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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 6 September-12 September 2006.


















 Activity for the week of 6 September-12 September 2006

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New
Talang Indonesia New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Turrialba Costa Rica New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Arenal Costa Rica Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Poas Costa Rica Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

On 7 September, AVO raised the level of Concern Color Code for Cleveland from unassigned to Yellow after a short-lived explosion on 24 August was verified by video footage. The resultant ash plume reached an altitude of about 3 km (~10,000 ft) a.s.l. and produced ash fall. An hour later, only minor steaming from the summit was noted. A weak thermal anomaly in the summit crater was present in subsequent satellite images.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

On 14 July, a fissure opened on the E flank of the SE Crater of Etna and produced a lava flow that traveled E to the Valle del Bove. Moderate Strombolian activity from the E flank of the SE Crater produced a small amount of ashfall on Catania (~25 km SSE of the volcano). The lava flow reached a maximum distance of 3 km within the Valle del Bove and ceased on 24 July. On 26 July, strong explosions were heard from the rim of the NE crater.

On 31 August, Strombolian activity from the summit of the SE Crater produced lapilli and bombs that fell mainly in the crater. The ejecta filled the crater and overflowed on the E side on 5 September, forming lava falls that accumulated in a steep-sided circular depression on the middle part of the E flank. On 7 September, the sluggish a'a' flow breached the E rim and spread out on the E flank of the SE Crater and towards the Valle del Bove rim. Explosive activity at the SE Crater summit produced lava blocks that fell to the base of the cone.

On 10 September, a rockfall from a wall that divided the SE Crater and the depression on the middle part of the E flank produced an ash plume that drifted W. Lava flows and Strombolian activity from the summit of the SE Crater continued on 11 September.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported on 8 September that the Concern Color Code level at Karymsky was lowered from Orange to Yellow. Approximately 30-90 shallow earthquakes occurred daily. During 1-4 September, a thermal anomaly was detected in the crater.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

Seismic activity and lava extrusion from Mayon decreased during 6-12 September. Steam plumes from the summit crater drifted mainly W, N, and E. Ground-deformation measurements showed an overall deflation. On 11 September, the Alert Level was lowered from 4 to 3 (scale is 0-5, 0 referring to No Alert status).

Sources: News Balita, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Reuters



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

During 6-12 September, lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills was substantial and concentrated on the W part of the edifice. A vent that had opened above Gage's Wall on 31 August vigorously emitted plumes of hot gases. A second vent near the summit of the dome emitted ash-and-steam plumes.

Based on information from the MVO, pilot reports, and the Piarco MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash, gas, and steam emissions on 6 and 7 September produced diffuse plumes that drifted WNW. On 10, 11, and 12 September, ash-and-gas plumes reached altitudes of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SW. A hotspot was detected on satellite imagery on 6, 7, and 10-12 September.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Talang  | Indonesia  | 0.979°S, 100.681°E  | Elevation 2575 m

CVGHM raised the Alert Level at Talang to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 September due to an increase in tremor. On 10 September, a brownish plume rose 250 m above the summit (~10,000 ft a.s.l.).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Washington Post



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

CVGHM reported that the Alert Level for Tengger Caldera was raised one level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 9 September due to an increase in tremor.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

Fumarolic activity and gas discharge in and to the W of Turrialba's central crater continued throughout August. On 30 August, scientists visiting the area noted that localized vegetation in and around the summit area had been heavily impacted by gases. Areas not affected by increased fumarolic activity in June 2005 had been singed by noxious gases, including a tree belt on the NW outer flank. Below the tree belt, farmers reported an intensification of gas odors. The shapes of the gas-scarred areas reflected prevailing wind directions.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an explosion at Sakura-jima produced an eruption cloud on 6 September.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Arenal  | Costa Rica  | 10.463°N, 84.703°W  | Elevation 1670 m

In August, activity originating from Arenal's Crater C consisted of gas emissions, sporadic Strombolian eruptions, lava flows traveling N, and occasional avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Volcanic activity was at relatively low levels, however, with few eruptions occurring and a small amount of pyroclastic material ejected. Eruptions produced ash plumes that rose ~500 m above the crater (~7,100 ft a.s.l.). Ash and acid rain fell on the NE and SE flanks. Small avalanches of volcanic material traveled down several ravines. Crater D showed only fumarolic activity.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 6-12 September, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and East Ka'ili'ili entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from the East Pond and January vents, South Wall complex, and Drainhole vent in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. Summit inflation S of Halema'uma'u caldera continued. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o remained at a typical moderate level.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that during August, Laguna Caliente, a summit lake of Poás, was gray in color and produced gas columns that reached the crater rim. The level of the lake had dropped 47 cm with respect to July measurements and had a temperature of 41 degrees Celsius. Fumarolic activity from a pyroclastic cone on the floor of the crater produced gas plumes that drifted W and SW. New points of gas discharge were noted from the crater floor, the SE and NE crater walls, the N terrace, and the NE edge of the crater.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

During 6-12 September, the lava dome at Mount St. Helens continued to grow and produce small rockfalls. On 9 and 10 September, five shallow earthquakes greater than M 2 occurred in association with the growing dome.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 6-12 September, seismicity at Tungurahua remained low and visual observations were limited due to inclement weather. On 7 September, lahars descended the NW gorges of Chontapamba and Mandur. On 8 and 9 September, steam-and-gas plumes with little to no ash content rose to ~100-500 m above the summit (~16,800-18,100 ft a.s.l.) and drifted NW.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on pilot reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported continuous emission of ash plumes from Ubinas during 5, 9, and 11 September. The plumes rose to altitudes of ~4.9-5.5 km (~16,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
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Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)