Activity for the week of 7 December-13 December 2011
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 December-13 December 2011.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 December-13 December 2011.
Activity for the week of 7 December-13 December 2011
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Sundoro||Central Java (Indonesia)||New|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Kizimen||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
Galeras | Colombia | 1.22°N, 77.37°W | Elevation 4276 m
INGEOMINAS reported that activity continued at Galeras during 7-13 December, with steam rising from the main crater and two craters to the N and SW (Paisita and Chavas, respectively). On 9 and 11 December earthquakes of M 2.3 and 2.5, felt by local residents, occurred near the crater at a depth of 1.5 km. The Alert Level remains at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity"). olcanic activity").
Gamalama | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 0.8°N, 127.33°E | Elevation 1715 m
Based on information from CVGHM, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-10 December ash plumes from Gamalama rose to altitudes of 2.1-6.1 km (7,000-20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. The Alert Level for Gamalama remains at 3 (on a scale from 1-4).
Sorikmarapi | Indonesia | 0.686°N, 99.539°E | Elevation 2145 m
CVGHM reported increased seismicity from Sorik Marapi during 1-12 December and white plumes rose 40-50 m above the summit. CVGHM raised the Alert Level on 12 December from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) based on seismic data.
Sundoro | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.3°S, 109.992°E | Elevation 3136 m
CVGHM reported increased seismic activity at Sundoro during October -4 December. On 26 November and 2 December smoke was reported from many fumaroles around the summit crater. Based on visual and seismic data, CVGHM raised the Alert Level from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) on 5 December.
Tungurahua | Ecuador | 1.467°S, 78.442°W | Elevation 5023 m
IG reported that during 7-8 December activity continued at Tungurahua and roaring noises and sounds resembling "cannon shots" were heard. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.0 km (4,920-16,400 ft) drifting W and NE on 7 December, and W and SW on 8 December. Ashfall was reported in communities to the W, NE, and SW. On 8 December ashfall was reported in Choglontús (SW), Chacauco, Manzano (8 km SW), Bilbao (8 km W), and Pillate (8 km W). Crater incandescence was observed on 10 December, but activity decreased during 10-11 December.
Based on pilot and satellite observations, the Washington VAAC reported that during 7-8 December ash plumes from Tungurahua rose to altitudes of 7.0-7.9 km (23,000 -26,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 18.5-24.0 km S and SW.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-13 December explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.0-2.7 km (3,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, SE, S, and NE. Satellite imagery and a pilot report showed ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l and drifted 46 km SW on 9 December and 37 km S on 13 December.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 and 13 December explosions from Fuego produced rumbling sounds and ash plumes that rose 300-600 m above the crater and drifted W, SW, and S. Block avalanches descended the SW flank toward the Ceniza drainage.
Hierro | Spain | 27.73°N, 18.03°W | Elevation 1500 m
Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) reported that during 7-13 December the submarine eruption continued S of El Hierro Island, with steaming lava fragments sporadically observed floating on the sea. During this period, the mean tremor amplitude oscillated between decreasing and increasing trends during the first days of the week, and since 10 December high-amplitude pulses occurred every 5-10 minutes.
Only seven seismic events were located during this period, most of them offshore to the N of the island at depths of 17-23 km and with a maximum magnitude of 2.0. GPS data analyses showed stability in the horizontal components and trends to deflation in the vertical component.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that seismic activity continued at a moderate level at Karymsky during 2-9 December and indicated that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.6 km (11,800 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly and ash plumes that drifted 90 km E on 3, 7, and 8 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange. Based on information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.0 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 7-13 December, HVO reported that the lava lake circulated and periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater, remaining below the inner ledge (75 m below the crater floor). Almost daily measurements indicated that the gas plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash and fresh spatter nearby.
Incandescence was visible along the E and W edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor, along the 21 September fissure on the SE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone, and from a skylight on the lava tube. Lava continues to erupt into the perched pond formed on 6 December. Pahoehoe flows, fed through lava tubes from the fissure, continued to be active about 6.8 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o based on intermittent views from satellite. Analysis of 10-12 December satellite images suggested that lava had reached the coast and was flowing into the ocean. During 11-12 December incandescence was observed from small spatter cones on the E and S edges of the Pu'u 'O'o crater floor; short lava flows issued from the E edge of the crater floor on 12 December.
Kizimen | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.131°N, 160.32°E | Elevation 2334 m
KVERT reported an increase in seismic activity at Kizimen during 2-9 December and a daily thermal anomaly that was detected in satellite images. A large lava flow on the NE and E flanks continued to effuse. The video camera was down due to technical reasons during the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Popocatepetl | Mexico | 19.023°N, 98.622°W | Elevation 5393 m
CENAPRED reported that during 7-13 December steam-and-gas emissions rose from Popocatépetl and occasionally contained small amounts of ash. On 7 December ashfall was reported in San Pedro (13.5 km NW). Crater incandescence was observed during 9-11 December and on 9 December incandescence ballistic fragments were observed on the upper slopes of the cone.
Based on reports from CENEPRED and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume that drifted 12.9 km W on 7 December.
Puyehue-Cordon Caulle | Chile | 40.59°S, 72.117°W | Elevation 2236 m
Based on seismicity during 7-13 December, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that the eruption from the Cordón Caulle rift zone, part of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic complex, continued at a low level. Plumes observed with the web camera during 8-9 December rose 3.0-3.5 km above the crater and plumes were identified in satellite imagery drifting 90 km SE on 8 December and 250 km ENE on 9 December. Cloud cover prevented web camera and satellite observations during 10-13 December, but ashfall was reported to the E during 10-11 December. The Alert Level remained at Red.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.757°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3745 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on 9 December plumes from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW and explosions generated rumbling noises. On 13 December block avalanche activity increased on the S flank and created pyroclastic flows that were deposited into the San Isidro drainage.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity was detected at Shiveluch during 2-9 December, and satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly over the lava dome. Ground-based observers noted that a viscous lava flow continued to effuse in the crater formed during a 2010 eruption. Moderate fumarolic activity at the lava dome was observed during 3-6 December; clouds prevented observations on the other days of the week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ahyi||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Vicente|
|Antuco||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semisopochnoi|
|Azul, Cerro||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Soputan|
|Azumayama||Home Reef||Misti, El||Sorikmarapi|
|Balbi||Hudson, Cerro||Momotombo||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Ijen||Mutnovsky||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Iliwerung||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kaba||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chiles-Cerro Negro||Kasatochi||Palena Volcanic Group||Telica|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Paluweh||Tenerife|
|Copahue||Kick 'em Jenny||Planchon-Peteroa||Toliman|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kolokol Group||Raoul Island||Unknown Source|
|Ekarma||Kuchinoerabujima||Rincon de la Vieja||White Island|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Langila||Ruapehu||Zavodovski|
|Eyjafjallajokull||Lanin||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sakar|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)