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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 November-16 November 2010.


















 Activity for the week of 10 November-16 November 2010

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) New
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Chaiten Chile Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Nevado del Huila Colombia Ongoing
Planchon-Peteroa Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

During 10-11 November, PHIVOLCS reported that 18 volcano tectonic earthquakes from Bulusan were detected by the seismic network. On 11 November white steam plumes rose 150 m above the crater and drifted ENE. During an aerial survey, scientists saw that recent explosions resulted in the joining of two of the 2006-2007 craters into one. They also noted that deposits from an explosion on 9 November did not contain juvenile material. On 12 November an ash explosion produced an ash-and-steam plume that rose 700 m above the crater and drifted SW. Multiple neighborhoods to the W and SW reported light ashfall. Four volcano-tectonic earthquakes were detected during the previous 24 hours. Steam plumes rose to a maximum height of 100 m above the crater. Some steaming was seen during 13-14 November. White steam rose from the NW vent, but no steaming was observed from the crater and SE vent on 14 and 15 November. An explosion late at night on 15 November was followed by ashfall in nearby neighborhoods. Cloud cover prevented observations of the summit area the next morning. The Alert Level remained at 1 (out of 5).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Following several days of ash emissions from Etna's Northeast Crater, INGV-CT reported that on 14 November there was a significant increase in both the frequency and volume of ash emissions. The emissions were intermittent, alternating with periods of gas-and-steam. Ash plumes rose a few hundred meters high and drifted first SW on 14 November, then NE during 14-15 November, and finally E on 15 November.

INGV-CT staff visited the summit craters on 15 November and saw a few millimeters of brown ash on the ground mainly to the S of Northeast Crater. Ash deposits were 1 cm thick on the rim of the crater. Ash emissions were accompanied by nearly continuous deep rumblings. The vent on the crater floor was at least 75 m in diameter compared to about 25 m in October.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

CVGHM reported that during 10-11 November seismicity from Merapi along with the number of avalanches and pyroclastic flows decreased compared to the previous two days. Lahar deposits were seen in multiple drainages around Merapi at a maximum distance of 16.5 km from the summit.

On 10 November, plumes generally rose 800 m above the crater, but at about 2200 a brownish plume rose to a height of 1.5 km. Heavy ashfall was reported in areas to the WSW and WNW. A 3.5-km-long pyroclastic flow and a 200-m-long avalanche both traveled S in the Gendol drainage. Incandescence from the crater was observed through a closed-circuit television (CCTV) system installed at the Merapi museum. On 11 November, roaring was followed by light ashfall at the Ketep observation post. Plumes, brownish-black at times, rose 800 m above the crater and drifted W and NW. Avalanches again traveled S in the Gendol drainage. One pyroclastic flow was observed through the CCTV traveling 3 km S. A brownish plume rose 1.5 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-14 November ash plumes drifted 185-280 km SW at an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. High-altitude sulfur dioxide clouds detected over the Indian Ocean possibly contained ash. In the latter part of 14 November and during 15-16 November, ash plumes rose to altitude of 6.1-7.6 km (20,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 110-130 km S, SW, and W. The sulfur dioxide concentration in the high-level clouds had decreased; the clouds were not thought to contain ash.

During 14-15 November, news articles stated that the death toll from the eruption was over 250, and the Yogyakarta airport had remained closed. About 390,000 residents also began to return home after the "danger zones" were reduced in some areas due to decreased activity during the previous few days.

Sources: Associated Press, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), The Jakarta Post, RTT News



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity from Shiveluch was detected during 5-12 November and a large thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed in satellite imagery. Seismic data suggested that possible ash plumes rose to altitudes of 6.5 and 7 km (21,300 and 23,000 ft) a.s.l. on 6 and 8 November, respectively. Ash plumes were detected in satellite imagery during 7-9 November drifting 150 km SE. An ash plume observed on 10 November rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. KVERT noted that growth of the lava dome continued. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

During 13-14 November, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash plumes from eruptions were observed in satellite imagery drifting E at altitudes of 4.6-5.2 km (15,000-17,000 ft) a.s.l. A possible eruption on 16 November produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 10-16 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, and S. During 15-16 November, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.7 km (5,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chaiten  | Chile  | 42.833°S, 72.646°W  | Elevation 1122 m

On 11 November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although seismic events at Chaitén's lava-dome complex continued to increase in the previous weeks, the magnitudes of the earthquakes remained relatively low. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 300-400 m above the caldera rim. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 13 November a gas-and-ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 40 km SE. On 15 November ash plumes observed through the web camera rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Alert Level remained Yellow Level 3 on a three-color scale.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 12 November, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 800 m above the crater and drifted S and SW. At night, incandescent material was ejected to low heights above the crater. Avalanches occurred around the crater rim. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that during 12-13 November ash plumes drifted as far as 37 km SW.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels during 9-10 November, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.5-4.9 km (11,500-16,100 ft) a.s.l. Seismic activity was at background levels on the other days during 5-12 November. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 10-16 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u crater remained mostly stable at 155 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose about 20 m above that level. Nighttime incandescence was seen from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed some small lava flows on the coastal plain and the Puhi-o-Kalaikini ocean entry. Incandescence was frequently visible from areaS on the N part of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

According to staff at a tourist center 10 km from Kizimen, KVERT reported strong gas-and-steam activity on 11 November resulted in a plume, possible containing some ash, that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Seismic activity continued to be detected during 5-12 November. The Level of Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that during 8-10 November seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was at background levels. During 9-10 November strong fumarolic activity was seen and a weak thermal anomaly over the crater was observed in satellite imagery. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 November an eruption produced a plume that drifted NE. Later that day, images showed that the ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code level remained at Yellow.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 14-16 November ash plumes from Manam rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Huila  | Colombia  | 2.93°N, 76.03°W  | Elevation 5364 m

According to the Washington VAAC, INGEOMINAS reported a seismic event from Nevado del Huila on 11 November consistent with a potential ash emission. A possible ash plume detected in satellite imagery drifted 25 km WSW. A subsequent notice stated that seismicity returned to background levels and the plume was no longer visible. INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 November whitish-colored gas plumes seen through the Tafxnú and Maravillas (12 km SE) web cameras rose 2 km above the crater. The Alert Level had been lowered to III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity") on 12 October, and remained at that level during the reporting period.

Sources: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Planchon-Peteroa  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 35.223°S, 70.568°W  | Elevation 3977 m

On 11 November, SERNAGEOMIN reported that seismicity from Planchón-Peteroa remained low. Observations from multiple sources, including a web camera and satellite images, showed that the height of the gas plume was lower than the previously reported height of 200 m, observed during 15-25 October. The Alert Level was lowered to 2, Green.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

Based on information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported a small and brief emission from Popocatépetl on 12 November. CENAPRED reported four steam-and-gas emissions during 12-13 November.

Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 5-12 November activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. Photographs from 11 November showed areas of nighttime incandescence from the lava dome, indicating that although extrusion stopped nine months earlier, the lava dome remained hot. Small pyroclastic flows occurred in the Tar River valley to the E on 6 November and from the N side of the dome on 9 November. Light ashfall associated with the 9 November event occurred in inhabited areas of N Montserrat. Helicopter observations revealed that the overhanging part of the dome on the W side, immediately E of Chances Peak, was more pronounced by further undercutting of rockfalls and pyroclastic flows. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 10 and 12 November. On 11 November a pilot reported an ash plume. A subsequent satellite image showed that the ash had dissipated. The next day, a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)