Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

















New Activity Highlights


 Activity for the week of 11 May-17 May 2016


The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Awu Sangihe Islands (Indonesia) New
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Alaid Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Cotopaxi Ecuador Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Langila New Britian (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Masaya Nicaragua Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Pavlof United States Ongoing
Sangay Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Telica Nicaragua Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity/Unrest


Volcano index photo  Awu  | Sangihe Islands (Indonesia)  | 3.67°N, 125.5°E  | Elevation 1320 m

PVMBG reported that seismicity at Awu fluctuated during April and the first part of May. On 11 May the number of earthquakes rose significantly; the number of local tectonic and deep volcanic earthquakes was the highest recorded in the last year, and the number of shallow volcanic earthquakes was the second highest recorded (the highest number was recorded on 24 November 2015, prompting an increase in the Alert Level). Earthquake hypocenters were located at depths between 0.5 and 4 km. On 12 May the Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4); residents and tourists were advised to stay 4 km away from the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ruapehu  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.28°S, 175.57°E  | Elevation 2797 m

On 17 May GeoNet reported that the lake temperature of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had decreased from a high of 46 degrees Celsius to 39 degrees, with some of the decrease attributed to rain and snowfall. Moderate levels of volcanic tremor continued, and analysis of water samples collected the previous week showed no changes in the lake chemistry. During recent visits, scientists measured a larger output of volcanic gases. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (moderate to heightened unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow.

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that an explosion at the Minamidake summit crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) generated an ash plume that rose 3.7 km above the crater rim. During 13-16 May explosions from Showa Crater generated an ash plume that rose as high as 3.5 km above the crater rim. On 13 May the Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Alaid  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 50.861°N, 155.565°E  | Elevation 2285 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity at Alaid continued during 6-13 May. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and a lava flow on the SW flank. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.525°N, 150.875°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 9-11 and 14 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that an explosion at Cleveland was detected at 0732 on 10 May by infrasound (air pressure) sensors. Cloud cover prevented satellite views during most of the previous week; nothing noteworthy was detected in satellite data and no anomalous seismicity was recorded after the explosion through 14 May. Energetic steaming and highly elevated surface temperatures in the summit crater were observed in satellite data on 15 May. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO and webcam views, the Washington VAAC reported that duirng 15-17 May ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 5.5-7.6 km (18,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE and E.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cotopaxi  | Ecuador  | 0.677°S, 78.436°W  | Elevation 5911 m

During an overflight of Cotopaxi on 10 May, scientists observed minor gas emissions rising 600 m above the crater and drifting N and NW. Glaciers remained cracked, though glacial melting observed in recent months had decreased considerably. The temperature of flank fumaroles had decreased slightly.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-17 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 65 km in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that seismicity beneath Kilauea's summit, upper East Rift Zone, and Southwest Rift Zone was at background levels during 11-17 May. The lava lake continued to circulate and eject spatter in the Overlook vent. Webcams recorded glow from multiple spatter cones on the Pu'u 'O'o Crater floor and from skylights in the lava tube on the NE flank of the cone. Vents in the SW and E parts of the crater periodically produced small lava flows within the crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active within 5.8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o Crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 6-13 May. Satellite and video data showed a lava flow effusing on the SE flank, down the Apakhonchich drainage. Satellite images showed an intense thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Langila  | New Britian (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.525°S, 148.42°E  | Elevation 1330 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 May ash plumes from Langila rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-85 km NNW, NW, and W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Masaya  | Nicaragua  | 11.984°N, 86.161°W  | Elevation 635 m

INETER reported that between 1700 and 2400 on 3 May volcanic tremor at Masaya increased; RSAM values spiked at 1,000 units and then dropped to 250. Gas emissions at Santiago crater were at low-to-moderate levels, and the lava lake continued to strongly circulate. On 5 May RSAM values fluctuated between 250 and 500 units which are low-to-moderate values.

Source: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 10-16 May seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by long-period and very-long-period earthquakes, episodes of continuous tremor, and pulses of volcanic tremor associated with gas-and-ash emissions. Thermal anomalies near Arenas Crater were identified in satellite images during 11-12 May. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater during the week. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW and W on 12 May. Based on information from SGC, the Washington VAAC reported that on 17 May an ash emission rose to an altitude of 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover in the area prevented satellite observations of the activity. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Sources: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Pavlof  | United States  | 55.417°N, 161.894°W  | Elevation 2493 m

AVO reported that at about 1035 on 13 May seismic activity at Pavlof increased to levels typically associated with low-level eruptive activity; cloud cover prevented visual observations of the volcano though no thermal signals or ash emissions were evident through the cloud deck. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch due to the possibility of an eruption in progress. On 14 May seismicity remained above background levels. Clear satellite and webcam views revealed no evidence for an eruption, and no ash emissions or thermal anomalies at the summit were observed. During 1927-2107 on 14 May ash emissions were evident in webcam views and reported by local observers. A diffuse ash plume rose to altitudes of 4.6-5.5 km (15,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and remained in the vicinity of the volcano. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite data at 0850 on 15 May. Periods of elevated volcanic tremor and a small explosion associated with minor ash emissions began at 0445 on 17 May; observers in Cold Bay (60 km SE) and Sand Point (90 km E) reported ash emissions interspersed with steam emissions. A National Weather Service SIGMET noted that ash was below an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

IG reported that at the beginning of March Sangay began a new phase of activity which continued through at least 12 May without significant changes. The number of tremor events and long-period earthquakes were slightly higher in March as compared to the number recorded in April and May, and the number of explosions was slightly higher in April and May. Surficial activity was characterized by frequent ash emissions generated by explosive activity. Thermal anomalies on the flanks were also detected, mostly within 5 km of the summit crater, which possibly corresponded to short-range pyroclastic flows and lava flows. No abnormal sulfur dioxide emission were detected.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 6-13 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed an intense daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

BNPB reported that a lahar passed through Kutambaru village, 20 km NW of Sinabung and near the Lau Barus River, at 1545 on 9 May, killing one person and injuring four more. One person was missing. A news article noted that three houses were also damaged. Based on satellite images and information from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 11-13 and 16 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.5 km (10,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, WNW, and NW.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Okezone



Volcano index photo  Telica  | Nicaragua  | 12.602°N, 86.845°W  | Elevation 1061 m

Based on information from INETER, SINAPRED reported that 30 explosion at Telica occurred during 7-8 May, producing gas-and-ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted S and SW. The explosions originated from a new vent in the N part of the crater; lava emissions were also observed. INETER reported high micro-seismicity and low outgassing during 11-16 May. Incandescence from vents on the crater floor was visible during 11-12 May; sounds from jetting gasses were noted on 11 May. RSAM values were 180-190 units during 11-12 May, dropping to 80 units during 12-14 May.

Sources: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Sistema Nacional para la Prevención, Mitigación y Atención de Desastres (SINAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that an explosion at Turrialba at 1140 on 16 May generated gas-and-ash emissions, though the height of the plume was not determined due to fog. Wind models suggested that the ash plume rose 3 km above the crater and drifted WNW towards Valle Central. Officials on farms 2.5 km WNW reported abundant ashfall. Sustained tremor with significant and highly-variable amplitude continued to be recorded. On 17 May gas-and-steam emissions, intermittently but frequently containing ash, were recorded by the webcam. Throughout the day volcanic tremor amplitude decreased substantially, though numerous earthquakes continued to be recorded. Ash emissions gradually ended. At 1800 the seismic network began recording a large number of very-long-period earthquake, and at around 2200 volcanic tremor with significant amplitude was detected. Seismicity remained high the next morning.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



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Fournaise, Piton de la Leroboleng Sabancaya
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks




The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers


Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations


a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanológico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)