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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 1 October-7 October 2008.


















 Activity for the week of 1 October-7 October 2008

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker New Britain (Papua New Guinea) New
Ol Doinyo Lengai Tanzania New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Redoubt United States New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Anatahan Mariana Islands (USA) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 October a possible eruption from Karangetang generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 12.2 km (40,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 5.416°S, 150.027°E  | Elevation 564 m

RVO reported that forceful emissions of dense white plumes from Garbuna were accompanied by intermittent ash emissions during 1-4 October to an altitude of 1.6 km (5,200 ft) a.s.l. Occasional weak roaring and rumbling noises were reported in Garu village, about 9 km NW. An overflight on 3 October revealed that existing vents at the summit had increased in size and new vents and fumaroles appeared in the E sector of the lava dome. The main vent that had been restricted to the outside flank of the cone had enlarged considerably (more than tripled in size) and merged with the November 2005 vent. The original vent that opened on 17 October 2005 was larger and vigorously fuming. Although there was little evidence of juvenile material having been ejected and there was surprisingly little eruptive material around the summit, it and areas more than 1 km away from the active vents were cratered, possibly from lithic bombs. Fumarolic activity in the summit region away from the currently active vents had ceased.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Ol Doinyo Lengai  | Tanzania  | 2.764°S, 35.914°E  | Elevation 2962 m

According to Frederick Belton's website, a local camper reported a small eruption from Ol Doinyo Lengai on 1 October. Details of the eruption were not provided.

Source: Ol Doinyo Lengai (Fred Belton)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that the eruption from Piton de la Fournaise that started on 21 September from the inner W wall of Dolomieu crater ended on 2 October. The total volume of erupted lava was about 850,000 cubic meters based on analysis of aerial photographs.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Redoubt  | United States  | 60.485°N, 152.742°W  | Elevation 3108 m

AVO reported that on 16 September, a pilot flying downwind of Redoubt reported smelling a strong sulfur dioxide odor. A week later, residents of a cabin near Wadell Lake (25 km NE) reported loud noises coming from the direction of Redoubt. During an overflight on 27 September, scientists observed several fractures and circular openings in the upper Drift glacier that had not been seen before. They also noted that fumaroles atop the 1968 and 1990 lava domes were more vigorous than when last observed in mid-August. A distinct hydrogen sulfide odor was also evident, though no sulfur dioxide was detected by onboard instrumentation. The seismic network at Redoubt did not detect any abnormal earthquake activity. The Volcano Alert Level remained Normal and the Aviation Color Code remained Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

Based on visual observations, CVGHM reported that on 6 October a "smoke" plume from Soputan rose to an altitude of 2.8 km (9,200 ft) a.s.l. and incandescent material was ejected 25 m above the summit. The Alert level was raised from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were advised not go within a 6 km radius of the summit.

Analysis of satellite imagery by the Darwin VAAC indicated that on 6 October an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 3 October an eruption plume from Sakura-jima rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Anatahan  | Mariana Islands (USA)  | 16.35°N, 145.67°E  | Elevation 790 m

On 1 October, the Volcanic Alert Level for Anatahan was lowered to Normal and the Aviation Color Code to Green. Seismicity remained low and there were no recent reports of significant plumes.

Source: Emergency Management Office of the Commonwealth of the Mariana Islands and United States Geological Survey Volcano Hazards Program



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3-4 October a low-level ash plume from Batu Tara drifted W and NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 23-25 September, Chaitén continued to produce two vigorous gas-and-ash plumes from separate locations on the lava dome that rose to an altitude of 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. During 27-28 September, activity increased and the two plumes rose to an altitude of 5.1 km (16,700 ft) a.s.l. Later in the day on 28 September, the plumes rose to an altitude of 4.1 km (13,500 ft) a.s.l. During an overflight on 30 September, scientists observed the small lagoon that remained in a depression in the N area of the basal "ring" that lies between the new lava dome and the caldera rim. The base of the S flank of the old lava dome was still evident; fumaroles were noted along the contact of the old and new domes. The new lava dome had grown higher and laterally from the NE flank until it touched the caldera rim. The Alert level remained Red.

Based on pilot observations, analysis of satellite imagery, and SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 3 and 5-8 October continuous ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.5 km (8,000-11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, ENE, and E.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 26 September-3 October. Possible explosions during 25-27 September and 1-2 October may have generated ash plumes to an altitude of 3.3 km (10,800 ft) a.s.l. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly in the crater on 29 September and cloudy conditions on the other days. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that during 1-7 October lava flowed SE through a tube system from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex. Lava that reached the ocean entry generated a steam plume during much of the reporting period; a plume was absent during 4-6 October. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at Pu'u 'O'o was 1,400 tonnes per day on 5 October, below the background rate as averaged over the past 25+ years.

During the reporting period, Kilauea earthquakes were variously located beneath and to the S of the caldera, along the S-flank faults, and along the SW rift zone. Beneath Halema'uma'u crater small earthquakes per day ranged from less than 40 to 100 (background is about 20-40), but were too small to be located more precisely. The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume with occasional minor ash content that drifted mainly SW, but also in multiple other directions. Weak night-time incandescence was intermittently seen at the base of the plume. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 900 and 1,100 tonnes per day on 3 and 5 October, respectively. The 2003-2007 rate average was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 October ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 30 September-6 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 1.7-2.7 km (5,600-8,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, W, and NW. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind, including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and Namanula Hill (3 km W). Continuous incandescence from the vent was observed. Loud roaring noises were reported on 6 October.

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and information from RVO, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels during 26 September-3 October. A large number of hot avalanches descended the lava dome and produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 4-5 km (13,100-16,400 ft) a.s.l. On 28 September, an ash plume that was visible on a web camera rose to an altitude of about 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash explosions likely occurred on 28 September and 1 October and generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Klyuchi (about 45 km SW) on 1 October. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a thermal anomaly on the lava dome during 28 September and 1-2 October. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 27 September-3 October, the W side of the Soufrière Hills lava dome continued to grow. Rockfalls were detected by the seismic network. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on reports from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 1, 3, 7, and 8 October. Plumes rose straight up to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. on 8 October. The altitude and direction of plumes were not reported for the other days.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

According to news articles, access to Turrialba Volcano National Park was closed on 30 September because the S and SE winds, typical for the time of year, were blowing toxic gases to the area of the park where visitors enter and view the volcano.

Source: La Nacion



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

Based on SIGMET reports, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 1 and 3 October ash plumes were continuously emitted from Ubinas and rose to altitudes of 5.5-6.1 km (18,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. The plumes drifted N and NE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
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Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)