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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 14 October-20 October 2009.


















 Activity for the week of 14 October-20 October 2009

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Chaiten Chile New
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Gaua Banks Islands (Vanuatu) New
Kaba Indonesia New
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Nevado del Huila Colombia New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Reventador Ecuador New
Soufriere Hills Montserrat New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Sangay Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

Based on web camera views and analyses of satellite imagery, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 14 October an ash plume from Chaitén's lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 150 km NNE. A diffuse plume was seen the next day drifting 15 km SW at the same altitude as the previous day. During 15-16 October, a thermal anomaly was seen. On 18 October, a possible plume drifted 50 km SE at an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. Diffuse ash plumes possibly mixed with steam and gas rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. on 20 October and drifted NE and SE.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 15 October a possible eruption plume from Ebeko rose to an altitude of 10.7 km (35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Gaua  | Banks Islands (Vanuatu)  | 14.27°S, 167.5°E  | Elevation 797 m

On 13 October, Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory confirmed that Gaua's Mount Garat was erupting based on fieldwork done by scientists during 3-7 October. Seismic records showed multiple explosions, and a gas flux measurement of 3,000 metric tons of sulfur dioxide was detected on 3 October. The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)



Volcano index photo  Kaba  | Indonesia  | 3.522°S, 102.615°E  | Elevation 1940 m

On 20 October, CVGHM reported that seismic activity from Kaba increased in August and remained elevated in September and October. Inflation was also detected. When weather permitted, diffuse white plumes were seen rising 25-50 m above the crater rim and drifting E. Based on the deformation and increased seismicity, CVGHN raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that seismicity from Kizimen was above background levels during 8-11 October and at background levels during 12-16 October. A weak thermal anomaly was seen at the volcano in satellite imagery on 9 October. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 9-16 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and weak tremor was detected. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly at the volcano. On 11 October, Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater. Fumarolic plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 5.7 km (19,700 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

Based on web camera views, INGEOMINAS reported that on 16 October an ash plume from Nevado del Huila rose 1 km and drifted E. Ashfall and sulfur odors were reported in several surrounding areas. Later that day, seismicity increased, prompting INGEOMINAS to raise the Alert Level to II (Orange; "probable eruption in term of days or weeks").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

On 14 October, OVPDLF reported a seismic crisis from Piton de la Fournaise, with seismicity indicating deformation on the N side of Dolomieu crater and rockfalls within the crater. During 15-17 October, deformation and rockfalls continued to be detected. On 18 October, another seismic crisis was noted along with deformation on the N and S sides of Dolomieu crater. Aerial observations on 19 October revealed a small new fumarole in the crater. Changes in the chemical composition of the gases were also noted. A greater number and duration of rockfalls than in previous days was detected on 20 October.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

The IG reported that field observations of Reventador on 16 and 17 September confirmed the presence of a lava flow on the S flank of the cone. Gas and steam emissions were noted, as was growth of the lava dome. Thermal anomalies over the crater area were detected in satellite imagery on 6, 11, and 13 October. On 14 October, seismicity increased and harmonic tremor was detected. A seismic station on the NE flank of the cone detected rockfalls. Several people living in the area reported roaring noises and observed slight incandescence from the crater during the previous few nights.

During an overflight on 16 October, scientists saw the lava dome and a lava flow on the N flank. Bluish gases were emitted. According to a thermal camera, the incandescent parts in the crater were about 300 degrees Celsius. Other observers heard roaring noises and sounds resembling "cannon shots." Incandescent blocks were ejected from the crater, and steam and gases rose 100 m and drifted SW. Incandescent material was seen on the S flank. On 17 October, incandescence on the S flank was seen and noises similar the previous day were again heard. A small gray plume was seen the next day. On 19 October, thermal anomalies were again detected on satellite imagery. During an overflight, blue gas plumes were seen. The lava flow on the S flank occupied a large area and was divided into two branches.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 9-16 October activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a high level; a new lava dome first reported on 9 October continued to grow. Over 1,200 rockfalls were detected by the seismic network. Pyroclastic flows traveled down every major drainage valley except the Tar River valley to the E. Brief views of the lava dome revealed that the new lava dome summit was about 60 m above the old dome structure. Heavy rainfall caused a lahar in the Belham Valley to the NW on 14 October. On 16 October, several large pyroclastic flows descended the White River to the S and reached the sea. Moderate-sized pyroclastic flows traveled 3 km NE down Tuitts Ghaut and White Bottom Ghaut, and a few smaller pyroclastic flows descended Tyers Ghaut to the N. Extensive ash clouds rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted WNW, resulting in minor ashfall in inhabited areas. During 18-19 October, rockfalls and small pyroclastic flows continued to be detected.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 13-20 October produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW, S, SE, and E. On 15 October, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 October an ash plume from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 October ash plumes from Batu Tara were seen drifting 25-185 km W and N at an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

On 19 October, AVO reported that no eruptive activity from Cleveland had been observed since the brief eruption on 2 October. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level were lowered to Unassigned. Cleveland is not monitored by a real-time seismic network, thus the levels "Green" or "Normal" do not apply because background activity is not defined.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15 October an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was elevated above background levels during 9-16 October and possibly indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. On 12 October, volcanologists doing fieldwork saw an ash plume rise to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from KEMSD, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 20 October eruptions produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (10,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified on satellite imagery.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 14-20 October, HVO reported that lava flowed SE from underneath Kilauea's Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system, reaching the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows on top and at the base of the pali. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor and an East wall vent.

The vent in Halema'uma'u crater continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Fresh Pele's Hair was collected near the summit on 16 October. Incandescence originated from sources inside the vent cavity; on 18 October a lava pond surface was seen, but then disappeared. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulfur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated; 690-940 tonnes per day was measured during 16-18 October. The 2003-2007 average rate was 140 tonnes per day.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 15, 18, and 20 October ash plumes from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone rose to altitudes of 2.7-3 km (9,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-85 km NW, W, and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 15 October a small plume from Sangay drifted 15 km SW.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 9-16 October seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels and possibly indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed a large thermal anomaly over the lava dome during 8-13 and 15 October. Fumarolic plumes containing small amounts of ash rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. during 11-13 October. According to video camera data and visual observations, multiple hot avalanches traveled down the lava dome on 12, 13, and 14 October, and deposits from a small pyroclastic flow on the SE flank were noted. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

On 19 October, AVO reported that recent clear satellite views of Shishaldin showed no activity; the last thermal anomaly was detected on 16 August. Seismicity was variable, but within background levels. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green and the Volcano Alert Level was lowered to Normal.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Cayambe Kanlaon Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Karangetang Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karkar Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karthala Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karymsky Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Kasatochi Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Katla Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Kavachi Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kelimutu Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelut Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kerinci Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Ketoi Papandayan Tinakula
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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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Cuicocha Kirishimayama Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kizimen Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Klyuchevskoy Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
Ebeko Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raoul Island Veniaminof
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Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruang Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Ruiz, Nevado del
Fonualei Lewotobi Sabancaya
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Sakar
Fourpeaked Little Sitkin Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)