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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 30 March-5 April 2011.


















 Activity for the week of 30 March-5 April 2011

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

CVGHM reported that during 30-31 March incandescence emanated from Karangetang's main crater as well as bluish and white gas plumes. Lava flows originating from the main crater traveled 2 km down the flanks. Incandescent avalanches from the main crater and from the lava-flow fronts traveled up to 1.8 km down the flanks. On 31 March a thunderous sound was accompanied by a gray plume that rose 200 m above the crater. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

HVO reported that lava in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u crater was visible on 5 April and rose, fell, and circulated within the pit during 6-12 April. At Pu'u 'O'o crater, the level of the lava lake fluctuated, and was fed from a source in the central portion of the lake. During 5-8 April a gas plume from the vent deposited very small amounts of ash nearby, derived from rockfalls and occasional lake spatter.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Ruapehu  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.28°S, 175.57°E  | Elevation 2797 m

On 5 April, GeoNet reported that the temperature of Ruapehu's summit Crater Lake had been high for a sustained period and was currently between 38 and 39 degrees Celsius. The highest temperature since unrest began in October 2010 was 41 degrees Celsius, measured on 1 March. The report also noted that during the previous few weeks there was an increase in carbon dioxide gas emissions, increased seismicity, and changes in Crater Lake water chemistry. The unrest prompted GeoNet to raise the Aviation Colour Code although the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (some signs of volcano unrest).

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 1 and 3-5 April explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.5-4 km (5,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasionally drifted E. A video of activity from 4 April showed incandescence emanating from the crater and a few explosions that ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. On 5 April, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Volcano Sakura-jima



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

On 31 March, AVO lowered the Volcano Alert Level and the Aviation Color Code for Cleveland to Unassigned noting that no eruptive activity had been confirmed during the previous few months. Neither significant thermal anomalies nor ash deposits on snow were observed in recent satellite imagery.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 April an ash plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 185 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Based on a NOTAM, the Toulouse VAAC reported that on 3 April ash from Etna rose to an altitude between 2.4-3.4 km (8,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not identified in satellite imagery.

Source: Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 30-31 March and 4-5 April explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, and S. Lava flows traveled almost 200 m SW down the Ceniza drainage and produced block avalanches from lava-flow fronts. Crater incandescence was observed at night.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that on 31 March and 1 April emissions from Galeras were characterized by gas-and-steam plumes with low ash content. On 1 April a M 2.3 earthquake occurred 3 km E of the crater at a depth of 6 km and was felt by nearby residents. During an overflight on 2 April scientists noted a sulfur gas odor and observed that gas emissions rose from multiple areas of the active cone. During 30 March-5 April, sulfur dioxide gas values were between 50 and 2,000 tons per day, the latter value was considered high for Galeras. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Karymsky during 25 March-1 April. Seismic data indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite imagery. Ash and gas-and-steam plumes drifted 55 km in multiple directions during 25, 27, and 29-30 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

Based on notifications from JMA and pilot observations, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 3-4 April ash plumes from Kirishima's Shinmoe-dake (Shinmoe peak) rose to altitudes of 4.6-6.1 km (15,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 25 March-1 April seismicity from Kizimen was high, with many shallow volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor continuing to be detected. Satellite images showed a large bright thermal anomaly daily on the volcano. Ash and gas-and-steam plumes drifted multiple directions as far as 464 km. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 1 April produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent images that day and during 2-3 April showed continuing ash emissions. Another possible eruption on 6 April produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that a possible eruption from Kliuchevskoi on 30 March produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent images that day showed continuing ash emissions that later dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that on 28 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 300-800 m above Caliente dome and drifted NNE, depositing fine ash in Quetzaltenango (10 km NNE). During 30-31 March and 4-5 April explosions produced ash plumes that rose 400-700 m above the dome and drifted S; ashfall was reported in nearby areas downwind. Avalanches descended the SW and E flanks.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 25 March-1 April seismic data at Shiveluch indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,100 ft) a.s.l. A thermal anomaly on the lava dome was observed in satellite imagery during 25-29 March, and ash plumes drifted 57 km SE on 26 March. Ground-based observers noted that ash-and-gas plumes rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. during 25-30 March.

Based on information from KEMSD and analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 April an eruption produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. A possible eruption detected in satellite imagery the next day produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 25 March-1 April activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A swarm of 36 earthquakes occurred within an hour on 28 March, the largest volcano-tectonic swarm since February 2010. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

CVGHM reported that during 29 March-4 April brownish-gray ash plumes from Tengger Caldera's Bromo cone rose 400-800 m above the crater and drifted N, E, and NE. Ash fell at the Bromo observation post. Incandescence emanated from the crater and incandescent material was periodically ejected above the crater. Roaring of varying intensity was heard. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 2-km radius of the active crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
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Bamus Huila, Nevado del Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliamna Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kadovar NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
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Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
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Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
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Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)