Activity for the week of 15 October-21 October 2003
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Western Java (Indonesia)
| 6.892°S, 108.4°E
| Elevation 3078 m
According to news reports, local authorities issued an alert and closed Cereme to the public after detecting unrest. Several earthquakes were recorded on 17 October. Seismicity increased on 18 October, when 18 earthquakes up to M 2 occurred. Seismicity was felt in seven subdistricts of the Cilimus and Pesawahan districts.
Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation, The Jakarta Post, The Jakarta Post
| Luzon (Philippines)
| 13.257°N, 123.685°E
| Elevation 2462 m
According to news reports, the continuing unrest at Mayon led authorities to extend the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone to 7 km in the SE quadrant of the volcano on 13 October. Seismicity and SO2 emissions increased during the previous week. During a 24-hour-monitoring period, ending the night of 17 October, 16 volcanic earthquakes were recorded beneath Mayon's lower flanks. Authorities maintained Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 0-5).
Source: Manila Bulletin
| 19.514°N, 103.62°W
| Elevation 3850 m
Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 16 October at 1202 ash was emitted from Colima and rose to a height of ~6 km a.s.l. On 18 October an ash plume rose to ~7.3 km a.s.l. Neither plume was visible on satellite imagery.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.693°N, 127.894°E
| Elevation 1229 m
Satellite imagery showed an ash plume emitted from Dukono on 15 October at 1228. The plume rose to ~3 km a.s.l. and extended ~75 km NNE.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
A 33-minute-long explosive eruption began at Fuego on 17 October at 0007, producing a gas-and-ash plume to ~1.5 km above the crater. This eruption was preceded and followed by small explosions and seismicity. During one of these earthquakes a small incandescent avalanche descended the Santa Teresa ravine.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 15-20 October, a few areas of surface lava were visible upslope of Kilauea's coastal flat. Seismicity at Kilauea's summit continued at moderate levels, with one to two small low-frequency earthquakes per minute occurring at shallow depths beneath the summit caldera. There were some larger earthquakes at depths of a few kilometers. Also, during the report week small amounts of inflation and deflation occurred.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.056°N, 160.642°E
| Elevation 4754 m
Seismicity was above background levels at Kliuchevskoi during 11-17 October, with one to six magnitude 1.6-2.1 earthquakes per day at depths of ~30 km. Nine shallow M 1.7-2.2 earthquakes were recorded along with many smaller ones. On 9, 10, and 11 October, gas-and-steam plumes with little ash rose to 0.5-1.5 km above the volcano's crater and extended more than 10 km E. Similar plumes on 12 and 16 October extended more than 46 km and 50 km to the E and NE, respectively. Strombolian activity was observed on the night of 10-11 October. Kliuchevskoi remained at Concern Color Code Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 0.077°S, 77.656°W
| Elevation 3562 m
During 13-19 October at Reventador, 77 volcano-tectonic and 17 long-period earthquakes were recorded, averaging eleven and two earthquakes per day, respectively. Lahars were reported on 13, 14, and 19 October. The lahar on 13 October was the largest of the week, lasting ~75 minutes.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
As of 17 October Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome produced moderate explosions accompanied by block-and-ash flows that traveled SSW and NE. On 16 October at 1745 a strong explosion caused a portion of the SW crater to collapse, forming a pyroclastic flow that traveled ~4 km in ~3 minutes.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
Activity at Soufrière Hills during 10-17 October remained at low levels. Seismicity indicated that 12 rockfalls occurred as well as nine hybrid earthquakes. Lahars were also noted during periods of heavy rainfall. Sulfur-dioxide emissions increased from 600-900 tons per day at the beginning of the week to a peak of 1,900 tons on 13 October, and descended to 720 tons on 16 October. Low-level ash plumes were occasionally seen on satellite imagery.
Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
During 15-19 October activity at Tungurahua remained high, with moderate-to-slight gas-and-ash emissions sending columns on average to 1.5 km above the crater. On the night of 18 October incandescent blocks were observed rolling down the W side of the crater. Incandescence and Strombolian activity were observed on the night of 19 October. Activity decreased slightly on 20 October with fewer explosions and no major gas-and-ash eruptions recorded. Ash plumes were frequently visible on satellite imagery during the week.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.