Activity for the week of 29 November-5 December 2000
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Eastern Java (Indonesia)
| 7.942°S, 112.95°E
| Elevation 2329 m
The VSI reported that several small explosions occurred at Bromo cone in the Tengger caldera. The explosions started on 29 November, increasing in intensity until 3 December. During this period ash was ejected up to 100-150 m above the crater rim. At 2130 on 4 December small-scale explosions began, sending ash up to 900 m above the crater rim to the NNE and depositing 1- to 3-cm-thick layers of ash up to 40 km from the volcano. As of 0600 on 5 November only small ash explosions were reported. There was no noted precursory activity; prior to 29 November daily activity at the volcano consisted of small ash plumes that rose up to 50 m above the crater. Seismic data were not available. On 29 November the local government recommended that no one climb the volcano. The Alert Level is at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
According to Italy's Volcanoes website, lava emission continued from both vents in the Bocca Nuova Crater with variable intensity. On 30 November observations revealed that after 3 months of low activity a small lava flow issued from the NNE fissure in the SE Crater. Lava extrusion was accompanied by strong degassing, but there was no explosive activity.
Sources: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV), Italy's Volcanoes
| Siau Island (Indonesia)
| 2.781°N, 125.407°E
| Elevation 1797 m
The VSI reported that volcanic activity during 21-27 November was similar to the previous week. A thin ash plume was observed rising ~600 m above the summit from the main crater and Crater II. Booming sounds were frequently heard from the volcano's summit, and a "red flame" was observed some nights rising ~100 m above the summit. Seismic activity was high and dominated by discontinuous tremor. In total, 21 small explosions were recorded. The Alert Level remained at 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Lava continued to flow into the ocean at the Kamokuna entry. Overall, earthquake activity was low across the island. Tremor and a few shallow earthquakes continued to be detected at Kilauea's summit; the tremor local to the summit was particularly noticeable. The tilt-meters at Kilauea's summit and along the east rift zone showed flat signals.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Java (Indonesia)
| 7.54°S, 110.446°E
| Elevation 2910 m
During 21-27 November small explosions occurred at Merapi, with the largest producing an ash plume that rose up to 800 m above the summit. Seismicity was high and dominated by multi-phase earthquakes. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (ranging from 1 to 4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
Volcanic activity continued at a high rate at Popocatépetl, with several small-to-moderate exhalations and eruptions. Remote-sensing data, aviation sources, and CENAPRED provided more details. One of the larger series of eruptions occurred during 0900 to 1215 on 29 November, sending ash-and-steam plumes to ~7.3 km a.s.l to the ENE. Another moderate eruption at 1055 on 30 November sent an ash cloud to ~7.3 km a.s.l. GOES-8 imagery showed that by 1815 the cloud extended at least 204 km to the ENE and traveled over the Bay of Campeche, which is ~300 km to the E of the volcano. Between 0345 and 0402 on 4 December an eruption occurred that sent ash to ~7.6 km a.s.l. Throughout the week frequent exhalations sent ash to ~6-7.6 km.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
On 24 November a gas-and-steam plume rose 400 m above the volcano and extended 5 km to the E. No seismicity was registered at Shiveluch during most of the period during 24 November to 1 December, but at 0935 on 27 November a strong, shallow seismic event occurred. KVERT raised the Concern Color Code from Green to Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
The MVO reported that during 24 November-1 December volcanism continued at an elevated level, with continued growth of the lava dome. Seismic activity was comparable to the previous week. Rockfalls were observed cascading down the E and S faces of the dome and new rockfall deposits were seen on the E side of the volcano in the upper portion of Tar River Valley. The crest of the lava dome was still dominated by a lava spine as it has been for several months.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
The IG reported that seismicity and explosive activity were at low levels during the week. A gas column was emitted sporadically through the week, and reached an altitude of 300-500 m above the volcano. As of 5 December the period of low activity had continued at Tungurahua for 43 days.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.