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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 2 April-8 April 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 2 April-8 April 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Manam Papua New Guinea New
Nevado del Huila Colombia New

Colima Mexico Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Llaima Chile Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 2-8 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) shield was mostly concentrated at the E Waikupanaha, W Waikupanaha, and Ki ocean entries. Spattering and small steam explosions were intermittently reported. Occasionally, incandescence from a skylight adjacent to the TEB vents and from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted. Diffuse incandescence was seen on the web camera at Pu'u 'O'o crater during 2-4 and 7-8 April.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath Halema`uma`u Crater, beneath the summit to the S and W, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW and E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce brown or white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume and incandescent fragments were ejected from the vent. Based on pilot observations, the Washington VAAC reported that the plumes rose to altitudes of 3.4-3.8 km (11,200-12,500 ft) a.s.l. on 5 and 7 April. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 480-800 tonnes per day during 2-7 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. At Pu'u 'O'o crater the emission rate was 1,300 tonnes on 5 April.

According to a news report, the Hawaii County Civil Defense issued a health advisory on 7 April for those living downwind of Halema'uma'u and Pu'u 'O'o craters. Residents of specified areas were then advised by the State Department of Health to evacuate because of projected dangerous level of sulfur dioxide. Residents of other areas were put on alert.

Sources: Honolulu Advertiser, US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery and reports from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level plume from Manam drifted SW on 2 April.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

According to news articles, communities surrounding Nevado del Huila responded to the raised Alert Level of Orange, established by INGEOMINAS on 29 March. The Local Committee of Disaster Prevention ordered the closing of a school with a student population of 1,100, declared the maximum alert for a local hospital, and facilitated meetings of multiple groups. Residents bought supplies and repaired roads that were key evacuation routes, and sirens were tested each day. Several populations in high-risk areas did not have systems of communication. On 7 April, residents in high-risk areas near the Páez river were evacuated to shelters as a precautionary measure.

On 8 April, INGEOMINAS lowered the Alert Level to Yellow due to decreased seismicity during 2-8 April. In addition, no superficial changes associated with the recent activity were observed during an overflight on 5 April.

Sources: El Tiempo, Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), El Pais



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

During 1-2 April, ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.2-6.4 km (13,800-21,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, W, and SW. Incandescent avalanches descended the SW flank. On 4 April, incandescent material was propelled 150 m above the summit. An ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that a brief puff of ash drifted SE on 7 April.

Sources: Gobierno del Estado de Colima, Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 28-29 March and slightly above background levels during 30 March-4 April. Pilots observed ash plumes to altitudes of 5-7 km (16,400-23,000 ft) a.s.l. during 28-29 March. Based on seismic interpretation, ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. on 2 April and weak ash explosions or avalanches may have occurred daily during the reporting period. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that a thermal anomaly was present in the crater on 28 March and 1, 2, and 3 April; an ash plume drifted S on 3 April. Ash deposits were noted in areas about 20 km E, 70 km SW, and 45-50 km S. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Anak Krakatau to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 1 April. Seismicity declined in early February, and eruption plumes and propelled incandescent material were not seen after 4 February. Visitors and residents were advised not to go within a 1.5-km radius of the summit.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 28 March-4 April, fumarolic plumes from Llaima drifted several tens of kilometers mainly to the SE. Explosions produced ash and gas emissions. An overflight on 2 April of the main crater revealed that gas, pyroclastic material, and ash emissions, occasionally accompanied by small explosions, originated from three cones. On 4 April, several explosions were heard and incandescence was reflected in a gas-and-ash plume.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 1-9 April ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 0.9-1.7 km (3,000-5,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. Ashfall was reported in Kokopo (about 20 km SE) on 2 April and in areas downwind during 4-7 April. Incandescence at night at the summit and occasional explosions were reported. Roaring noises were reported and sometimes rhythmic during 2-3 and 8-9 April.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that ash puffs from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex drifted W on 2 April. During 3-7 April, INSIVUMEH reported that small explosions produced ash plumes; ashfall was reported in surrounding areas.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was slightly above background levels during 28 March-4 April and hot avalanches possibly descended the growing lava dome daily. According to video footage and visual observations, fumarolic activity from the lava dome was observed during 28-29 March and 1-3 April. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that a thermal anomaly was present in the crater during the reporting period. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 1-4 April the lava dome at Soufrière Hills changed very little, based on measurable parameters. Seismic activity was very low and one rockfall signal was recorded. The Alert Level remained elevated at 4 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that although visual observations were limited due to cloud cover, ash and ash-and-steam plumes from Tungurahua were spotted and rose to altitudes of 5.5-9 km (18,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. during 2-8 April. Ash plumes drifted in almost all directions; ashfall was reported in areas downwind during 4-8 April. Explosions were occasionally registered by the seismic network and roaring and "cannon shot" noises were reported. Incandescent material rolled 0.5-1 km down the flanks during 2-4 and 6-7 April and Strombolian activity at the summit was noted during 3-4 April.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on pilot observations, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.7 km (18,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E on 6 April.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)