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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 1 April-7 April 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 1 April-7 April 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Krakatau Indonesia New
Llaima Chile New
Nyamuragira DR Congo New
Nyiragongo DR Congo New
Pacaya Guatemala New
Redoubt United States New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Asamayama Honshu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Koryaksky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

On 3 April, KVERT reported that the Level of Concern Color Code for Ebeko was raised to Yellow. Observers from Severo-Kurilsk, about 7 km E, reported increased activity; ash-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 3.2 km (10,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 20 km NW and E. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 13, 29, and 31 March up to 0.2 cm thick. Since Ebeko is not monitored by seismic instruments, KVERT relies on visual observations and satellite images for monitoring.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

During 27-30 March and 1 April, CVGHM reported that visual observations of Krakatau when the weather was clear revealed that ash plumes rose 200-800 m above the Anak Krakatau crater. On 2 April, an ash eruption was seen on satellite imagery and reported by a pilot. A resultant ash plume drifted more than 60 km S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Llaima  | Chile  | 38.692°S, 71.729°W  | Elevation 3125 m

During 2-3 April, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Llaima increased in frequency and amplitude and evolved into continuous seismic tremor. Steam plumes with small amounts of ash were emitted. Late in the day on 3 April, observers reported incandescence from the main crater. Weak Strombolian explosions were produced by the N cone inside the crater. On 4 April, Strombolian activity and rhythmic explosions in the main crater originated from two nested pyroclastic cones. Incandescent tephra was ejected 700 m above the crater. The Alert Level was raised to Red. ONEMI reported that fine ash fell in Verde Lake in the Conguillío National Park (a 608 square kilometer park containing Llaima) and a lava flow 1 km long traveled W towards the Calbuco River. Access to local parks was restricted and twelve people self-evacuated. Later that day, authorities ordered an evacuation for people in high-risk areas, mainly due to the potential for lahars along the Calbuco River. According to news articles, 71 people evacuated.

SERNAGEOMIN reported that Strombolian activity continued on 5 April. A dark gray ash plume drifted E; heavy ashfall was reported in Lago Verde. A lahar traveled down the Captrén River (NNE) and lava continued to travel down the W flank. On 6 April, poor weather mostly prevented visual observations, but continuous explosions were reported from Melipeuco (about 17 km SSE). Lahars again traveled down the Captrén River. Occasionally, gas-and-ash plumes were seen and drifted E; ash fell in areas E. Heavy ashfall and lapilli up to 1.5 cm in diameter fell in areas between Conguillio Lake (about 10 km ENE, in Conguillío National Park) and the Arcoiris Lake (less than 10 km ENE, in Conguillío National Park). On 7 April, gas and ash emitted from multiple points formed a plume that rose 1 km above the summit and drifted NE. The flanks of the volcano were covered with bombs, lapilli, and ash.

Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Reuters



Volcano index photo  Nyamuragira  | DR Congo  | 1.408°S, 29.2°E  | Elevation 3058 m

A recent report from Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) noted a seismic swarm from Nyamuragira during 23-27 January and increased seismicity along the East African Rift since then. Scientists who visited the Nyiragongo summit crater on 22 and 24 March saw intense fumarolic activity in the summit crater of Nyamuragira through binoculars. The activity was concentrated in the southern area. GVO noted that seismic swarms typically precede eruptions by 3-5 months and that an eruption could occur from the southern side.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)



Volcano index photo  Nyiragongo  | DR Congo  | 1.52°S, 29.25°E  | Elevation 3470 m

A recent report from Goma Volcano Observatory (GVO) noted a seismic swarm from Nyiragongo and Nyamuragira in January and increased seismicity along the East African Rift since then. Gas plumes from Nyiragongo were frequently emitted and contributed to acid rain that fell on inhabited areas. On 22 March, tremor was detected on nearby seismic networks. Scientists who visited the summit crater on 22 and 24 March observed active fumaroles along a fissure connecting the Shaheru (S flank) and Nyiragongo craters. Strong methane concentrations were detected. The lava lake level had dropped 20 m compared to 27 February. A small area of the lava lake was active and lava fountains were seen. The temperature of some fissures had increased by 4 degrees Celsius since 27 February.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that explosions in March ejected greater amounts of material that was deposited in the crater, enlarging the cones there. On 23 March, visual and audible changes in Strombolian activity were noted. Vigorous degassing produced sounds resembled airplane engines. In a report issued on 3 April, INSIVUMEH stated that Strombolian explosions from MacKenney cone during the previous few days ejected material 25 m into the air. On 2 April, lava flow volume increased, sending four lava flows W and one SW; the flows traveled 25-200 m. The seismic network detected tremor and explosions. On 6 April, lava flows on the W flank traveled 150-300 m, causing lava to pile up on the SW flank. Activity from MacKenney cone was continuous; one cone emitted gas and explosions about every 5-10 minutes, and a second cone ejected tephra 25 m high. On 7 April, one lava flow traveled 150 m W and one traveled 200 m SW. INSIVUMEH recommended that CONRED coordinate with authorities in Pacaya National Park to restrict visitors from climbing Pacaya.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Redoubt  | United States  | 60.485°N, 152.742°W  | Elevation 3108 m

During 1-3 April, AVO reported that Redoubt continued to emit steam, gases, and minor amounts of ash visible on the Redoubt Hut web camera. On 1 and 2 April, satellite images showed a plume containing some ash extending about 65 km ENE at altitudes of 4.6-7.6 km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. Thermal anomalies detected in infrared images were most likely due to lava dome extrusion in the summit crater. On 3 April, AVO lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange due to a decreased intensity of ash production. AVO overflights and photography confirmed that a lava dome was growing at the summit. Occasional avalanches of hot blocks from the dome traveled a short distance down the N flank.

On 4 April, a significant explosion produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. Seismic data indicated that a lahar traveled down the Drift River valley. AVO raised the Alert Level to Warning and the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest levels. During 5-6 April, small earthquakes and intermittent tremor continued to be detected. The web camera showed a continuously emitted plume of primarily steam and gas that rose to an altitude of 7.7 km (25,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. A small, intermittent plume rose from the NW base of the volcano, possibly from the interaction of hot debris with snow, ice, and water. On 6 April, AVO again lowered the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange due to seismic patterns and emissions of only very minor ash. A gas-and-steam plume rose to an altitude less than 7.7 km (25,300 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. On 7 April, a small steam-and-ash plume was seen on satellite imagery and drifted 16-24 km SE at altitudes of 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 5-7 April explosions and eruptions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitude of 2.1-3 km (7,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. Plumes drifted SE on 5 April and S on 7 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Asamayama  | Honshu (Japan)  | 36.406°N, 138.523°E  | Elevation 2568 m

On 7 April, JMA lowered the Alert Level for Asama from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-6 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40-210 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that pulsating gas plumes from Galeras, sometimes containing ash, were seen when weather allowed during 3-7 April and rose to altitudes less than 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. Overflights on 5, 6, and 7 April revealed that the emissions came from different areas in the main crater. Zones of high temperatures (180 degrees Celsius) were noted; an incandescent area measured 500 degrees Celsius on 7 April. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels during 27 March-3 April. A thermal anomaly on the volcano was seen in satellite imagery on 31 March. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 1-7 April, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha and Kupapa'u ocean entries. Surface flows on the coastal plain were seen or detected by satellite imagery. Occasional explosions occurred from the Waikupanaha ocean entry. On 2 April, geologists found that the surface lava flow feeding the Kupapa'u entry was 1 km (0.6 m) wide.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a predominantly white plume that drifted mainly SW. Incandescence was intermittently seen from the vent, and sounds resembling rushing gas were sometimes heard in the vicinity of the crater. Variable amounts of tephra including some Pele's hair, Pele's tears, and rock dust were retrieved daily from collection bins placed near the plume. During 31 March and 1 April, geologists utilizing an infrared camera to look into the vent saw a lava pond that rose and fell approximately every 3 minutes. During 2-3 April, the lava pond was replaced by a large hot opening; ejected spatter built up a rim. The sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit was elevated; measurements were 550, 800, and 700 tonnes per day on 1, 2, and 3 April, respectively. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Koryaksky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.321°N, 158.712°E  | Elevation 3430 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Koryaksky was at background levels during 27 March-3 April. Gas plumes containing a small amount of ash rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and W during the reporting period. During 27-28 and 31 March, and 1-2 April, gas-and-ash plumes were also seen on satellite imagery and drifted 313 km E, in southerly directions. The Level of Concern Color Code remained Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that on 1 April an ash plume from Popocatépetl rose 1 km above the summit. A small ash emission was seen the next day.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that during 27 March-2 April white and occasionally gray or brown plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater. Plumes drifted SE and NW. Incandescence from the summit crater was seen at night and roaring noises were reported. On 2 April, light ashfall was reported in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW) and surrounding areas. Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 5 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 37 km NE. On 7 April, ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW.

Sources: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Shiveluch was above background levels 27 March-3 April. Based on interpretations of seismic data, ash plumes likely rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. According to observers, fumaroles were active daily and explosions produced ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 6 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. on 31 March. Analysis of satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome and an ash plume that drifted 80 km S on 1 April. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 27 March-3 April activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. On 1 April, a small pyroclastic flow traveled E down the Tar River Valley. The Hazard Level remained at 3. On 6 April, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume drifting at altitudes of 2.7-4.9 km (9,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. was seen by a pilot flying from Antigua to Beef Island, 200-300 km NW. Ash was not seen on satellite imagery.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 6 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 1-3 and 5 April, IG reported that steam or steam-and-ash plumes from Tungurahua rose a few meters to 1 km above the crater. Plumes drifted S, SW, and NNW. On 6 April, fumarolic plumes rose 500-600 m. Light ashfall was reported about 8 km SW in the town of Manzano.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)