Activity for the week of 26 March-1 April 2008
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
Based on visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews as well as web camera views, HVO reported that during 26 March-1 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated at multiple points along the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Incandescence from the TEB vent was noted. During 25-26 March, an active lava flow was spotted SE of Kalalua Cone. Diffuse incandescence was seen on the web camera in Pu'u 'O'o crater.
During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, beneath the summit to the W, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce brown ash plumes that turned white for periods of time on 27, 28, and 31 March and on 1 April. Analysis of ash from the white plumes revealed that there was more volcanic glass than ash from the brown plumes. The plumes drifted mostly SW. Incandescence was seen at the base of the plume during the night. During 29 March-1 April, incandescent fragments were ejected from the vent.
Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 700-1,500 tonnes per day during 26-31 March, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day.
Sources: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Nevado del Huila
| 2.93°N, 76.03°W
| Elevation 5364 m
INGEOMINAS reported that seismic tremor from Nevado del Huila increased during 18-25 March. Residents reported noises, the odor of sulfur, and small ash plumes. Seismicity increased again on 29 March; INGEOMINAS raised the Alert Level to Orange (on a 4-color scale, Orange is second highest).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
| Mariana Islands (USA)
| 16.35°N, 145.67°E
| Elevation 790 m
The USGS reported that seismicity at Anatahan decreased during 26-31 March. The Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to Advisory and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 31 March.
Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program
| 14.473°N, 90.88°W
| Elevation 3763 m
The Washington VAAC reported that multiple ash puffs from Fuego were visible on satellite imagery on 31 March drifting SW and on 1 April.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Halmahera (Indonesia)
| 1.38°N, 127.53°E
| Elevation 1635 m
CVGHM reported that seismic activity from Gamkonora increased on 24 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and visitors were reminded not to approach or climb the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was slightly above background levels during 23 and 25-26 March, and at background levels during 21-22, 24, and 27-28 March. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. on 22 March. Weak ash explosions or avalanches possibly occurred during 23-26 March. Based on observations of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that eruption plumes rose to altitudes of 3-7 km (10,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 28-29 March. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 1.697°S, 101.264°E
| Elevation 3800 m
CVGHM reported that seismicity from Kerinci increased during 17-24 March. On 24 March, an ash-and-gas plume rose to an altitude of 4.3 (14,100 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Status remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and visitors were advised not to enter an area within 1 km of the summit.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 4.271°S, 152.203°E
| Elevation 688 m
During 26 March-1 April, RVO reported that ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.7 km (3,900-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, W, NW, and N. Incandescent material was propelled above the crater rim and explosive roaring noises were occasionally heard.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| 14.757°N, 91.552°W
| Elevation 3745 m
Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted SW on 1 April.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was slightly above background levels during 21-28 March and hot avalanches possibly descended the dome during 19-22 March. According to video footage and visual observations, fumarolic activity from the lava dome was observed during 20-24 and 27 March. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that a thermal anomaly was present in the crater during the reporting period. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 16.72°N, 62.18°W
| Elevation 915 m
MVO reported that during 25-31 March the lava dome at Soufrière Hills changed very little, based on visual observations and other measurable parameters. Fumarolic activity was concentrated on the NW and SE flanks, and at the head of Gages Valley to the W where the emissions were bluish. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
| 1.467°S, 78.442°W
| Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that although visual observations were occasionally limited due to cloud cover, ash-and-steam plumes from Tungurahua were spotted and rose to altitudes of 6-8 km (19,700-26,200 ft) a.s.l. during 25 March-1 April. Ash plumes drifted SW, W, and NW and were intermittently produced by explosions; ashfall was reported in areas downwind during 25 and 27-28 March. On 25 March, explosions propelled incandescent blocks from the summit that fell onto the flanks. Explosions also vibrated doors and windows in areas as far as 13 km away on 26 March and produced an ash plume to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. on 27 March.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
| 16.355°S, 70.903°W
| Elevation 5672 m
Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that ash plumes from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 3.7-6.7 km (12,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. on 26 March and 1 April. The plumes drifted SW and NW, respectively.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.