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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 21 March-27 March 2007.


















 Activity for the week of 21 March-27 March 2007

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Reventador Ecuador New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Anatahan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sangay Ecuador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on reports from fishermen and people in coastal communities about 50 km away, CVGHM reported that eruption plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.2 km (3,900-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 18-19 March. In response, the Alert Level was raised from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Based on information from CVGHM and satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that continuous diffuse plumes rose to 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly SE during 21-27 March.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

Based on satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a small plume from Fuego drifted E on 21 March. During 21-22, 24, and 26-27 March, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced gas-and-ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4.7-5.1 km (15,400-16,700 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported from areas 5-8 km SSE and 9 km W. On 24 March, explosions were followed by lava blocks rolling down the W flank toward the Taniluyá River valley and gas emissions. Resultant plumes drifted 15 km SW. Similar activity on 26 March caused ashfall in areas 10-25 km away to the W and SE. On 27 March, the Washington VAAC reported that another small plume was visible on satellite imagery drifting W.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that during early March, the number of tectonic earthquakes from Reventador increased. Steam-and-ash plumes were sporadically visible and rose to altitudes of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. occasionally during 8-22 March. On 21 March, noises were reported. The next day, seismic signals changed and indicated possible emissions. On 24 March, local people saw ash plumes and incandescent material near the crater and heard roaring noises. An explosion produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.6 km (21,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. Based on reports from IG, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume to altitudes of 3.7-7 km (12,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE and WNW during 26-27 March. A thermal anomaly was present on satellite imagery during 24-27 March.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that during 21-27 March, constant emissions of ash and steam from Tungurahua produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-10 km (23,000-32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly W, NW, and N. Ashfall was reported from areas downwind and from areas SW within 8 km, on all days except 25 and 27 March. Noises resembling "cannon shots" and blocks rolling down the flanks were heard on 21, 22, and 25 March; windows rattled as far away as 11 km N in Guadalupe. On 23 March, lahars traveled mainly down NW gorges and affected the roads between Ambato and Baños, and between Baños and Penipe.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Anatahan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.35°N, 145.67°E  | Elevation 790 m

On 25 March, USGS reported that the Volcanic Alert Level at Anatahan was decreased from Advisory to Normal. Seismicity returned to low levels on 17 March. A gas-and-steam plume that was visible on MODIS imagery on 13 March remained present but diffuse during 17-25 March.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

During 21-27 March, incandescent material from Colima was expelled as high as 50-150 m above the summit. Steam and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.9 km (14,100-16,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NW, and N. Based on information from Mexico City MWO and satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes to altitudes of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE during 23-24 March.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

According to a news article, gas-and-steam clouds from Ebeko rose to 1.3-1.5 km (4,100-4,800 ft) a.s.l. on 22 March. Nearby residents reported smelling sulfur and chlorine.

Source: RIA Novosti



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

On 20 March, INGEOMINAS reported that the Alert Level for Galeras was decreased from 2 (probable eruption in days to weeks) to 3 (changes in the behavior of volcanic activity have been noted) on a scale of 4-1 due to decreased seismicity, low gas emissions, and no indication of changes below the surface of the lava dome.

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

Seismic activity at Karymsky increased on 23 March. Ash plumes may have reached altitudes of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l., although no visual observations were reported. Diffuse emissions were seen on satellite imagery.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 21-27 March, lava from Kilauea continued to flow across lava deltas into the ocean at the East Lae'apuki and Kamokuna entries. Incandescence was intermittently visible from several breakouts on the pali and from several vents in Pu'u 'O'o's crater. A few small earthquakes were located in the summit and Poliokeawe (South Flank) areas. On 27 March, a'a' flows were active on the pali. Tremor at Pu'u 'O'o' continued at moderate levels.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Strombolian activity from Kliuchevskoi was observed during 16-18 February and 21-22 March. Lava bombs were ejected about 50-100 m above the crater. Clouds inhibited visual observations during most of February and March, but a thermal anomaly was detected on satellite imagery each day.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 21-26 March, Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone emitted steam and steam-and-ash plumes that rose to 1-2.7 km (3,300-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Roaring noises occasionally accompanied emissions. Incandescent material that was expelled during explosions landed on and rolled down the flanks. On 25 March, explosions shook buildings in Rabaul town.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on information from IG, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume from Sangay was present on 22 March. The altitude and drift direction of the plume were not reported.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash-and-steam plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.8-4.8 km (12,500-15,700 ft) a.s.l. during 21-22 and 25 March and drifted W. Ashfall was reported from nearby areas. On 25 and 26 March, avalanches occurred from lava-flow fronts on the SW flanks of Caliente Dome. On 27 March, an explosion produced a pyroclastic flow that traveled down the SW flank.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that emissions of gas and steam from Shiveluch continued on 22 March. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

During 16-26 March, lava-dome growth at Soufrière Hills continued and was concentrated on the NE side. Pyroclastic flows mainly affected the sector from the ENE to the NW of the dome and traveled intermittently E down the Tar River Valley. Small flows (<500 m in length) occurred NW in Tyres Ghaut, and one flow was observed at the top of Farrell's Plain. On 18 March, steam venting following heavy rains was observed NW on Cork Hill.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

Data from deformation-monitoring instruments and observations from a remote camera showed that during 21-27 March lava-dome growth at Mount St. Helens continued. Seismicity persisted at low levels, punctuated by M 1.5-2.5 and occasionally larger earthquakes. Clouds occasionally inhibited visual observations.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fuego Llaima San Cristobal
Ahyi Fujisan Loihi San Miguel
Aira Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung San Vicente
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Alu-Dalafilla Gamalama Makian Santa Ana
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Bamus Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Ibu Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ijen Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Iliamna Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliwerung Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Inielika Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Ioto Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Iya Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Izu-Torishima Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Jackson Segment Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Kaba Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kadovar Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kambalny NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kanaga Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Kharimkotan Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kikai Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kilauea Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Veniaminof
Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Villarrica
Egon Kurikomayama Raung West Mata
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Redoubt White Island
Epi Kverkfjoll Reventador Witori
Erebus Lamington Rincon de la Vieja Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Rinjani Yasur
Etna Langila Ritter Island Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Rotorua Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)