Activity for the week of 16 November-22 November 2011
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
New Activity / Unrest
| 27.73°N, 18.03°W
| Elevation 1500 m
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 16-22 November the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island. During this period, the amplitude of the tremor showed two rapid changes, a decrease in amplitude at 2200 on 17 November and an increase at 1710 on 19 November. Seismic amplitudes decreased between late 20 November and mid-day on 21 November, and then remained stable at values similar to those noted during 19-25 October. Superficial activity over the emission center was rare, characterized by alternating days without seawater discoloration and days where there was minor gas and tephra content in the water and persistent discoloration.
During the period, 200 seismic events were located, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 16-23 km and a maximum magnitude of 3.7. Seventeen of these events were felt by residents at a maximum intensity value of III using EMS-98 (European Macroseismic Scale). GPS data analyses showed little deformation in the horizontal components, while in the vertical component stations located in the N of the island showed uplift and the rest showed subsidence.
Source: Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)
| DR Congo
| 1.408°S, 29.2°E
| Elevation 3058 m
On 18 November, Virunga National Park reported that lava flows from the eruption along a fissure 11-12 km ENE of Nyamuragira's main crater had possibly stalled. An observer aboard an overflight a few days before noted that the lava did not appear to have moved any further N. A photo taken from the Rumangabo headquarters (7.5 km NE of the eruption site) on 16 November showed a tall cinder cone with lava fountains rising above the rim.
Source: Virunga National Park
| DR Congo
| 1.52°S, 29.25°E
| Elevation 3470 m
According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a satellite image of Nyiragongo acquired on 15 November showed heat coming from the active lava lake in the summit crater.
Source: NASA Earth Observatory
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 16-17 and 19-22 November explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, E, and N. Satellite imagery on 16 and 21 November showed ash emissions that later dissipated. On 19 November a pilot reported an ash plume at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.
Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 45.9°S, 72.97°W
| Elevation 1905 m
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that satellite imagery and an area web camera showed no plumes rising from Cerro Hudson during 7-15 November. Seismic activity decreased significantly, reaching a low level characterized by no more than four earthquakes per hour and the absence of tremor. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Level 4.
Source: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 54.049°N, 159.443°E
| Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity continued at a moderate level at Karymsky during 11-18 November, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.9 km (12,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed ash plumes that drifted 172 km E on 11 November and a thermal anomaly on the volcano during 11-12 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 16-22 November, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby. Incandescence was visible from the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, and from the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Incandescence from a skylight on the lava tube was also observed. During 18-19 November the vent on the E edge of the crater produced lava flows that partially filled the depression left by the flank fissure eruption in September. There were also two brief and small lava-flow effusions from the W edge vent. Intermittent lava flows continued from the E vent during 20-22 November.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.131°N, 160.32°E
| Elevation 2334 m
KVERT reported moderate seismic activity at Kizimen during 10-18 November and a thermal anomaly that was detected on 11-14 and 17 November in satellite images. Video observations showed gas-and-steam activity during 10 and 13-14 November. A large lava flow on the NE and E flanks continued to effuse, and the crater was incandescent at night during 13-14 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| 19.023°N, 98.622°W
| Elevation 5393 m
During 16-20 November CENAPRED reported steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. A series of emissions was detected on 18 November; clouds prevented ground observations and no ashfall was reported. Based on information from the Mexico City MWO however, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW that same day. Satellite imagery showed another ash plume drifting E at an approximate altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. CENAPRED noted that at 1201 on 20 November an explosion produced an ash plume that rose approximately 2 km above the crater and drifted N. The explosion was heard in Amecameca (19 km NW). Steam-and-gas plumes rose from the crater during 21-22 November.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| 40.59°S, 72.117°W
| Elevation 2236 m
Based on seismicity during 16-20 November, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, continued at a low level. Cloud cover prevented web camera views on 16 November, but satellite imagery showed an ash plume drifting 100 km SW and sparse ashfall to the E. During 18-20 November plumes observed with the web camera rose 2.5-3 km above the crater. Satellite imagery showed ash clouds drifting E and SE on 18 November and an ash plume drifting 250 km SE on 19 November. During the night on 20 November the crater was incandescent. Cloud cover prevented observations on 21 November. The Alert Level remained at Red.
According to a news article, flights in Uruguay and Argentina were disrupted or cancelled on 22 November due to the presence of ash.
Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)
| 2.005°S, 78.341°W
| Elevation 5286 m
The Washington VAAC reported that on 20 November an ash plume from a possible eruption at Sangay was observed by a pilot and drifted at an altitude of 5.9 km (19,500 ft) a.s.l. Ash was not detected in partly-cloudy satellite imagery.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Shiveluch during 11-18 November, and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km (14,800 ft) a.s.l. Ground-based observers noted that a viscous lava flow continued to effuse in the crater formed during a 2010 eruption. Strong fumarolic activity at the lava dome was observed during 13-14 November; cloud cover prevented observations on the other days. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome during 11-14 and 17 November and gas-and-steam plumes containing ash drifted 100 km E on 14 November. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.