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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 9 April-15 April 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 9 April-15 April 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Egon Flores Island (Indonesia) New
Ibu Halmahera (Indonesia) New
Nevado del Huila Colombia New
Papandayan Western Java (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Egon  | Flores Island (Indonesia)  | 8.676°S, 122.455°E  | Elevation 1661 m

CVGHM reported that white plumes from Egon continued to rise to an altitude of 1.8 km (5,900 ft) a.s.l. during 4-14 April. A peak in seismicity was reached during 6-7 April and then declined significantly during 7-15 April. On 15 April, a phreatic explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (18,700 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 25 km W, reaching the town of Maumere. A team of emergency personnel in the closest village to the explosion reported that about 600 people evacuated. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Ibu  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.488°N, 127.63°E  | Elevation 1325 m

CVGHM reported that white plumes from Ibu rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. during 17-31 March and were spotted "often." The plume altitudes increased to 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. on 31 March. During 4-5 April, seismicity increased in amplitude and plume altitude increased to 1.8-2.0 km (5,900-6,600 ft) a.s.l. On 5 April, the eruption plume was gray and material fell onto the crater. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The community was not permitted to climb or approach the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

Seismicity from Nevado del Huila increased during 9-12 April then again on 13 April, prompting INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level to Orange (the second highest level on a 4-color scale). During 13-14 April, seismic signals possibly indicated an eruption. According to news articles, authorities ordered about 15,000 people to evacuate. On 14 April at 2325, the Alert Level was raised to Red, the highest level, based on the seismicity. Seismic events decreased in number and intensity in the early evening of 15 April; the Alert Level was lowered to Orange. Weather inhibited visual observations and overflights of the summit.

Sources: CNN, Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Papandayan  | Western Java (Indonesia)  | 7.32°S, 107.73°E  | Elevation 2665 m

CVGHM reported that the seismic network recorded one volcanic tremor signal from Papandayan on 15 April. On 16 April, measurements of summit fumaroles revealed an increase in temperature and changes in water chemistry since 7 April. White plumes continued to rise to an altitude of 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. and did not change. CVGHM increased the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) and reminded visitors and residents not to venture within 1 km of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 11-15 April produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.1-3.4 km (7,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, NE, and SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that a low-level eruption plume from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. on 13 April and drifted NW. On 14 April, a steam-and-ash plume visible on satellite imagery again rose to an altitude of about 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Multiple steam plumes from Colima were observed rising to altitudes of 3.9-4.6 km (12,800-15,100 ft) a.s.l. during 8-15 April. Gray plumes rose to altitudes of 4.5-4.9 km (15,000-16,100 ft) a.s.l. during 10-12 April. Plumes drifted mainly SW, NW, and W. On 14 April incandescent material was propelled about 50 m above the summit.

Source: Gobierno del Estado de Colima



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 4-11 April. Based on seismic interpretation, weak ash-and-gas explosions or hot avalanches may have occurred daily during the reporting period. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that a thermal anomaly was present in the crater during 4-6 April and an ash plume drifted 70-80 km ESE on 8 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

Based on observations during helicopter overflights, visual observations from HVO and National Park Service (NPS) crews, and web camera views, HVO reported that during 9-15 April lava flow activity from Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex was mostly concentrated at multiple locations of the Waikupanaha and Ki ocean entries. Occasionally, incandescence from a skylight adjacent to the TEB vents and from breakouts along the lava-tube system was noted.

During the reporting period, Kilauea summit earthquakes were located beneath the summit, along the S-flank faults, and along the upper E rift zones. The eruption from the vent in Halema'uma'u Crater continued to produce white ash plumes that drifted mainly SW. During most nights incandescence was seen at the base of the plume. On 10 April, a small explosion from the vent ejected incandescent blocks to the rim of the crater, about 70 m above, and enlarged the vent by 5-10 ms. Seismic tremor was elevated.

Sulfur dioxide emission rates from the summit area have been elevated at 2-4 times background values since early January. The emission rate fluctuated between 575 and 890 tonnes per day during 10-14 April, compared to a background rate of 150-200 tonnes per day. At Pu'u 'O'o crater the emission rate was between 1,760 and 2,750 tonnes during 8-13 April. According to news articles, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park was closed during 8-9 April due to elevated levels of sulfur dioxide.

Sources: Associated Press, US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on observations of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported low-level ash-and-steam plumes from Manam during 14-15 April. The plume drifted WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ol Doinyo Lengai  | Tanzania  | 2.764°S, 35.914°E  | Elevation 2962 m

According to Frederick Belton's Ol Doinyo Lengai website, a visitor observed an ash plume during an overflight on 8 April.

Source: Ol Doinyo Lengai (Fred Belton)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 9-13 April ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.2 km (5,600-7,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul Town (3-5 km NW). Incandescence at night at the summit and intermittent roaring noises were reported. A large explosion on 10 April showered the flanks with lava fragments and produced a shockwave that rattled windows in Rabaul Town.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was slightly above background levels and hot avalanches possibly descended the growing lava dome daily during 4-11 April. According to video footage and visual observations, fumarolic activity from the lava dome also occurred every day. Observations of satellite imagery revealed that a thermal anomaly was present in the crater during the reporting period. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

The IG reported that although visual observations were occasionally limited due to cloud cover, ash and ash-and-steam plumes from Tungurahua were spotted and rose to altitudes of 6-9 km (19,700-30,000 ft) a.s.l. during 9-15 April. Ash plumes drifted NW, W, and SW; ashfall was reported in areas downwind on 9, 11, and 14 April. Roaring noises were reported almost daily. On 9 April, lahars descended S and NW drainages and disrupted the access road to Baños. During the night on 11 April, incandescent material was present at the summit and rolled about 600 m down the flanks. On 12 April, lahars descended NW and SW drainages. On 13 April, a mudflow traveled NW down the Mandur drainage. During 14-15 April, Strombolian activity at the summit was noted.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on SIGMET advisories, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Ubinas rose to altitudes of 5.5-7 km (18,000-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE on 15 April.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)