steam plumes at the summit during January and February, but hotspots reappeared in March 2018. a) 4 January 2018: a steam plume drifts SE from the summit under clear skies. b) 8 February 2018: a steam plume drifts SE from the summit adjacent to a large cloud on the N side of the volcano. c) 7 March 2018: the first hotspot in about three months is visible at the summit. d) 12 March 2018: a distinct hotspot is visible at Mawson Peak. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed intermittent low-level thermal activity during April and May 2018. a) 4 April 2018: a small hotspot is visible at the summit through a hazy atmosphere. b) 9 May 2018: a distinct hotspot glows from the summit beneath cloud cover. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view(bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during June-September 2018. Thermal signals increased significantly in the satellite data during June 2018. The sizes of the thermal anomalies were bigger, and they were visible at least nine days of the month (3, 5, 8, 10, 15, 18, 23, 25, and 30). Five substantial thermal signals appeared during July (3, 10, 15, 18, and 28); images on 23 June and 3 July distinctly show a lava flow trending NE from the summit (figure 37). MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared in June 2018 on three days (2, 26, and 27) and on four days during July (7, 8, 9, 10) indicating increased activity during this time. The MIROVA thermal signals also showed a substantial increase in early June that peaked in mid-July and remained steady through September 2018 (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed significantly increased thermal activity during June and July 2018. a) 8 June 2018: a substantial hotspot is visible through the cloud cover at the summit of Big Ben. b) 10 June 2018: the darker red hotspot at Mawson Peak was significantly larger than it was earlier in the year. c) 23 June 2018: the first multi-point hotspot since 31 October shows a distinct glow trending NE from the summit. d) 3 July 2018: a trail of hotspots defines a lava flow curving NNE from Mawson Peak. e) 18 July 2018: a second significant hotpot is visible a few hundred meters NE of the summit hotspot indicating a still active flow. f) 28 July 2018: the summit hotspot continued to glow brightly at the end of July, but no second hotspot was visible. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Six images in August (2, 7, 9, 22, 27, 29) showed evidence of active lava at the summit, and suggested flows both NE and SE from the summit that were long enough to cause multiple hotspots (figure 38). During September and early October 2018 the satellite images continued to show multiple hotspots that indicated flow activity tens of meters SE from the summit multiple days of each month (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano showed lava flow activity in two different directions from the summit during August 2018. a) 2 August 2018: lava flows NE from Mawson Peak while a steam plume drifts E from the summit. b) 9 August 2018: a second hotspot NE of the summit hotspot indicates continued flow activity in the same area observed on 2 August. c and d) 27 and 29 August 2018: a different secondary hotspot appeared SSE from the summit indicating a distinct flow event from the one recorded earlier in August. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 images of Heard Island's Big Ben volcano in September and October 2018 showed hotspots indicating active flows SE of the summit on multiple days. a) 3 September 2018: a small hotspot at the summit and a larger hotspot SE of the summit indicated continued flow activity. b) 3 October 2018: a small steam plume drifted east from a small hotspot at the summit and a larger pair of hotspots to the SE indicated continued effusive activity. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of ESA Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Heard Island on the Kerguelen Plateau in the southern Indian Ocean consists primarily of the emergent portion of two volcanic structures. The large glacier-covered composite basaltic-to-trachytic cone of Big Ben comprises most of the island, and the smaller Mt. Dixon volcano lies at the NW tip of the island across a narrow isthmus. Little is known about the structure of Big Ben volcano because of its extensive ice cover. The historically active Mawson Peak forms the island's 2745-m high point and lies within a 5-6 km wide caldera breached to the SW side of Big Ben. Small satellitic scoria cones are mostly located on the northern coast. Several subglacial eruptions have been reported in historical time at this isolated volcano, but observations are infrequent and additional activity may have occurred.

Information Contacts: Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Krakatau (Indonesia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian, lava flow, and explosive activities resume, June-October 2018

Krakatau volcano in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, Indonesia experienced a major caldera collapse, likely in 535 CE, that formed a 7-km-wide caldera ringed by three islands (see inset figure 23, BGVN 36:08). Remnants of this volcano coalesced to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island which collapsed during the 1883 eruption. The post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau), constructed within the 1883 caldera has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927. The most recent event was a brief episode of Strombolian activity, ash plumes, and a lava flow during the second half of February 2017. Activity resumed in late June 2018 and continued through early October, the period covered in this report. Information is provided primarily by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, referred to as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG). Aviation reports are provided by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and photographs came from several social media sources and professional photographers.

After the brief event during February 2017, Anak Krakatau remained quiet for about 15 months. PVMBG kept the Alert Level at II, noting no significant changes until mid-June 2018. Increased seismicity on 18 June was followed by explosions with ash plumes beginning on 21 June. Intermittent ash emissions were accompanied by Strombolian activity with large blocks of incandescent ejecta that traveled down the flanks to the ocean throughout July. Explosions were reported as short bursts of seismic activity, repeating multiple times in a day, and producing dense black ash plumes that rose a few hundred meters from the summit. Similar activity continued throughout August, with the addition of a lava flow visible on the S flank that reached the ocean during 4-5 August. Generally increased activity in September resulted in the highest ash plumes of the period, up to 4.9 km altitude on 8 September; high-intensity explosions were heard tens of kilometers away during 9-10 September. PVMBG reported significantly increased numbers of daily explosions during the second half of the month. The thermal signature recorded in satellite data also increased during September, and a large SO2 plume was recorded in satellite data on 23 September.

Activity during June-July 2018. PVMBG noted an increase in seismic activity beginning on 18 June 2018. Foggy conditions hampered visual observations during 19-20 June, but on 21 June gray plumes were observed rising 100-200 m above the summit (figure 41). Two ash plumes were reported on 25 June; the first rose to about 1 km altitude and drifted N, and the second rose to 600 m altitude and drifted S (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Anak Krakatau began a new eruptive episode on 21 June 2018 with an ash plume that rose 200 m above the summit. Photo by undisclosed source, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen‏.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. The first of two ash plumes rose to about 1 km altitude and drifted N from Anak Krakatau on 25 June 2018; the first events after about 18 months of no activity were reported on 21 June. Courtesy of PVMBG (Eruption Information on Mt. Anak Krakatau, June 25, 2018).

Incandescence was observed at the summit during 1-2 July 2018, and two ash emissions were reported in VONA's (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) on 3 July. PVMBG reported that during 4-5 July there were four additional ash-producing events, each lasting between 30 and 41 seconds. The last three of these events produced ash plumes that rose 300-500 m above the crater rim and drifted N and NW. The Darwin VAAC reported essentially continuous ash emissions during 3-9 July drifting generally W and SW at about 1.2 km altitude (figure 43). They were intermittently visible in satellite imagery when not obscured by meteoric clouds.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. A dense gray ash plume rose several hundred meters above Anak Krakatau on 7 July 2018 (local time) while large volcanic bombs traveled down the flanks. Photo by Sam Hidayat, courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen‏.

Ash plumes were again observed by the Darwin VAAC in satellite imagery beginning on 13 July 2018 at 1.2 km altitude drifting NW. They were essentially continuous until they gradually decreased and dissipated early on 17 July, rising to 1.2-1.5 km altitude and drifting W, clearly visible in satellite imagery several times during the period. Satellite imagery revealed hotspots several times during July; they ranged from small pixels at the summit (9 July) to clear flow activity down the SE flank on multiple days (12, 19, and 24 July) (figure 44). In the VONA's reported by PVMBG during 15-17 July, they noted intermittent explosions that lasted around 30-90 seconds each. PVMBG reported a black ash plume 500 m above the summit drifting N during the afternoon of 16 July. The Darwin VAAC continued to report ash emission to 1.2-1.5 km altitude during 18-19 July, moving in several different directions; Strombolian activity sent incandescent ejecta in all directions on 19 July (figure 45). During 25-26 July the Darwin VAAC noted continuous minor ash emissions drifting SW at 1.2 km altitude, and a hotspot visible in infrared imagery.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery clearly documented the repeated thermal activity at Anak Krakatau throughout July 2018. a) 9 July 2018: a small hotspot was visible at the summit and an ash plume drifted NW. b) 12 July 2018: a much larger hotspot showed a distinct flow down the SE flank. c) 19 July 2018: even under partly cloudy skies, incandescent ejecta is visible on the S flank. d) 24 July 2018: incandescent lava had almost reached the SE coast. Sentinel-2 images with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Strombolian activity sent incandescent ejecta down all the flanks and into the sea at Anak Krakatau on 19 July 2018, as seen from the island of Rakata (5 km SE). Courtesy of Reuters / Stringer.

Activity during August-early October 2018. A series of at least nine explosions took place on 2 August 2018 between 1333 and 1757 local time. They ranged from 13 to 64 seconds long, and produced ash plumes that drifted N. The Darwin VAAC reported minor ash observed in imagery at around 2 km altitude for much of the day. In a special report, PVMBG noted a black ash plume 500 m above sea level drifting N at 1757 local time. Continued explosive activity was reported by local observers during the early nighttime hours of 3 August (figure 46).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A dark ash plume rose 100-200 m from Anak Krakatau during the early morning hours of 3 August 2018, and incandescent ejecta rolled down the flanks. Tens of explosions were heard in Serang (80 km E) and Lampung (80 km N). Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho.

The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions rising to 1.8 km altitude and drifting E on 5 August, clearly visible in satellite imagery, along with a strong hotspot. The ash plume drifted SE then S the next day before dissipating. PVMBG reported incandescence visible during the nights of 5-15 August. Photographer Øystein Lund Andersen visited Krakatau during 4-6 August 2018 and recorded Strombolian activity, lava bomb ejecta, and a lava flow entering the ocean (figures 47-50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Strombolian explosions sent incandescent ejecta skyward, and blocks of debris down the flanks of Anak Krakatau on 5 August 2018 as captured in this drone photograph. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Large volcanic bombs flew out from the summit vent of Anak Krakatau while a dark gray plume of ash rose a few hundred meters on 5 August 2018 in this drone photograph. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. A blocky lava flow traveled down the S flank of Anak Krakatau on 5 August 2018 in this closeup image taken by a drone. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Views of Anak Krakatau from the SE showed Strombolian activity and incandescent lava (upper photo) and steam from the lava flowing into the ocean and dark ash emissions from the summit (lower photo) on 5 August 2018. Copyrighted photo by Øystein Lund Andersen‏, used with permission.

Emissions were reported intermittently drifting W on 11, 14, and 16 August at 1.2-1.5 km altitude. Video of explosions on 12 August with large bombs and dark ash plumes were captured by photographer James Reynolds (Earth Uncut TV). PVMBG reported black ash plumes drifting N at 500 m above the summit on 17 and 18 August after explosions that lasted 1-2 minutes each. The Darwin VAAC also reported ash plumes rising to 1.2 km altitude on 17-18 drifting NE. VONA's were issued during 22-23 August reporting at least three explosions that lasted 30-40 seconds and produced ash plumes that drifted N and NE. The Darwin VAAC reported the plume on 22 August as originating from a vent below the summit. PVMBG noted that a dark plume on 23 August drifted NE at about 700 m above the summit. During 27-30 August, the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes intermittently visible in satellite imagery extending SW at 1.2-1.5 km altitude.

Ash plumes drifting N and NW were visible in satellite imagery during 3-4 September at 1.2-1.5 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume moving NW and W at 4.9 km altitude on 8 September, the highest plume noted for the report period. The following day, the plume height had dropped to 1.5 km altitude, and was clearly observed drifting W in satellite imagery. A hotspot was reported on 12 September. During the night of 9-10 September PVMBG reported bursts of incandescent material rising 100-200 m above the peak, with explosions that rattled windows at the Anak Krakatau PGA Post, located 42 km from the volcano. Ash plumes continued to be observed through 13 September. The Darwin VAAC reported continuous ash emissions to 1.8 km altitude drifting W and NW on 16-17 September (figure 51). The ash plume was no longer visible on 18 September, but a hotspot remained discernable in satellite data through 20 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. On 16 September 2018 a dark ash plume rose several hundred meters above Anka Krakatau as incandescent lava flowing down the SE flank to the sea created steam plumes. Courtesy of Thibaud Plaquet.

PVMBG reported incandescence at the summit and gray and black ash plumes on 20 September that rose 500 m above the summit. A low-level ash emission was reported drifting S on 21 September and confirmed in the webcam. Four VONA's were issued that day, reporting explosions at 0221, 0827, 2241, and 2248, lasting from 72-115 seconds each. PVMBG subsequently reported observing 44 explosions with black ash plumes rising 100-600 m above the summit, and incandescence at night on 21 September. Ash emissions continued on 22 September at 1.5 km altitude, with a secondary explosion rising to 2.4 km altitude drifting W. The plume height was based on and infrared temperature measurement of 12 degrees C. Later in the day, an additional plume was observed in satellite imagery at 3.7 km altitude drifting N. PVMBG reported observations of 56 explosions, with 200-300 m high (above the summit) black ash plumes and incandescence at night on 22 September. Observations from nearby Rakata Island on 22 September indicated that tephra from incandescent explosions of the previous night mostly fell on the flanks, but some reached the sea. A lava flow on the SSE flank had also reached the ocean (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Activity at Krakatau during 22-23 September 2018 included substantial Strombolian explosions, a dark ash plume, lava flows, and large volcanic bombs traveling nearly to the ocean. Photo courtesy of Malmo Travel.

By 23 September 2018, a single plume was observed at 2.1 km altitude drifting WNW. A glow at the summit was visible in the webcam that day, and a hotspot was seen in satellite imagery the next day as observations of an ash plume drifting W at 2.1 km continued. A significant SO2 plume was captured in satellite data on 23 September (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. A significant SO2 plume dispersed NW of Krakatau (lower right corner) on 23 September 2018 after a surge in activity was observed the previous two days. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

On 24 September, PVMBG reported black ash plumes rising 1,000 m above the summit, incandescence at the summit, and lava flowing 300 m down the S flank observed in the webcam during the night. An ash plume was observed by the Darwin VAAC drifting WSW and then W on 25-26 September at 2.1 km altitude, lowering slightly to 1.8 km the following day, and to 1.2 km on 28 September. Continuous ash emissions were observed through 29 September. A new emission was reported on 30 September drifting SW at 1.8 km altitude. Ash emissions were observed daily by the Darwin VAAC from the 1st to at least 5 October at 2.1 km altitude drifting W. A large hotspot near the summit was noted on 3 October. The thermal activity at Anak Krakatau from late June into early October 2018, as recorded in infrared satellite data by the MIROVA project, confirmed the visual observations of increased activity that included Strombolian explosions, lava flows, ash plumes, and incandescent ejecta witnessed by ground observers during the period (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. The MIROVA project graph of thermal activity at Krakatau from 12 February through early October 2018 showed the increasing thermal signature that appeared in late June at the onset of renewed explosive activity, the first since February 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN); Øystein Lund Andersen? (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Reuters Latam (Twitter: @ReutersLatam, URL: http://www.reuters.com/); James Reynolds, Earth Uncut TV (Twitter: @EarthUncutTV, URL: https://www.earthuncut.tv/, Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UD3SLWtuPZs); Thibaud Plaquet (Instagram: tibomvm, URL: https://www.instagram.com/tibomvm/); Malmo Travel (Instagram: malmo.travel, URL: https://www.instagram.com/malmo.travel/).


Saunders (United Kingdom) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Saunders

United Kingdom

57.8°S, 26.483°W; summit elev. 843 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent thermal pulses and satellite imagery hotspots during September 2016-September 2018

Historical observations of eruptive activity on ice-covered Mount Michael stratovolcano on Saunders Island in the South Sandwich Islands were not recorded until the early 19th century at this remote site in the southernmost Atlantic Ocean. With the advent of satellite observation technology, indications of more frequent eruptive activity have become apparent. The last confirmed eruption evidenced by MODVOLC thermal alerts was during August-October 2015 (BGVN 41:02). Limited thermal anomaly data and satellite imagery since then have indicated intermittent activity through September 2018. Information for this report comes from MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomaly data and Sentinel-2, Landsat, and NASA Terra satellite imagery.

Evidence for thermal activity at Mount Michael tapered off in MIROVA data from October 2015 through January 2016. MODVOLC thermal alerts reappeared on 28 September 2016 and recurred intermittently through 6 January 2017. Low-level MIROVA thermal signals appeared in June and September-November 2017. During January-September 2018, evidence for some type of thermal or eruptive activity was recorded from either MODVOLC, MIROVA, or satellite imagery each month except for May and June.

Although MODVOLC thermal alerts at Mount Michael ended on 8 October 2015, the MIROVA radiative power data showed intermittent pulses of decreasing energy into early January 2016 (figure 10, BGVN 41:02). At a high-latitude, frequently cloud-covered site such as Saunders Island, this could be indicative of continued eruptive activity. A white plume in low resolution NASA's Terra satellite data was spotted drifting away from Saunders in April 2016, but no thermal activity was reported. The only high-confidence data available from April 2016 through May 2017 is from the MODVOLC thermal alert system, which recorded two thermal alerts on 28 September 2016, one the next day, one on 30 October, and eight alerts on four days in November. Activity continued into January 2017 with one alert on 17 December 2016, and six alerts on 2 and 6 January 2017 (figure 11).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Seventeen MODVOLC thermal alerts between 28 September 2016 and 6 January 2017 were the best evidence available for eruptive activity on Saunders Island from April 2016 through May 2017. Courtesy of MODVOLC.

A low-level log radiative power MIROVA signal appeared in early June 2017; two more signals appeared in September 2017, one in early October and one in late November (figure 12). Additional signals plotted as more than 5 km from the source may or may not reflect activity from the volcano. Steam plumes were visible in NASA Terra satellite images drifting away from the island in August, October, and December 2017, but no thermal signatures were captured.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. The MIROVA log radiative power graph for Mount Michael on Saunders Island from 25 May-30 December 2017 showed intermittent heat sources that indicated possible eruptive activity each month except July and December. Location uncertainty makes the distinction between greater and less than 5 km summit distance unclear.

More sources of evidence for activity became available in 2018 with the addition of the Sentinel-2 satellite data during the months of February-April and September. Multiple thermal signals appeared from MIROVA in January 2018 (figure 13), and the first Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a distinct hotspot at the summit on 10 February (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. MIROVA thermal data for January-September 2018 indicated intermittent thermal anomaly signals in January, March, April, and July-September (top). A Sentinel-2 image with a hotspot was captured on 23 September, the same day as the MIROVA thermal signal (bottom). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. A Sentinel-2 image of Saunders Island on 10 February 2018 revealed a distinct hotspot and small steam plume rising from the summit crater of Mount Michael. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A MODVOLC thermal alert appeared on 26 March 2019 followed by a significant hotspot signal in Sentinel-2 imagery on 29 March (figure 15). The hotspot was still present along with a substantial steam plume on 3 April 2018. Sentinel-2 imagery on 11 April revealed a large steam plume and cloud cover, but no hotspot.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Hotspots in Sentinel-2 imagery on 29 March and 3 April 2018 indicated eruptive activity at Mount Michael on Saunders Island. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view (bands 12, 11, and 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

MIROVA thermal signals appeared in mid-July and mid-August 2018 (figure 13) but little satellite imagery was available to confirm any thermal activity. The next clear signal of eruptive activity was evident in a Sentinel-2 image as a hotspot at the summit on 23 September. A small MIROVA signal was recorded the same day (figure 13, bottom). A few days later, on 28 September 2018, a Landsat 8 image showed a clear streak of dark-gray ash trending NW from the summit of Mount Michael (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Satellite imagery confirmed eruptive activity at Mount Michael on Saunders Island in late September 2018. Top: a hotpot in a Sentinel-2 image on 23 September coincided with a MIROVA thermal signal (see figure 13); Bottom: A Landsat 8 image on 28 September has a distinct dark gray streak trending NW from the summit indicating a fresh ash deposit. The lighter gray area SW of the summit is likely a shadow. Sentinel-2 image with Atmospheric Penetration view, (bands 12, 11, and 8A), Landsat 8 image with pansharpened image processing, both courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Saunders Island is a volcanic structure consisting of a large central edifice intersected by two seamount chains, as shown by bathymetric mapping (Leat et al., 2013). The young constructional Mount Michael stratovolcano dominates the glacier-covered island, while two submarine plateaus, Harpers Bank and Saunders Bank, extend north. The symmetrical Michael has a 500-m-wide summit crater and a remnant of a somma rim to the SE. Tephra layers visible in ice cliffs surrounding the island are evidence of recent eruptions. Ash clouds were reported from the summit crater in 1819, and an effusive eruption was inferred to have occurred from a N-flank fissure around the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. A low ice-free lava platform, Blackstone Plain, is located on the north coast, surrounding a group of former sea stacks. A cluster of parasitic cones on the SE flank, the Ashen Hills, appear to have been modified since 1820 (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990). Vapor emission is frequently reported from the summit crater. Recent AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery has revealed evidence for lava lake activity in the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground, (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/).


Karymsky (Russia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Thermal anomalies and ash explosions during August-September 2018

The most recent eruptive period at Karymsky, on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia, began on 28 April 2018, with thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam emissions, and ash plumes observed through July 2018. The current report discusses activity through September 2018 (table 11). This report was compiled using information from the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT).

KVERT reported ongoing thermal anomalies and intermittent ash plumes over Karymsky during August and September 2018 (table 11). Ash plumes drifted 50 km SE on 7 August, and 40 km S on 25 August. Stronger activity during 10-11 September consisted of continuous dense ash emissions along with explosions that sent plumes 5-6 km high which drifted 860 km NE. Incandescence photographed the next night was attributed to fumarolic activity (figure 41). Ash plumes were identified drifting 365 km E on 22-23 September. The last thermal anomaly was identified in satellite images on 28 September, and an ash plume was last visible on 30 September.

Table 11. Ash plumes and thermal anomalies at Karymsky, 1 August-30 September 2018. Clouds often obscured the volcano. Data compiled from KVERT reports.

Date Observations
01-07 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume drifted 50 km SE on 7 Aug.
08-14 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies.
25-31 Aug 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume drifted 40 km S on 25 Aug.
01-07 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies.
08-15 Sep 2018 Continuous ash emissions on 10 Sep. Explosions during 10-11 Sep with plumes rising 5-6 km that drifted 860 km NE.
16-23 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plumes drifted 365 km E on 22-23 Sep.
24-30 Sep 2018 Thermal anomalies; ash plume on 30 Sep.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Incandescence, attributed to fumarolic activity, was visible above the crater of Karymsky on 12 September 2018. Photo by D. Melnikov; courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Karymsky on 30 September 2018 showing a diffuse plume and thermal anomaly in the crater. Top: Natural color view (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom: Short-wave Infrared view (bands 12, 8A, 4). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were last observed on 31 July 2018. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected one hotspot in early August (moderate power), and two hotspots in late September (low power).

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nishinoshima (Japan) — September 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Nishinoshima

Japan

27.247°N, 140.874°E; summit elev. 25 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Quiescence interrupted by brief lava flow emission and small explosions in July 2018

Nishinoshima is an active volcano in the Ogasawara Arc, about 1,000 km S of Tokyo, Japan. After 40 years of dormancy, activity increased in November 2013 and has since formed an island. The eruption has continued with subaerial activity that largely consists of lava flows and small gas-and-ash plumes. This report covers November 2017 through July 2018, and summarizes activity noted in reports issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency, and images and footage taken by the Japan Coast Guard (JCG).

No eruptive activity at Nishinoshima had been noted since mid-August 2017, when lava was last entering the ocean. Activity recommenced on 12 July and a 200-m-long lava flow was confirmed on 13 July. The lava flow was accompanied by explosive activity that ejected blocks and bombs out to 500 m from the vent, plumes and water discoloration (figures 60, 61, and 62). An aerial survey by the JCG on 30 July showed that activity had ceased and the lava flow had reached 700 m in length, terminating 100 m from the ocean.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Aerial photo of Nishinoshima taken on 18 July 2018. The photo shows the active lava flow emanating from the vent along with a gas plume, and water discoloration. A closer view of the lava flow is given in figure 61. The island is approximately 1.9 x 1.9 km in size. Courtesy of the Japan Coast Guard.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. A view of the active Nishinoshima vent and 200-m-long lava flow on 13 July 2018. The vent is also producing a dilute ash plume from the eastern side of the cone. Courtesy of the Japan Coast Guard.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Screenshot from a thermal infrared video of the active Nishinoshima vent taken on 13 July 2018. The video shows explosions ejecting incandescent material onto the flanks of the cone and the active lava flow. Courtesy of the Japan Coast Guard.

After the July activity, Nishinoshima again entered a phase of quiescence with activity limited to fumaroles around the vent. Himawari-8 satellite observations noted no increased thermal output following the July 2018 eruption. Thermal anomalies detected by satellite-based MODIS instruments were identified by the MODVOLC system from during 12-21 July 2018.

Geologic Background. The small island of Nishinoshima was enlarged when several new islands coalesced during an eruption in 1973-74. Another eruption that began offshore in 2013 completely covered the previous exposed surface and enlarged the island again. Water discoloration has been observed on several occasions since. The island is the summit of a massive submarine volcano that has prominent satellitic peaks to the S, W, and NE. The summit of the southern cone rises to within 214 m of the sea surface 9 km SSE.

Information Contacts: Japan Coast Guard (JCG) Volcano Database, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, 3-1-1, Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8932, Japan (URL: http://www.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/info/kouhou/h29/index.html, http://www1.kaiho.mlit.go.jp/GIJUTSUKOKUSAI/kaiikiDB/kaiyo18-e1.htm); Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Mayon (Philippines) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Mayon

Philippines

13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low activity during April-September with some ash plumes and ongoing crater incandescence

Mayon is a frequently active volcano in the Philippines that produces ash plumes, lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. In early 2018, eruptive activity included lava fountaining that reached 700 m above the summit, and lava flows that traveled down the flanks and collapsed to produce pyroclastic flows (figure 39). Lava fountaining and lava flows decreased then ceased towards late March. Lava effusion was last detected on 18 March 2018, and the last pyroclastic flow for this eruptive episode occurred on 27 March 2018 (see BVGN 43:04). The hazard status for was lowered from alert level 4 to 3 (on a scale of 0 to 5) on 6 March 2018 due to decreased seismicity and degassing; the level was lowered again to 2 on 29 March. This report summarizes the activity during April through September 2018 and is based on daily bulletins issued by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the lava flow activity at Mayon during January through March 2018. Three lava flow lobes flowed down the Mi-isi, Bonga-Buyuan, and Basud channels, and are shown in bright orange/red in these images. These are false color images created using bands 12, 11, 4, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The hazard status remained on Alert level 2 (increasing unrest) throughout the reporting period. Activity was minimal with low seismicity (zero to four per day) and a total of 19 rockfall events throughout the entire period. White to light-brown plumes that reached a maximum of 1 km above the crater were observed almost every day from April through September (figure 40). Two short-lived light brown plumes were noted on 27 and 28 August and both reached 200 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. An emission of white steam-and-gas at Mayon and a dilute brown plume that reached 200 m above the crater was seen on 24 May 2018. Courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

On the days that sulfur dioxide was measured, the amount ranged from 436 to 2,800 tons per day (figure 41). Mayon remains inflated relative to 2010 baselines but the edifice has experienced deflation since 20 February, a period of inflation from 2-14 April, and slight inflation of the mid-slopes beginning 5 May, which then became more pronounced beginning 25 June. No other notable inflation or deflation was described throughout the reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Measurements of sulfur dioxide output at Mayon during 1 April-30 September 2018. Data courtesy of PHIVOLCS.

Incandescence at the summit was observed almost every night (when weather permitted) from April through to the end of September 2018, and this elevated crater temperature is also seen in satellite thermal imagery (figure 42). Thermal satellite data showed a slight increase in output during April through to June, although not as high as the earlier 2018 activity, with a decline in thermal output starting in July (figure 43).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showing an elevated thermal signature in the crater of Mayon and a steam-and-gas plume on 15 May 2018. Similar indications of activity in the crater were frequently imaged on cloud-free days from April through September. This is a false color image created using bands 12, 11, 4, courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Log radiative power MIROVA plot of MODIS thermal data for the year ending 11 October 2018 at Mayon. An elevated period of activity reflecting the lava flows in January through March is notable, followed by a second period of lower intensity activity during May into June, then a prolonged period of reduced activity through to the end of the reporting period; the August anomaly was not at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple edifice has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Kadovar

Papua New Guinea

3.608°S, 144.588°E; summit elev. 365 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes; thermal anomalies in the crater and Coastal Vent through September 2018

The first confirmed eruption of Kadovar began on 5 January 2018 with dense ash plumes and steam and a lava flow. The eruption continued through February and then slowed during March (BGVN 43:04). This report describes notices of ash plumes from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) and satellite images during April through 1 October 2018.

According to the Darwin VAAC a pilot observed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 1.2 km on 10 June. The ash plume was not identified in satellite data. Another ash plume identified by a pilot and in satellite images rose to an altitude of 1.8 km on 20 June and drifted W. An ash plume was visible in satellite images on 28 September drifting SE at an altitude of 2.1 km. On 1 October an ash plume rose to 2.7 km and drifted W.

Infrared satellite data from Sentinel-2 showed hot spots in the summit crater and at the Coastal Vent along the W shoreline on 10, 15, and 25 April 2018; plumes of brown discolored water were streaming from the western side of the island (figure 18). Similar activity was frequently seen during clear weather in the following months. A steam plume was also often rising from the crater. The Coastal Vent cone was still hot on 8 August, but no infrared anomaly was seen in imagery from 28 August through September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 natural color satellite image of Kadovar on 10 April 2018. The island is about 1.5 km in diameter. Steam can be seen rising from the summit and the Coastal Vent just off the western shore; both locations show thermal anomalies in infrared imagery. Discolored water plumes extend NE from the island. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. Kadovar is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. The village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. A 365-m-high lava dome forming the high point of the andesitic volcano fills an arcuate landslide scarp that is open to the south, and submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. No certain historical eruptions are known; the latest activity was a period of heightened thermal phenomena in 1976.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ketoi (Russia) — October 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Ketoi

Russia

47.35°N, 152.475°E; summit elev. 1172 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plume of uncertain composition reported based on satellite data one day in September

Gas-and-steam emissions were previously reported at Ketoi (figure 1) in January, July, and August 2013 (BGVN 40:09). Intense fumarolic activity originating from the same area, the N slope of Pallas Peak, was reported in 1981, 1987, and 1989. Based on a report from the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) using Himawari-8 imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume on 21 September 2018 which drifted to the NE; however, evidence of the plume could not be confirmed by the VAAC from satellite imagery. The original VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) issued by SVERT noted a volcanic cloud without a specific mention of ash, but also remarked that thermal anomalies had been observed on 17 and 20 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Natural color Sentinel-2 satellite image of Ketoi on 18 September 2018. A large freshwater lake can be seen SW of the Pallas Peak andesitic cone, which also hosts a crater lake. Lava flows originating from the younger cone extend primarily N to SW, and a white fumarolic area is immediately NE of the crater. The island is approximately 10 km in diameter. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The circular, 10-km-wide Ketoi island, which rises across the 19-km-wide Diana Strait from Simushir Island, hosts of one of the most complex volcanic structures of the Kuril Islands. The rim of a 5-km-wide Pleistocene caldera is exposed only on the NE side. A younger 1172-m-high stratovolcano forming the NW part of the island is cut by a horst-and-graben structure containing two solfatara fields. A 1.5-km-wide freshwater lake fills an explosion crater in the center of the island. Pallas Peak, a large andesitic cone in the NE part of the caldera, is truncated by a 550-m-wide crater containing a brilliantly colored turquoise crater lake. Lava flows from Pallas Peak overtop the caldera rim and descend nearly 5 km to the SE coast. The first historical eruption of Pallas Peak, during 1843-46, was its largest.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Semeru (Indonesia) — September 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash plumes in February, April, July, and August 2018; persistent thermal hotspot in the crater

Semeru volcano is the tallest volcano in Java (figure 33) and one of the most active in Indonesia. The Mahameru summit area contains the active Jonggring-Seloko vent where activity consists of dome growth and regular ash plumes, along with pyroclastic flows, avalanches, and lava flows that travel down the SE-flank ravine. The Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) Volcano Alert level for Semeru throughout the report period is II (on a scale of I-IV). The last Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) was issued on 9 January 2017, and the status has not changed during the reporting period. This report summarizes the activity from January to 24 August 2018 and is based on Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) ash advisories and satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. View looking NW at the quiet Mahameru summit area of Semeru on 24 August 2018 taken by a webcam courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Ø.L. Andersen's Twitter feed.

While there were no observatory activity reports issued, the Darwin VAAC issued reports for five events that produced ash plumes to altitudes ranging 3.4 to 4.9 km (table 22). MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) thermal data indicate near-consistent low-level thermal activity at Semeru after a period of no detected thermal anomalies in late January through early February. This supports the elevated thermal energy detected by Sentinel-2 satellite data at the Jonggring-Seloko vent and along the SE-flank ravine (figure 34). The MODVOLC algorithm detected 16 high-temperature hotspots through the reporting period, six in January, two in March, three in April, one in July, and two in August through to the 24th.

Table 22. Summary of ash plumes (altitude and drift direction) and pyroclastic flows at Semeru, January to 24 August 2018. The summit is at 3,657 m elevation. Data courtesy of Darwin VAAC report.

Date Altitude (km) Drift direction Other notes
24 Feb 2018 4.6 20 km ESE and WSW --
29 Apr 2018 3.4 NW Short-lived discrete eruption
20 Jul 2018 4.9 SW Minor discrete eruption
30-31 Jul 2018 4.3 W --
23-24 Aug 2018 4.3 W and SW --
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. MIROVA plot of Log Radiative Power showing the relative thermal energy at Semeru ending September 2018. The detected thermal activity is more intense before mid-January 2018 when there was a gap in detected data before regular low-level activity resumed. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 false color thermal satellite images showing the persistent elevated thermal anomaly in the Jonggring-Seloko crater of Semeru from January through to 24 August 2018. Hot material can sometimes be identified in the SE-flank ravine. The larger central image is annotated with the major morphological features. False color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Øystein Lund Andersen? (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com).


Sinabung (Indonesia) — September 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Sinabung

Indonesia

3.17°N, 98.392°E; summit elev. 2460 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


No significant ash plumes seen after 22 June 2018; minor ash in early July

Sinabung volcano is located in the Karo regency of North Sumatra, Indonesia. The current eruptive episode commenced in late 2013, after phreatic activity in 2010, producing ash plumes, lava domes and flows, and pyroclastic flows that caused evacuation and relocation of nearby communities. This report covers activity from April through early July, and is based on information provided by MAGMA Indonesia, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM, also known as PVMBG), satellite data, and field photographs. Sinabung has been on Alert Level IV, the highest hazard status, since 2 June 2015.

The eruption has built a pyroclastic flow and lava fan to the SE (figure 60). This activity continued into 2018, with the last significant ash plume reported on 22 June (table 8). However, minor ash emissions continued at least through 5 July 2018.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Satellite images showing Sinabung before and after the eruption with the newly-developed fan of pyroclastic flow, volcanic ash, and lava flow deposits. Top: Landsat-8 true color satellite image (pan-sharpened) acquired on 7 June 2013 before the eruption began. Bottom: Sentinel-2 natural color satellite image acquired on 16 July 2018, after the eruption ended. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Table 8. Summary of ash plumes (altitude and drift direction) and pyroclastic flows at Sinabung, April-June 2018. The summit is at 2,460 m elevation. Data courtesy of Darwin VAAC reports, MAGMA Indonesia VAAC reports, and CVGHM volcanic activity reports.

Date Ash plume altitude (km) Ash plume drift direction Pyroclastic flows
06 Apr 2018 7.5 W, S 3.5 km
12 Apr 2018 2.7 WNW Yes
19 Apr 2018 5.5 ESE 1 km
19 May 2018 3.2 NW --
20 May 2018 5.0 WNW --
15 Jun 2018 3.0 ESE --
22 Jun 2018 3.5 SE --

An eruption on 6 April 2018 at 1607 local time produced an ash plume that reached about 7.5 km above the summit. The eruption also produced pyroclastic flows that traveled about 3.5 km from the summit down the SE slope (figure 61). The eruption resulted in the closure of a nearby airport and ashfall affected hundreds of hectares of agricultural land. Two more notable ash plumes were reported on 12 and 19 April, to altitudes of about 2.7 and 5.5 km, respectively. A pyroclastic flow was reported during the 12 April eruption. Smaller ash and gas emissions occurred through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Eruption of Sinabung on 6 April 2018 at 1600 local time that produced an ash plume that reached over 5 km above the summit, and pyroclastic flows that reached about 3.5 km down the SE flank. Courtesy of Agence France-Presse via Straits Times.

Two ash plumes were recorded on 19 and 20 May, rising to about 3.2 and 5 km altitude, respectively. Throughout June small diffuse gas-and-ash plumes continued (figures 62 and 63). The last activity reported by the agencies was on the 15 and 22 June, when ash plumes reached 3 and 3.5 km altitude (figure 64). Activity after 22 June was limited to seismicity and ash, gas, and steam plumes to several hundred meters above the summit (figure 65). Although an elevated thermal signature was detected in Sentinel-2 satellite data on 30 August 2018, there were no reports of renewed activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. View of the Sinabung summit vent area during ash venting on 20 June 2018. This view from the SW shows the perched remains of the lava dome and collapse scar. Photo courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. Relatively consistent ash venting at Sinabung on 20 June 2018. This view shows the pyroclastic flow fan and the 2014 lava flow in the lower center of the photo. Drone photo courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. Small ash plume rising from Sinabung at 2106 on 22 June 2018. The ash plume reached about 1 km above the crater. Courtesy of BNPB (color adjusted).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Minor ash venting at Sinabung on 5 July 2018. Photo courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Geologic Background. Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical andesitic-to-dacitic edifice is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. The youngest deposit is a SE-flank pyroclastic flow 14C dated by Hendrasto et al. (2012) at 740-880 CE. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia ); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/id_magma); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY (URL: https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/user/bcarr); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/); Straits Times (URL: https://www.straitstimes.com).


Telica (Nicaragua) — September 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Telica

Nicaragua

12.606°N, 86.84°W; summit elev. 1036 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions on 21 June and 15 August 2018; local ashfall from June event

The Telica volcano complex, which consists of several cones and craters, has had intermittent eruptions since the Spanish conquest, with emissions of gas and ash. According to The Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), the volcano is monitored in real time by a permanent seismic station near the crater. It is also visited several times per year for visual observations, to measure sulfur dioxide emissions, and measure temperatures in the crater and fumaroles near the seismic station. A gas-and-ash explosion occurred in early May 2016 (BGVN 42:01). This report covers activity from September 2016 through June 2018.

INETER reported that local residents heard a small gas explosion on 10 September 2017, and warned the public to stay at least 2 km away from the crater. No ash emissions were reported related to this event.

According to INETER and the Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED), an eruption began at 0708 on 21 June 2018. Explosions produced an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater and drifted E, S, and SW. Ejected tephra was deposited within a 1-km-radius of the volcano, and ashfall was reported in nearby areas, including La Joya, Las Marías (7 km NNW), Pozo Viejo (10 km NNW), Ojo de Agua, San Lucas (11 km NNW), Las Higueras, Las Grietas (12 km NNW), and Posoltega (16 km WSW).

Another explosion on 15 August 2018 was reported by SINAPRED that generated an ash plume to 200 m above the crater rim.

Seismicity. INETER monthly reports indicated that during September through December 2016, between 3,500 and 3,900 monthly seismic events took place, with the majority having hybrid signatures. During 2017, the monthly number of seismic events ranged from 40,584 (September) to 105,555 (November), of which 50-90% were hybrid events, 9-10% long-period events (but 23 percent in January), and 0-35% multiple events. A few scattered volcanic-tectonic events occurred, and tremor was usually low. Seismic data for January and March consisted of percentages of different earthquake types similar to those during 2017.

About 5% of the monthly seismic signals between April 2017 and January 2018 were doublets, or paired earthquakes with two predominant frequencies. INETER did not mention doublets in their March 2018 report, and did not include seismic data in their February or April 2018 reports.

Sulfur dioxide measurements. According to INETER, during fieldwork on 8 and 11 May 2017 the sulfur dioxide level was measured at 368 ± 194 metric tons/day. This value was lower than those in November 2015 with an average of 765 ± 94 tons/day. On 28 February and 1 March 2018, measurements using the Mobile-DOAS technique found levels greater than 426 tons/day and a minimum value of 152 tons/day, with an average of 260 tons/day, higher than the value measured in September 2017 with 183 tons/day. On 16 and 19 April 2018, the minimum and maximum values were 229 and 567 tons/day, with an average of 353 tons/day.

Geologic Background. Telica, one of Nicaragua's most active volcanoes, has erupted frequently since the beginning of the Spanish era. This volcano group consists of several interlocking cones and vents with a general NW alignment. Sixteenth-century eruptions were reported at symmetrical Santa Clara volcano at the SW end of the group. However, its eroded and breached crater has been covered by forests throughout historical time, and these eruptions may have originated from Telica, whose upper slopes in contrast are unvegetated. The steep-sided cone of Telica is truncated by a 700-m-wide double crater; the southern crater, the source of recent eruptions, is 120 m deep. El Liston, immediately E, has several nested craters. The fumaroles and boiling mudpots of Hervideros de San Jacinto, SE of Telica, form a prominent geothermal area frequented by tourists, and geothermal exploration has occurred nearby.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://webserver2.ineter.gob.ni/vol/dep-vol.html); Sistema Nacional para la Prevencion, Mitigacion y Atencion de Desastres (SINAPRED), Edificio SINAPRED, Rotonda Comandante Hugo Chávez 50 metros al Norte, frente a la Avenida Bolívar, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.sinapred.gob.ni/).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — September 2018 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent weak phreatic explosions during January-March and July-August 2018

The Rincón de la Vieja volcano complex has generated intermittent phreatic explosions since 2011; during 2017, weak phreatic explosions occurred during May, June, July, September, and October (BGVN 42:08 and 43:03). This activity continued through August 2018. The volcano is monitored by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA).

According to OVSICORI-UNA, at 1758 on 9 January 2018, an explosion produced a plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. On 12 January, OVSICORI-UNA reported some small phreatic explosions. The webcam detected weak explosions again in mid-February. Another weak explosion on 22 February confirmed the presence of a crater lake.

During the first week of March OVSICORI-UNA reported weak phreatic explosions of low amplitude that were only be detected by the webcam (figure 28), and not by seismic instruments. During the week of 5-11 March there were 2-4 weak phreatic explosions occurred per day, along with strong tremor on the 10th. Small eruptions were seen on unspecified days the week of 12-18 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Webcam image of a phreatic explosion at Rincon de la Vieja on 3 March 2018. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

No phreatic activity was reported during the second half of March through June, though on 20 May a seismic swarm of about 30 earthquakes was recorded. After a tremor on 3 July, a possible weak phreatic explosion occurred on 4 July at 0044, followed by a pulse of tremor. On 28 July, at 1828, a small explosion followed by tremor was recorded.

On 3 August OVSICORI-UNA reported that two weak explosions occurred at dawn. On 14 August, another weak explosion began at 1828 and lasted three minutes. Foggy conditions prevented webcam views and an estimate of a plume height. Other weak explosions were recorded on 17 August at 1407 and 2015.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/).

Search Bulletin Archive by Publication Date

Select a month and year from the drop-downs and click "Show Issue" to have that issue displayed in this tab.

   

The default month and year is the latest issue available.

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 27, Number 09 (September 2002)

Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman

Karymsky (Russia)

3-km-high plumes, seismicity, and three new lava flows through September 2002

Krakatau (Indonesia)

Seismic activity increases during mid-August 2002; Alert Level remains at 2

Mauna Loa (United States)

Following 9 years of slow deflation, quicker inflation since mid-May 2002

Merapi (Indonesia)

Frequent lava avalanches; plumes up to 550 m above summit

Semeru (Indonesia)

Higher-than-normal seismic and explosive activity during June-September 2002

Sheveluch (Russia)

Growing lava dome, seismicity, and plumes up to 7 km high

Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom)

Mid-to-late 2002 dome growth and the start of NE-traveling pyroclastic flows

Talang (Indonesia)

Plume reached up to 100 m above the crater during July 2002

Tangkubanparahu (Indonesia)

First elevated seismicity since 1992

Witori (Papua New Guinea)

Continued lava flows and deformation; monitoring network installed



Karymsky (Russia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Karymsky

Russia

54.049°N, 159.443°E; summit elev. 1513 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


3-km-high plumes, seismicity, and three new lava flows through September 2002

Frequent plumes (including 15 April and 9 July ash clouds to 3.0 km above the volcano), a new intracrater cone, and a 1.3-km-long lava flow were seen during 1 January-9 July 2002 (BGVN 27:03 and 27:06). This report first highlights events described in 10 July-September 2002 updates. During this interval Karymsky produced 3-km-tall plumes, restless seismicity, and three new lava flows. Next, a separate section of this report presents photos of Karymsky and adjacent Akademia Nauk caldera taken in September 2000 and in May 2002. This report also cites a fundamental reference volume on the topic of the 1996 eruption, Fedotov (1998), which includes a preface and ten papers.

Activity during 10 July-September 2002. Seismicity during this interval generally stood well above background levels, very often at a value of ~10 earthquakes per hour. During nearly every week of the reporting interval, geophysicists suggested that the character of the seismicity might indicate weak ash-and-gas explosions and avalanches. Weak thermal anomalies were often observed on AVHRR satellite imagery and, in the majority of cases, no ash was detected. In contrast, satellite imagery on 25 July indicated a possible, small, SW-directed ash plume. On 26 July, a thermal anomaly reached 2 pixels in size.

During 27 July-2 August, local, shallow seismic events decreased, dropping from 250 to 150 events per day. During 30 August-6 September and 13-24 September there were 200-300 local shallow earthquakes occurring per day (compared to 150-250 per day in August). In early September estimates suggested that explosions rose ~1 km above the summit.

Observations on 8 September revealed three new small lava flows on the volcano's S and SE slopes. On satellite imagery a thermal anomaly was visible but ash was not. The character of the seismicity indicated ash-and-gas explosions rising ~1 km above the volcano and gas blow-outs. On 16 September at 1217 a short-lived explosion created an ash-and-gas plume; observers on an aircraft aloft estimated the plume top's height at ~3 km altitude.

Photographs and brief retrospective on the 1996 eruption. Figures 10 and 11 provide overviews of the Karymsky stratovolcano (also written as Pra-Karymsky) and adjacent areas to the S on 26 September 2000 and 10 May 2002 respectively. Both these aerial photos were provided by Victor Ivanov (Russian Academy of Sciences). The former was taken ~4 years after the complex 1996 eruption (see BGVN 21:01-21:03 and 21:05; and Fedotov, 1998).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. An aerial photo taken on 26 September 2000 looking towards the SSE and showing Karymsky stratovolcano (cone on the right), the low-lying portion of Akademia Nauk caldera containing Karymsky lake (in the upper center of the photo), Karymsky river (bright, light-colored zone cutting diagonally across the center and left), and Belyankin volcano (arc-shaped, in the upper-right corner). Prominent cliffs, part of the N-facing amphitheater of Dvor volcano, curve across the terrain well outboard of the stratovolcano (lower left-hand margin). The Karymsky river drains the lake from an outlet at the head of a conspicuous bay. The distance from the cone's summit to the lake's nearest margin is ~ 5 km. Courtesy of Victor Ivanov.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. An aerial photo with Karymsky stratovolcano in the foreground, shot looking towards the S on 10 May 2002. Snow blankets considerable areas and ice covers Karymsky lake. During 1996-2000 many lava flows covered the stratovolcano's SW slope. On 10 May there were fresh andesitic lavas descending the W flank reaching ~ 1.3 km in length and ~ 300 m in maximum width (labeled "2002 lavas" and "Front"). Haze in this photo is partly due to erupted ash suspended in the atmosphere. A separate photo the same day captured Karymsky with a billowing, light-colored plume (figure 9 above). Courtesy of Victor Ivanov.

In overview, that eruption consisted of a 1 January 1996 earthquake swarm (with events to M 6.9) followed a day later with simultaneous eruptions from two vents 6 km apart, one at the stratovolcano's summit, the other at Akademia Nauk caldera in the N end of Karymsky lake. The latter consisted of a submarine phreatomagmatic eruption that deposited a low conical ring composed of pyroclastics. The subaerial portion of those deposits encircled the vent forming a ~600-m-wide crater in the cone's center. The cone also extended to the lake shore, thus forming a peninsula. The eruptive event included or was associated with base surges, tsunamis, surface ruptures, and secondary eruptions on the new peninsula. The eruption also left the lake with pH of 3.2 and its outlet into the Karymsky river obstructed by the new deposits. Several months later the new deposits eroded, resulting in massive mudflows down the Karymsky river. At the submarine vent eruptive products were predominantly basaltic; some fine ash was andesitic; late-stage rhyolites occasionally formed inclusions within basalts and bombs with basaltic jackets.

The photos were taken from perspectives on the volcano's N side. Several months after the dam-breaking event, the partly eroded pyroclastic deposits took the form of a squat U-shaped peninsula with two arms extending hundreds of meters into the lake. The circular segment along the middle of the peninsula's shoreline is part of the original cone's arcuate rim. Towards the left of the peninsula lies a conspicuous bay that leads to the outflow channel and the Karymsky river (the latter is most apparent on figure 10). Figure 11 shows that two years later the pyroclastic deposits in the lake more closely resemble lines rather than broad zones due to the partial cover of ice and snow.

The 1996 eruption at Karymsky and the Akademia Nauk caldera may have been a response to the injection of fresh basaltic magma from a deeper magmatic source. Later stages of the eruption at Karymsky have continued more than 6 years through this reporting interval.

During the underwater eruption in 1996 all of the lake's ice was broken and melted. Along the lake shore many new hot springs appeared. After the underwater eruption on the bottom of the lake many sources of heat and degassing appeared. The eruption triggered an ecological catastrophe during which all fish in the lake died.

During the winter 1996-1997 the water of the lake remained warm and devoid of ice. Usually ice completely disappears only in June or July. Lake ice returned in subsequent winters. Figure 10 (26 September 2000) shows light-colored patterns on the lake's surface that signify the presence of local ice accumulating there with the approach of winter. Figure 11 documents the dominance of ice on Karymsky lake's surface, still intact from the previous winter when photographed. The May 2002 lake surface also contained some ice-free zones. Their presence suggested the continued existence of post-eruptive heat sources on the lake bottom. These areas were possibly rich in algae and micro-organisms.

Reference. S. A. Fedotov, S.A., 1998, The 1996 eruption in the Karymsky volcanic center and related events: Special issue of Volcanology and Seismology, v. 19, no. 5, p. 521-767 (L.N. Rykunov, Ed. in Chief; Preface and 10 papers; English translation), Gordon & Breach Science Publishers (ISBN 0742-0463).

Geologic Background. Karymsky, the most active volcano of Kamchatka's eastern volcanic zone, is a symmetrical stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera that formed during the early Holocene. The caldera cuts the south side of the Pleistocene Dvor volcano and is located outside the north margin of the large mid-Pleistocene Polovinka caldera, which contains the smaller Akademia Nauk and Odnoboky calderas. Most seismicity preceding Karymsky eruptions originated beneath Akademia Nauk caldera, located immediately south. The caldera enclosing Karymsky formed about 7600-7700 radiocarbon years ago; construction of the stratovolcano began about 2000 years later. The latest eruptive period began about 500 years ago, following a 2300-year quiescence. Much of the cone is mantled by lava flows less than 200 years old. Historical eruptions have been vulcanian or vulcanian-strombolian with moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows from the summit crater.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Victor Ivanov, Institute of Volcanology Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia.


Krakatau (Indonesia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Krakatau

Indonesia

6.102°S, 105.423°E; summit elev. 813 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Seismic activity increases during mid-August 2002; Alert Level remains at 2

A thick white plume reached 25 m above the summit several times during October through December 2001. During 27 August 2001 through 16 September 2001 at Krakatau, available seismic data were dominated by explosions and shallow volcanic earthquakes (table 1). The seismograph broke on 16 September 2001 but was repaired by 26 August 2002, when it showed a slight increase over the previous interval when data were available. No surface activity accompanied the increased seismicity. Volcanic events decreased during early September. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 through at least 8 September.

Table 1. Earthquakes registered at Krakatau during 27 August 2001 through 8 September 2002. The seismic system was down during 16 September 2001-25 August 2002. Courtesy of VSI.

Date Deep volcanic (A-type) Shallow volcanic (B-type) Explosion Small Explosion Tectonic Infrasonic
27 Aug-02 Sep 2001 0 93 79 1051 0 0
03 Sep-09 Sep 2001 17 155 2040 269 1 1507
10 Sep-13 Sep 2001 26 159 23 347 0 22
26 Aug-01 Sep 2002 30 162 0 0 2 0
02 Sep-08 Sep 2002 2 4 0 0 3 0

Geologic Background. The renowned volcano Krakatau (frequently misstated as Krakatoa) lies in the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. Collapse of the ancestral Krakatau edifice, perhaps in 416 CE, formed a 7-km-wide caldera. Remnants of this ancestral volcano are preserved in Verlaten and Lang Islands; subsequently Rakata, Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes were formed, coalescing to create the pre-1883 Krakatau Island. Caldera collapse during the catastrophic 1883 eruption destroyed Danan and Perbuwatan volcanoes, and left only a remnant of Rakata volcano. This eruption, the 2nd largest in Indonesia during historical time, caused more than 36,000 fatalities, most as a result of devastating tsunamis that swept the adjacent coastlines of Sumatra and Java. Pyroclastic surges traveled 40 km across the Sunda Strait and reached the Sumatra coast. After a quiescence of less than a half century, the post-collapse cone of Anak Krakatau (Child of Krakatau) was constructed within the 1883 caldera at a point between the former cones of Danan and Perbuwatan. Anak Krakatau has been the site of frequent eruptions since 1927.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Mauna Loa (United States) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Mauna Loa

United States

19.475°N, 155.608°W; summit elev. 4170 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Following 9 years of slow deflation, quicker inflation since mid-May 2002

Mauna Loa is the southern-most volcano on the island of Hawaii. Following the last eruption of Mauna Loa, during March-April 1984 (SEAN 09:03), there have been several periods of inflation and deflation at the volcano's summit caldera, Moku`aweoweo. As of September 2002, Mauna Loa has remained non-eruptive (figure 14) for 18.5 years. The pattern of deformation at Moku`aweoweo abruptly changed in mid-May 2002 from deflation to inflation, lasting until at least September 2002. An archive of deformation and seismic data from Mauna Loa dating back to the 1970s provides an example of the volcano's pre-eruptive and precursory behavior.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Oblique shaded-relief map (N at top) showing the location of the city of Hilo and the five volcanoes that built the island of Hawaii. The young growing submarine volcano Loihi is not shown. When including the submarine portions of Hawaii attributed to Mauna Loa, it ranks as Earth's largest active volcano, encompassing 51 percent of the island's surface area and comprising a volume over ~ 65,000 km3. Courtesy HVO.

After the last Bulletin report about Mauna Loa in July 1991(BGVN 16:07) the volcano's summit continued to gradually inflate as it had since the 1984 eruption. This trend reversed in 1993-1994 when distances across the caldera shortened by as much as 7 cm, and leveling surveys in 1996 and 2000 measured more than 7 cm of subsidence SE of the caldera.

Beginning on 24 April 2002 at 0645 a notable cluster of deep earthquakes (darkest circles in figure 15) occurred in a 52-hour period. The earthquakes ended on 26 April at 1045. Many of the epicenters plotted within or close to the caldera's SW margin. The earthquakes ranged in depth from 26 to 43 km and in magnitude from 1.1 to 1.7. Several shallow earthquakes preceded this cluster; the largest, a magnitude 2.5 event on 21 April at 1931, was located ~3 km beneath the SW rift zone. After the cluster, several deep long-period events were recorded beneath the SW rift zone. At that time data from the continuous tiltmeter, dilatometer, and nearly continuous global positioning system (GPS) stations failed to suggest significant deformation of Moku`aweoweo caldera, upper-rift zones, or outer flanks.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Plot showing the magnitudes, locations, and depths of earthquakes registered at Mauna Loa during 7 April- 26 September 2002. Following the swarm of deep earthquakes during 24-26 April (dark circles), seismicity was somewhat elevated.

Inflation. HVO maintains several continuously recording GPS stations installed in 1999 (figure 16). Beginning in late April or early May 2002, deformation data began to show signs of renewed activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Map showing the several GPS stations HVO maintains on Mauna Loa as of September 2002. HVO plans to install several additional stations (white dots), on indefinite loan from Stanford University. Courtesy HVO.

Figure 17 shows the change in distance between MOKP and MLSP GPS stations, located on opposite sides of Moku`aweoweo. The increased distance between the two stations was interpreted to represent inflation of the summit magma reservoir, centered ~5 km below the caldera. The small amount of extension marks a noticeable change from the pattern of deflation during the preceding 9 years. GPS measurements also revealed that the summit area had inflated about 2 cm, consistent with swelling.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Graph showing the change in distance between GPS stations MOKP and MLSP, located on opposite sides of Moku'aweoweo caldera, as seen during 4 October 2000-30 September 2002. Distance across Moku'aweoweo began to increase by 5-6 cm/year starting in late April-May 2002. Courtesy HVO.

The switch from slow deflation to more rapid inflation occurred around 12 May. GPS data indicated lengthening at a rate of 5-6 cm per year. Therefore, as of 26 September the caldera had widened about 2 cm since 12 May. Measurements at GPS stations farther out on the flanks showed that swelling occurred at more than the summit, in particular, the upper part of the SE flank was moving outward.

In order to test the precision of the GPS measurements, HVO compared the GPS data against dry-tilt method data at the summit, an independent means to measure ground deformation using land-surveying instruments, deployed at regularly visited stations. These confirmed the GPS results, though with less precision.

Electronic-tiltmeter data obtained at the Moku'aweoweo tiltmeter were also analyzed for changes in tilt direction. No significant volcanic tilt was recorded that deviated from the diurnal signal corresponding to daily temperature fluctuations, or an annual signal corresponding to seasonal temperature changes.

During the inflationary period, seismicity at Mauna Loa was at a somewhat elevated level following the 24-26 April earthquake cluster. But, it remained far lower than it was the months prior to the 1975 and 1984 eruptions.

May-September 2002 unrest in comparison to activity since 1974. For Mauna Loa these data sets are available: electric distance meter (EDM) measurements since about 1975, GPS observations since 1999, dry-tilt observations since 1975, and seismicity since 1974. The capability to detect unrest at Mauna Loa has increased in the past few years with the installation of many new, continuously recording electronic tiltmeters, GPS receivers, and strainmeters (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Map showing locations of continuously recording instruments for measuring deformation and seismicity at Mauna Loa as of September 2002. This map omits many additional benchmarks used in various deformation surveys. Courtesy HVO.

Figure 19 shows the distance measured across Moku`aweoweo caldera between MOKP and MSLP benchmarks by EDM during 1975 to September 2002, and by GPS beginning in 1999. Abrupt extensions associated with the 1975 and 1984 eruptions were caused by the rise of magma from the summit reservoir to the surface. During the 1984 eruption, the summit area subsided rapidly as lava erupted. When the eruption stopped, the summit reservoir again began to inflate in response to the influx of magma, as indicated by the increasing distance between the two benchmarks until about1993. Inflation did not occur again until early May 2002 when the slow contraction across the summit changed abruptly to extension. This extension rate is the highest since immediately after the 1984 eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. The change in distances across Moku`aweoweo caldera at Mauna Loa, between MOKP and MSLP benchmarks (see map inset) as measured by electronic distance meter since about 1975 to September 2002 and by GPS receivers since 1999. Note the abrupt change from contraction to extension in May 2002. Courtesy HVO.

GPS measurements have only been made at Mauna Loa since 1999, but in that relatively short time an abrupt change in ground movement has been recorded (figure 20). Measurements made during January 1999-May 2002 show small velocities of ground displacement towards the SW. In contrast, during May-September 2002 the direction of ground motion changed from a fairly uniform, southeastward movement to a predominately radial pattern. In addition, the rate of ground motion increased by 5 to 10 times.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Velocities of ground displacement measured by GPS stations on Mauna Loa during 1999 to 12 May 2002 (light lines) and 12 May to 21 September 2002 (black lines). The arrows represent the speed and direction of motion. The tips of the arrows representing the actual motion point lie somewhere within the uncertainty ellipses. Courtesy HVO.

Ground tilt away from the caldera occurs when magma accumulates beneath the surface. Although electronic measurements provide much more precise readings, the dry-tilt method remains in use at HVO after 35 years for several reasons. First, the measurements can be made nearly anywhere at any time. Second, they are not subject to long-term instrument drift. Lastly, they provide an independent corroboration of measurements made by more sophisticated modern instruments. Dry-tilt measurements revealed the following: inflation between the 1975 and 1984 eruptions (figure 21a), inflation after the 1984 eruption, continuing until 1993 (figure 21b), and deflation from 1993 through March (probably May) 2002 (figure 21c). After March (probably May), the tilt returned to an inflationary pattern (figure 21d). The most recent pattern of inflation is based on only two sets of measurements, and the tilt varies, with some smaller arrows pointing inward, so it is much less certain than the past patterns. Still, the radial pattern strongly suggests that inflation is occurring.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Rates of ground tilt measured in the summit region of Mauna Loa during 1975 to September 2002. Arrows point in the direction of downward tilt rate of the ground surface; arrow lengths show the amount of tilt in microradians (note scale bars). A) inflation during 1975-1984, between the last two eruptions at Mauna Loa; b) inflation after the 1984 eruption to 1993; c) deflation during 1993 to March (probably May) 2002; and d) a general return to inflation until at least September 2002. Courtesy HVO.

HVO's telemetered seismographic network recorded significant changes in seismicity before the Mauna Loa eruptions in 1975 and 1984 (figure 22). The short-term forecasts of these eruptions were based in large part on precursory activity. Both eruptions were preceded by an increase in earthquakes at intermediate depths NE of Moku`aweoweo, and then by an increase in shallower earthquakes beneath Mauna Loa's summit. From the 1984 eruption until late April 2002, approximately 30 earthquakes were located per year beneath Mauna Loa's summit and upper flanks. Rates of seismicity moderately increased beginning in late April 2002, particularly at depths greater than 15 km (figure 22d). As of 29 September 2002, 100 earthquakes were recorded in 2002 below the summit and upper flanks of the volcano, 83 of which occurred after mid-April. This rate is markedly higher than those of previous years, but it is still well below the rates seen prior to the last two eruptions. Before an eruption becomes imminent, HVO scientists expect that rates of shallow seismicity will elevate to levels much higher than those observed in late September 2002.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Monthly earthquakes (bars, scales at left) and cumulative numbers of located earthquakes (curves, scales at right), separated into three depth ranges, within or beneath Mauna Loa between 1974 and 29 September 2002. The earthquakes shown occurred beneath Mauna Loa's summit and upper flanks and had magnitudes greater than 1.0. Part "a" shows all earthquakes; "b", shallow earthquakes (0 to 5 km deep); "c", intermediate earthquakes (5 to 15 km deep); and "d", deep earthquakes (greater than 15 km deep). Courtesy HVO.

References. Moore J G, Clague D A, Holcomb R T, Lipman P W, Normark W R, Torresan M E, 1989. Prodigous submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge. J Geophys Res, 94: 17,465-17,484; Lockwood J P, Lipman P W, 1987. Holocene eruptive history of Mauna Loa volcano. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1350: 509-535.

Geologic Background. Massive Mauna Loa shield volcano rises almost 9 km above the sea floor to form the world's largest active volcano. Flank eruptions are predominately from the lengthy NE and SW rift zones, and the summit is cut by the Mokuaweoweo caldera, which sits within an older and larger 6 x 8 km caldera. Two of the youngest large debris avalanches documented in Hawaii traveled nearly 100 km from Mauna Loa; the second of the Alika avalanches was emplaced about 105,000 years ago (Moore et al. 1989). Almost 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is covered by lavas less than 4000 years old (Lockwood and Lipman, 1987). During a 750-year eruptive period beginning about 1500 years ago, a series of voluminous overflows from a summit lava lake covered about one fourth of the volcano's surface. The ensuing 750-year period, from shortly after the formation of Mokuaweoweo caldera until the present, saw an additional quarter of the volcano covered with lava flows predominately from summit and NW rift zone vents.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawaii National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/observatories/hvo/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent lava avalanches; plumes up to 550 m above summit

During 17 July-1 September, seismicity at Merapi was dominated by avalanche earthquakes. SO2 emissions varied, and generally white, thin, low-pressure plumes rose up to 550 m above the summit. Glowing avalanches traveled 2.6 km, moving towards headwaters of the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers (table 16). On 2 July two pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5 km toward the upstream of the Sat river. One low-frequency earthquake occurred during late August. The temperature of Gendol crater was 734-755°C, and the Woro crater was 418-435°C. Merapi remained at Alert Level 2.

Table 16. Seismicity, SO2 emissions, plume and lava-avalanche observations at Merapi during 17 June-1 September 2002. Courtesy VSI.

Date Avalanche Multiphase Tectonic SO2* MI Plumes (heights are above the summit) and lava avalanches
17 Jun-23 Jun 2002 247 6 7 107, 56-197, 174 +0.76 White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 400 m; 65 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat and Senowo rivers.
24 Jun-30 Jun 2002 318 3 16 87, 56-172, 134 -- White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 500 m; 68 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat and Senowo rivers.
01 Jul-07 Jul 2002 226 4 6 113, 73-167, 134 on 6 July +0.59 White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 550 m; 60 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.6 km to the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers.
08 Jul-14 Jul 2002 180 -- 12 85, 65-118, 86 on 11 July +2.56 White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 550 m; glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.6 km to the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers.
15 Jul-21 Jul 2002 201 2 4 117, 76-143, 122 on 16 July -1.15 White, thick low-pressure plume rose 390 m; glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers.
22 Jul-28 Jul 2002 220 -- 10 80, 46-167, 135 on 28 July -1.69 White, thick low-pressure plume rose 350 m; 92 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers.
29 Jul-04 Aug 2002 237 3 7 145, 62-210, 162 on 4 August +1.68 White, thin medium-pressure plume rose 394 m; 42 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.6 km to the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers.
05 Aug-11 Aug 2002 184 1 4 106, 56-123, 155 on 5 August -1.89 White, thick, low-pressure plume rose 525 m; 53 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers.
12 Aug-18 Aug 2002 191 -- 6 87, 61-115, 93 on 14 August +0.13 White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 300 m; 40 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers.
19 Aug-25 Aug 2002 187 15 11 129, 92-154, 137 on 24 August +0.13 White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 350 m; 16 glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers.
26 Aug-01 Sep 2002 311 4 3 127, 85-190, 157 on 26 August -0.22 White, thin, low-pressure plume rose 400 m; glowing lava avalanches traveled 2.5 km to the Sat, Lamat, and Senowo rivers.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Semeru (Indonesia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Higher-than-normal seismic and explosive activity during June-September 2002

During 17 June-8 September, activity at Semeru was higher than normal. Seismicity was dominated by explosion and avalanche earthquakes. Volcanic and tectonic earthquakes also occurred, along with occasional tremor episodes (table 9). During June and July, and on 6 August, when fog did not obscure the view, observers reported that lava avalanches traveled toward Besuk Kembar river at distances of ~750 m from the crater rim. At times during July explosions produced white ash plumes that reached 300-500 m above the crater. During mid-August to early September, a white-gray ash plume rose 400-500 m above the crater. On 8 September at 1947 an ash explosion ejected glowing material ~150 m toward the upper stream of Besuk Kembar river. Semeru remained at Alert Level 2.

Table 9. Earthquakes and tremor registered at Semeru during 17 June-8 September 2002. Courtesy VSI.

Date Volcanic Explosion Avalanche Tremor (max. amp.)
17 Jun-23 Jun 2002 -- 670 75 --
24 Jun-30 Jun 2002 -- 782 83 1
01 Jul-07 Jul 2002 -- 714 76 1
08 Jul-14 Jul 2002 -- 898 77 --
15 Jul-21 Jul 2002 -- 670 83 --
22 Jul-28 Jul 2002 4 B-type 696 88 3 (1-4 mm)
29 Jul-04 Aug 2002 -- 744 92 (1-4 mm)
05 Aug-11 Aug 2002 1 B-type 668 106 --
12 Aug-18 Aug 2002 -- 696 67 --
19 Aug-25 Aug 2002 2 A-type 734 108 --
26 Aug-01 Sep 2002 1 B-type 845 115 --
02 Sep-08 Sep 2002 1 A-type 640 57 --

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Sheveluch (Russia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Growing lava dome, seismicity, and plumes up to 7 km high

Last discussed through May 2002 (BGVN 27:05), Shiveluch went on to display mostly mild eruptive activity, punctuated by occasional larger outbursts, during the interval from mid-June through early October 2002. During this reporting period, a lava dome continued to grow in the active crater, both ash-bearing and dominantly gas emissions occurred, and seismicity remained above background levels. Plumes reached up to 7 km above the lava dome (table 3). Earthquakes reached up to M 2.7 at depths of 0-10 km. Other local shallow seismic signals occurred that indicated possible weak gas-and-ash explosions and avalanches. Episodes of weak spasmodic tremor were registered. Thermal anomalies were visible on AVHRR satellite imagery throughout the report period (table 4) but no ash was detected in any image.

Table 3. Plumes reported at Shiveluch during 14 June-11 October 2002. All visual observations and recordings were made from Klyuchi town. Cloudy weather prevented observations on some days. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Plume type Height above dome Comment
15 Jun 2002 Ash and gas ~1000 m Shallow seismic events registered; no strong explosions
16 Jun 2002 Gas and steam 300 m --
19 Jun 2002 Ash and gas ~1500 m Shallow seismic events registered; no strong explosions
20 Jun 2002 Gas and steam 100 m --
20 Jun 2002 Gas and steam 900 m Extended 10 km to the SW
22-24, 26-27 Jun 2002 Gas and steam 1000-3000 m Extended 10 km to the SW on 22-23, 26-27 June
30 Jun-02 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 800-2000 m Extended 10 km to the E
06, 08-10 Jul 2002 Ash and gas ~1000-1500 m One to three explosions per day accompanied by rock avalanches/pyroclastic flows (recorded on video)
06-10 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 200-1500 m Extended 10 km to the E on 7-9 July
12-13, 16 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 1500-2000 m --
13 Jul 2002 Ash-poor ~1000 m Short-lived explosions (recorded on video)
19 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 50 m --
19-20 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 400-500 m --
22 Jul 2002 Likely ash-rich ~7 km Small, circular (~10 km in diameter), appeared to be centered over summit; no strong explosive event identified; no ash reported
23-25 Jul 2002 Steam/aerosol -- Possibly a little fine ash; observed in satellite images
24-25 and early 26 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 1500 m Extended 10 km to the SSE, SSW, and SW; visual observation revealed no ash plumes
30 Jul 2002 -- ~3000 m Visual observation; accompanied by short-lived explosion; possible small amount of ash
26-27 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 1500 m Extended 10 km to the SE on 28 July
27 Jul 2002 Ash and gas 1500 m Short-lived explosive eruption
28 Jul 2002 Gas and steam 200 m --
29 Jul 2002 Ash and gas ~3000 m Short-lived explosive eruption; possible small amount of ash observed above low clouds
06-07 Aug 2002 Ash and steam 1500-3000 m Four short-lived explosive eruptions sent ash-poor plumes to 1500-3000 m above dome (recorded on video)
14 Aug 2002 Gas and steam 1500 m --
15 Aug 2002 Ash and gas ~2000 m --
16-17 Aug 2002 Gas and steam 300-400 m --
17 Aug 2002 Ash and gas ~1000 m Short-lived explosion observed
18, 22 Aug 2002 Gas and steam 1200-4000 m Extended 10 km to the W and SW on 17-18, 22 August
23, 28 Aug 2002 Gas and steam 1000-1500 m --
25 Aug 2002 Gas and steam 200 m --
25 Aug 2002 Ash and gas ~1500 m Short-lived explosion
31 Aug 2002 Gas and steam 100 m --
03 Sep 2002 Gas and steam 400 m --
05 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~2000 m Short-lived explosion
08 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~1500-~2000 m Short-lived explosions; plumes extended to the E
08-09 Sep 2002 Gas and steam 300-1500 m --
09 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~1000-~3500 m Short lived explosions
11 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~1500 m Short-lived explosions
15 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~1000 m Short-lived explosions
16-17 Sep 2002 Gas and steam 100 m --
17 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~3000 m Short-lived explosion
17-18 Sep 2002 Ash and gas ~2000 m --
24 Sep 2002 Gas and steam ~5000 m Short-lived explosions
26 Sep 2002 Ash and gas 100-700 m --
06 Oct 2002 Ash and gas ~1000 m At 2100 a glow from hot lava was observed at the dome area (recorded on video)

Table 4. Thermal anomalies recognized in AVHRR satellite imagery at Shiveluch during 14 June-11 October 2002. On some days, clouds obscured the view or there were no passes over the volcano. Unless noted, all images came from the AVHRR satellite. Courtesy KVERT.

Date Number of pixels Max band-3 temp. (°C) Background (°C) Comment
15 Jun 2002 4 -- -- Faint plumes to SE for 53-130 km observed 15-16 June; no ash detected
16 Jun 2002 4 49.5 0 Most intense 15-20 June; no ash detected
20 Jun 2002 4 -- -- --
22-26 Jun 2002 2-5 38-43 0 to 17 Steam plumes trailed 40-75 km observed 22, 25, 27 June (no direction given); no ash detected
29 Jun; 01, 04 Jul 2002 1-4 1-2 pixels at 49 -5 to 26 No ash detected
06-11 Jul 2002 1-4 2 pixels at 49 1 to 10 Plumes extended 30-200 km to the E observed 8-9 July; no ash detected
13, 16 Jul 2002 5-7 36.9-45 5 to 10 No ash detected
19-20, 24-early 26 Jul 2002 1-7 18.5-49.5 -5 to 22 No ash detected
26, 28 Jul; 01 Aug 2002 1-4 38-49 5 to 10 On 28 July and 1 August small steam plumes extended to the sincerely and 35 km to the NW, respectively
06-07 Aug 2002 5 20-21 0 to 4 Small steam plumes extended 30 km to the SW and 55 km to the NW (observed in satellite images); no ash detected
10, 12-13, 15 Aug 2002 1-4 ~30 -- No ash or steam-and-gas plumes detected
16-17, 19, 22 Aug 2002 Two 6 46-49 -- On 22 August at 0718 a steam-and-gas plume extended 35 km to the SW
23-24, 28 Aug 2002 2-4 20-44 -- --
29 Aug 2002 5 2 pixels at 49.44 ~15 Steam-and-gas plume extended ~68 km to the SW; no ash detected
30-31 Aug 2002 1-5 37-39 ~3 morning No ash detected
02-04 Sep 2002 -- -- ~15 afternoon --
08, 09, 12, 13 Sep 2002 2-5 2.8-36.5 ~-18 to 0 No ash detected
14-17 Sep 2002 2-6 39.64-49.5 ~-3 to 20 On 16 September a small plume extended ~34 km to the SE; on 17 September a plume extended ~127 km to the ESE; no ash detected
21, 24, 25 Sep 2002 3-4 -- -- No ash detected (NOAA12 and NOAA16 satellite images)
24 Sep 2002 1-4 18-44.8 ~-10 No ash detected
27, 30 Sep; 01-03 Oct 2002 2-4 -- -- On 2 October a steam-and-gas plume extended 80 km to the SE (NOAA12 and NOAA16 satellite images)
02 Oct 2002 2-3 40.46 to 45-48 ~-10 to -3 Faint plume extended 15 km to the SE; no ash detected
05-07 Oct 2002 2-8 36.81-49.35 ?14 to 0 On 6 October a plume extended 111 km to the SE; no ash detected

The Level of Concern Code was Yellow ("volcano is restless") throughout the reporting period, except for a few days starting 30 July and again early in August when Code Orange ("volcano is in eruption or eruption may occur at any time") was declared.

Summary of recent activity. Except when the summit was obscured by clouds, ash-and-gas or gas-and-steam plumes were seen visually almost daily (table 3). These plumes, frequently accompanied by short-lived explosions and avalanches, typically rose 1-3 km above the summit with occasional plumes rising as high as 7-10 km.

Similarly, satellite imagery (principally AVHRR) reported significant thermal anomalies on an almost daily basis with an extent of several (1-6) pixels, reaching maximum, band-3 temperatures of 20-49°C and frequently associated with steam or aerosol plumes, some extending over 100 km from the volcano.

From mid-June to late-July, numerous earthquakes were recorded, typically M 1.7 to 2.4 and several reaching M 2.7. At 2000 on 29 July, four earthquakes (M 2.1-2.3) occurred and the intensity of volcanic tremor increased noticeably in comparison with the previous days. The following day (30 July), the Level of Concern was raised from Yellow to Orange, but it returned to Yellow when the tremor amplitude decreased over the following two days. However, the activity level increased again during subsequent days and the level was raised again to Orange.

During 12-16 August, about 10 earthquakes of magnitude 1.7-2.4 occurred. Along with smaller earthquakes and many other local seismic signals, these probably indicated ash and gas explosions (at a rate of 1-3 a day, to heights of 1500-2500 m above the dome). However, the Level of Concern was returned to Yellow by the end of the week.

Through the remainder of the period, many earthquakes up to M 2.7 occurred, frequent gas-and-steam plumes rose as high as 5 km above the dome, and thermal anomalies of 6-8 pixels were observed as were gas/steam plumes that extended 80-120 km. On 25 September, continuous spasmodic tremor prevailed for 27 minutes.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Olga Chubarova, Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Piip Ave. 9, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia; Tom Miller and Dave Schneider, Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667, USA, b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://www.avo.alaska.edu/).


Soufriere Hills (United Kingdom) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Soufriere Hills

United Kingdom

16.72°N, 62.18°W; summit elev. 915 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Mid-to-late 2002 dome growth and the start of NE-traveling pyroclastic flows

The Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) reported that during mid-May through mid-September 2002, seismicity at Soufrière Hills was dominated by rockfall signals. Four volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were reported during the first week of June and nine during the week of 9-16 August. SO2 emission rates were measured using Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (DOAS). SO2 fluxes generally remained at moderate levels. High fluxes occurred at times, such as during rockfall activity on 12 August (up to 690 t/day). On 6 September SO2 emissions were low at 42-170 t/day, although levels increased to 170-518 t/day through 13 September (table 41).

Table 41. Seismicity at Soufrière Hills during 10 May-13 September 2002. "--" indicates that the information was not reported. Courtesy MVO.

Date Rockfall Long-period Long-period / Rockfall Hybrid SO2 flux (metric tons/day)
10 May-17 May 2002 553 127 99 5 --
17 May-24 May 2002 532 77 111 1 --
24 May-31 May 2002 497 57 93 6 --
31 May-07 Jun 2002 129 20 4 6 --
07 Jun-14 Jun 2002 135 20 3 12 247-955
14 Jun-21 Jun 2002 226 14 10 17 14-15 Jun: ~170-520; 16-17 Jun: ~90-350; 19 Jun: ~600-690; 20-21 Jun: ~90-350
21 Jun-28 Jun 2002 102 6 2 19 22-23 Jun: ~170-520; 24 Jun: ~90-260; 25-26 Jun: ~170-350; 26-28 Jun: ~90-170
28 Jun-05 Jul 2002 42 6 5 11 --
05 Jul-12 Jul 2002 108 6 2 17 10-12 Jul: ~90-260
12 Jul-19 Jul 2002 151 3 4 8 13-14 Jul: 90; 15-19 Jul: ~130-220
19 Jul-26 Jul 2002 250 92 28 15 22-26 Jul: 175-250
26 Jul-02 Aug 2002 260 118 32 3 ~90-270
02 Aug-09 Aug 2002 313 138 52 23 Max: 690; avg: 380
09 Aug-16 Aug 2002 209 87 8 5 86-430; 12 Aug: ~690 during rockfall activity
16 Aug-23 Aug 2002 231 44 5 1 16-18 Aug: 170-340; 19-23 Aug: 170-600
23 Aug-30 Aug 2002 287 31 9 0 170-340
30 Aug-06 Sep 2002 453 63 9 1 170-432
06 Sep-13 Sep 2002 308 63 2 0 6 Sep: 42-170; 7-13 Sep: 170-518

During mid-May, growth of the summit lava dome continued to be concentrated on the E flank, giving rise to numerous rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows in the upper reached of the Tar River Valley. Pyroclastic flows were observed moving NE in the uppermost part of Tuitt's Ghaut during an observation flight on the morning of May 13. This was the first indication that pyroclastic flows generated on the NE flank of the active dome were able to flow into this drainage system. This new direction of flow was possible after the 29 July collapse scar had become largely buried on this side of the dome. The summit region of the active dome was visible briefly on several occasions during late May. It had a broad blocky appearance, and growth seemed to have become concentrated on the SE, giving rise to rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows on the SE flank of the dome. There was little activity on the NE flank of the dome during the last week of May.

Very clear conditions during 31 May-3 June provided the first good views of the summit region for several months, revealing that since early April a large lobe had been extruded on the dome's upper SE side. The lobe was ~150 m across and reached 1,023 m altitude. The upper surface of the lobe had a spiny though slab-like appearance. Since the dome was last seen, it had developed a small lobe-like protrusion on the summit's W side. Minor June rockfalls occurred on the dome's E and W sectors.

During mid-June, although the dome was mostly covered by clouds, photos of the summit area were captured on many days by the remote digital camera at White's Yard. Despite the low level of rockfall and seismic activity, the massive extrusion lobe on the SE side of the dome continued to grow steadily. Most of the upper surface of the active lobe had the smooth form of a whale's back; it also contained a low-angle spine directed upwards towards the SE. The free face at the front of the lobe on the SE side was steep and blocky in appearance. A theodolite survey of the dome taken during a brief period of clear weather on 11 June measured these altitudes: the general summit area of the active lobe stood at 1,025-1,030 m, and the top of the spine, at 1,048 m.

Rockfall activity increased abruptly on the night of 14 June and remained moderately high until the 18th, when it declined once more. Rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows were produced by material collapsing off the E face of the dome. Several small pyroclastic flows were also produced on the NE flank and were observed flowing into the upper part of Tuitt's Ghaut. By late June, growth of the extrusion lobe on the SE side of the dome appeared to have stagnated. Rockfall activity decreased abruptly on the afternoon of 22 June and declined to very low levels during 25-28 June.

No change in dome morphology occurred during early to mid-July. Rockfall activity on the dome increased slightly on the morning of 3 July, and a small, low ash cloud drifted over Plymouth around 1000. This followed several hours of heavy rain during the night, which was associated with substantial mudflows in the center of Plymouth. Rockfalls increased slightly during 6-8 July, before decreasing to very low levels through 12 July.

Observations of the dome on 15 July suggested that dome growth was continuing at a very low rate. Growth was concentrated on the SE part of the dome, at the lobe that was active during mid- to late June. The level of rockfall activity from this active lobe increased slightly on 15 July, with a small pyroclastic flow at 0800 directed down the Tar River Valley.

A swarm of low-amplitude long-period (LP) earthquakes began on 19 July and increased in strength during the following four days. The swarm continued at an elevated level until it began to decrease slightly during 31 July-2 August.

Observations of the dome on 21 July indicated that significant growth had recommenced, with the extrusion of a new lobe on the NE side of the summit region. Growth of the new extrusion lobe gave rise to rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows off the NE flank of the dome. On the morning of 23 July a minor collapse produced small but continuous pyroclastic flows for about an hour. These mainly flowed into the upper parts of Tuitt's Ghaut and down White's Ghaut for about half the distance to the coast. A few also flowed into the upper part of the Tar River Valley. A similar event, lasting for ~20 minutes, occurred in the early hours on the morning of 26 July.

On the morning of 1 August observations revealed that the new extrusion lobe on the N side of the summit had a broad whaleback form. Growth of this lobe was directed N and, around 2-4 August, the lobe crumbled repeatedly, producing rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows in Tuitt's Ghaut. Limited activity occurred on the NW part of the dome, although one small pyroclastic flow descended the notch between the central and NW buttresses. Individual rocks also reached upper Tyre's Ghaut (behind Gage's Mountain). During 6-9 August, rockfall activity declined substantially due to the lobe becoming more coherent and not collapsing. By mid-August, talus had accumulated in the upper reaches of Tuitt's Ghaut and small pyroclastic flows occurred in both Tuitt's and White's Ghauts. The active lobe also shed more talus into the notch in the NW sector of the old dome, which leads towards Tyre's Ghaut.

Rockfall talus continued to accumulate in the upper reaches of Tuitt's Ghaut during 16-23 August, and there were overspills of talus from the N side of the Tar River Valley into the two tributaries of White's Ghaut. The NE buttress, a remnant of the old dome complex from mid-1997, was now completely buried. Erosion of the E edge of the central buttress continued. Talus continued to slowly accumulate in the notch in the NW sector of the old dome, which leads towards Tyre's Ghaut. During intense rainfall early on 21 August, a small collapse occurred in the Tar River Valley of the talus that had accumulated on the SE sector of the dome during April-May 2002.

During late August, small pyroclastic flows were mainly concentrated on the NE flank where they had been channeled into the upper reaches of Tuitt's Ghaut; although some had spilled eastwards along the N side of the Tar River Valley. Talus also continued to accumulate in the notch in the NW sector of the old dome, which leads towards Tyre's Ghaut. Torrential rainfall produced mudflows in the Belham Valley in the early hours of 28 August.

During early September, growth continued to be focused on the N side of the dome complex although it had become more centralized and the summit height now exceeded 1,050 m. Otherwise the focus of activity remained concentrated on the NE flank, with frequent rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows. Most of these were channeled into the upper reaches of Tuitt's Ghaut; although some had spilled eastwards along the N side of the Tar River Valley.

During mid-September, dome growth remained centralized, and the summit height exceeded 1,050 m. Otherwise the focus of activity remained concentrated on the E flank, with frequent rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows. Around 6-8 September most of these spilled eastwards along the N side of the Tar River Valley, although by 12-13 September activity appears to have refocused northwards onto Tuitt's Ghaut, with subordinate amounts continuing to spill eastwards into the Tar River Valley.

During the reporting interval, the daytime entry zone (DTEZ) remained open, weather permitting. MVO warned that activity could increase suddenly, with dangerous situations developing quickly. Protective masks were to be worn in ashy conditions and the Belham Valley was to be avoided during and after heavy rainfall due to the possibility of mudflows. Access was prohibited to Plymouth, Bramble airport, and points closer to the volcano; including a marine exclusion zone around the southern part of the island ~3 km beyond the coastline, extending from Trant's Bay in the E to Garibaldi Hill on the W.

Geologic Background. The complex, dominantly andesitic Soufrière Hills volcano occupies the southern half of the island of Montserrat. The summit area consists primarily of a series of lava domes emplaced along an ESE-trending zone. The volcano is flanked by Pleistocene complexes to the north and south. English's Crater, a 1-km-wide crater breached widely to the east by edifice collapse, was formed about 2000 years ago as a result of the youngest of several collapse events producing submarine debris-avalanche deposits. Block-and-ash flow and surge deposits associated with dome growth predominate in flank deposits, including those from an eruption that likely preceded the 1632 CE settlement of the island, allowing cultivation on recently devegetated land to near the summit. Non-eruptive seismic swarms occurred at 30-year intervals in the 20th century, but no historical eruptions were recorded until 1995. Long-term small-to-moderate ash eruptions beginning in that year were later accompanied by lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows that forced evacuation of the southern half of the island and ultimately destroyed the capital city of Plymouth, causing major social and economic disruption.

Information Contacts: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Mongo Hill, Montserrat, West Indies (URL: http://www.mvo.ms/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS E/SP23, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Road, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/).


Talang (Indonesia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Talang

Indonesia

0.979°S, 100.681°E; summit elev. 2575 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plume reached up to 100 m above the crater during July 2002

During 17 June-28 July 2002 at Talang a generally white, thin plume rose 25-100 m above the crater and drifted E. [Throughout July the activity was described as a "white-thin ash plume."] Hot spring temperatures ranged from 43 to 64°C. No seismic data were available because of a broken seismograph. Talang remained at Alert Level 2.

Geologic Background. Talang, which forms a twin volcano with the extinct Pasar Arbaa volcano, lies ESE of the major city of Padang and rises NW of Dibawah Lake. Talang has two crater lakes on its flanks; the largest of these is 1 x 2 km wide Danau Talang. The summit exhibits fumarolic activity, but which lacks a crater. Historical eruptions have mostly involved small-to-moderate explosive activity first documented in the 19th century that originated from a series of small craters in a valley on the upper NE flank.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Tangkubanparahu (Indonesia) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Tangkubanparahu

Indonesia

6.77°S, 107.6°E; summit elev. 2084 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


First elevated seismicity since 1992

The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported that Tangkubanparahu reactivated during late August 2002. On 2 September the Alert Level was raised to 2, following an elevated number of earthquakes that were registered during the previous two weeks. The temperatures of Domas and Ratu craters increased ~2-4°C; Domas crater was at 74-93°C and Ratu crater at 95-100°C. No visual changes accompanied the temperature increase inside the craters, but several animals were found dead in Ratu crater. Seismicity totals for the week of 26 August-1 September were three deep-volcanic (A-type), 172 shallow-volcanic (B-type), and 12 tectonic earthquakes. During 2-8 September, four A-type, 224 B-type, and two tectonic earthquakes were registered.

Geologic Background. Tangkubanparahu (also known as Tangkuban Perahu) is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The rim of Sunda caldera forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the caldera rim is largely buried by deposits of Tangkubanparahu volcano. The dominantly small phreatic historical eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression.

Information Contacts: Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).


Witori (Papua New Guinea) — September 2002 Citation iconCite this Report

Witori

Papua New Guinea

5.576°S, 150.516°E; summit elev. 724 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava flows and deformation; monitoring network installed

The eruption that began at Pago on 3 August with significant ash plumes (BGVN 27:07) had produced lava flows from multiple vents NW of the main crater by early September (BGVN 27:08). This report provides additional details of fieldwork by the Japanese Disaster Relief Team noted in the last issue. Varied information from a United Nations report on 27 September has been distributed into appropriate sections below.

Observations of recent activity. The United Nations reported on 27 September that the volcano continued to emit steam and a thin vapor plume from vents near the summit and that the plume drifted to the NW over the Hoskins Peninsula. Lava continued to flow into the wider Witori Caldera basin, but was contained by its wall. Low-level seismicity and slow ground deformation along the W part of the caldera floor also continued. Monitoring about 3 km SW of the summit has shown a slight uplift.

While enroute from Kavieng to Port Moresby, Dave Innes (acting First Officer of an Air Niugini Fokker F-28, Captain Alex Porter in command) photographed Pago around 1230 on 14 September from an altitude of about 8.5 km (28,000 feet) while the volcano was quiet (figure 5). Later in the month Innes noted that the volcano had been putting out little more than "smoke," but on the 30th he and Captain Seymour (another Air Niugini F-28 commander) put in an "ash-sighting chit" when they saw that it was fairly active. He reports that the "smoke" stayed over the whole center section of the N coast of New Britain through to the following day (1 October).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Aerial photograph of Pago around 1230 on 14 September 2002. Dark lava flows can be seen extending NNW from the crater towards the upper center of the view. The lighter-colored fan-shaped area in the center (N of the crater) is most likely ash-covered vegetation; previous ash plumes blew in that direction. Courtesy of David Innes, Air Niugini.

The "ash-sighting chit" noted by Innes is an internal Air Niugini Volcanic Volcanic Activity Report. This is a company variation of the ICAO VAR (section one) which is separate from the formal reporting process. Crews transitting known hot-spots fill out the form, rip off the white copy (which looks like a receipt or "chit" ), and put it in a box at crewing in Port Moresby. Pilots arriving to commence flights can then see what their colleagues had seen the last time someone passed that way.

Volcano monitoring. As noted in the UN report, the assistance of technical teams from Japan and the United States was achieved through the efforts of the Rabaul Volcanological Observatory from East New Britain, which is overseeing scientific efforts. The government of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has set up a Kimbe Volcanological Observatory to coordinate the scientific work on Pago, and ultimately to monitor and evaluate the threat posed by West New Britain's three other active volcanoes.

Installing a volcanic monitoring system on Pago had been long-planned as part of a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey's Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP), with funding from the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, and Geoscience Australia to provide assistance to PNG. However, the current eruption accelerated those plans. On 5 September, at the invitation of the PNG government a 3-person team from VDAP departed the United States with equipment for a telemetered monitoring network consisting of five seismometers (one 3-component instrument) and three real-time GPS stations. The network was installed with the assistance of personnel from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory, and the VDAP team returned on 13 October after the network was operational and sending telemetered data to the observatory in Kimbe.

Civil Defence. The following information is from a situation report issued by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) on 27 September. This report was based on information provided by OCHA's Regional Disaster Response Adviser in Kimbe, working alongside the PNG National Disaster Management Office (NDMO) and the AusAID team that is supporting the West New Britain Provincial Disaster Committee.

Of the 15,000 inhabitants of the affected part of the Hoskins Peninsula, the region close to the crater and in the arc to the NW, ~13,000 have been evacuated since early August; the remainder are still living in their villages, looking after property, and engaged in limited cultivation.

Although only a few millimeters of ash has fallen even in the worst affected areas, it is a fine volcanic ash with high silica content, which poses a serious hazard to aviation. Hoskins Airport has therefore been closed since early August, shutting off the direct link to Port Moresby and the flow of tourists that helps support the provincial economy. It is only possible to reach Kimbe by sea, or by light aircraft to Bialla and then three hours drive along the rough coast road, only passable in the dry season.

Current understanding of the risk is based on incomplete scientific evidence, and it will be at least 3 months before sufficient data can be gathered and analyzed to enable a decent hazard assessment. Consequently the Provincial Disaster Committee (PDC) has not permitted the permanent return of the evacuees to their villages. The lack of cheap transport also restricts such activities and would complicate and delay any larger scale evacuation if this became necessary. The seasonal shift in the prevailing winds during October will place another 8,000-9,000 people at risk in any future ash ejection.

National and provincial disaster managers are preparing contingency plans for three possible scenarios. The first scenario is that eruptive activity continues as at present through the wet season, with ashfall affecting a further 8,000 people; the second is that it becomes more explosive with pyroclastic flows impacting an area up to 15 km from the volcano; the worst case scenario is a caldera-forming eruption, potentially affecting up to 30,000 people within a 30 km radius.

Observations during 25 August-3 September made by the Japanese Team. The Japanese Disaster Relief Team, including two seismologists from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and a geologist from the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, was dispatched to Pago during 25 August through 3 September 2002. Observations were carried out with support from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) and governmental agencies of both Japan and Papua New Guinea, including the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). A brief report of their observations is provided below. The Team extends their thanks to Chris Mckee, Hassan El-kherbotly, Isolde Macatol, and Ima Itikarai of RVO for their great assistance with the research activities.

On 27 August aerial inspections were made from a helicopter and a survey of air-fall tephra was done. Work the next day included the installation of a seismograph, infrared surveys from a helicopter, and field surveys of air-fall deposits. New lava was sampled on the 29th. Additional aerial inspections were accomplished on the 30th, and the seismograph was picked up. Fieldwork on 31 August consisted of sampling older lava.

During this work, the following observations were noted. 1) Two craters and four lava vents are aligned NW-SE from the middle slope NW of the Pago Central Cone to the Witori caldera. 2) New lava descending from each of the four vents forms complex lobes. The largest amount of lava erupted from the lowest vent, changing its flow direction to the NE and SW due to the caldera wall. 3) No eruption column was seen, though bluish white-colored fumarolic gas was being emitted. Sulfur was deposited on the crater rim. 4) A fault perpendicular to the crater line could be seen in the middle and W of the crater line. 5) The thickness of air-fall deposit is ~2 mm at a spot 10.5 km N of the craters (Rikau), and <1 mm at the Hoskins Air Port 18 km to the NE.

A distinct thermal anomaly was observed in an infrared image at the lowest crater (figure 6), with a maximum temperature of about 350°C, indicating vigorous upwelling of lava. The lowermost part of the lava, the flow front, was also a high-temperature zone.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Thermal image of Pago showing recent lava flows and areas of active lava emission from the lowest vent on 28 August 2002. Low-temperature near-background values beyond the extent of the lava flows have been combined into a single shade to better define the area of lava flows. View is approximately to the SE. Courtesy of the Japanese Disaster Relief Team.

Seismicity was stable, but without doubt exceeds its background level, although only about 40 hours of data were recorded. Approximately 20-30 small seismic events, mainly high-frequency B-type earthquakes (BL events, predominant frequency of ~3-4 Hz), were detected per hour. The S-P time of about 1.6s and polarity of first motions suggest that the seismic waves came from the direction of the lava, possibly from near the vents. Besides these BL events, there were seismic events with more complex waveforms. They might be a succession of BL events or caused by rockfalls at the edge of the lava flows. No notable swarm-type activity occurred during the observation period.

Geologic Background. The 5.5 x 7.5 km Witori caldera on the northern coast of central New Britain contains the young historically active cone of Pago. The Buru caldera cuts the SW flank of Witori volcano. The gently sloping outer flanks of Witori volcano consist primarily of dacitic pyroclastic-flow and airfall deposits produced during a series of five major explosive eruptions from about 5600 to 1200 years ago, many of which may have been associated with caldera formation. The post-caldera Pago cone may have formed less than 350 years ago. Pago has grown to a height above that of the Witori caldera rim, and a series of ten dacitic lava flows from it covers much of the caldera floor. The youngest of these was erupted during 2002-2003 from vents extending from the summit nearly to the NW caldera wall.

Information Contacts: Ima Itikarai, Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), PO Box 386, Rabaul, E.N.B.P., Papua New Guinea; Japanese Disaster Relief Team: Kohichi Uhira, Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan; Akimitsu Takagi, Meteorological Research Institute of Japan Meteorological Agency, 1-1 Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan; Mitsuhiro Yoshimoto, Volcano Research Center (VRC), Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo, 1130032 111, Yayoi, Bunkyoku, Tokyo (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html); United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), United Nations, New York, NY 10017 USA (URL: https://reliefweb.int/); C. Dan Miller, Volcano Disaster Assistance Program, US Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory, 1300 Southeast Cardinal Court, Building 10, Suite 100, Vancouver, Washington 98683, USA (URL: http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/); David Innes, Air Niugini, PO Box 7186, Boroko, Port Moresby, National Capital District, Papua New Guinea (URL: http://www.airniugini.com.pg/).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

View Atmospheric Effects Reports

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

View Special Announcements Reports

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).