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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 27 March-2 April 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 27 March-2 April 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia) New
Fuego Guatemala New
Hekla Iceland New
Hierro Spain New
Sabancaya Peru New
Tungurahua Ecuador New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tongariro North Island (New Zealand) Ongoing
White Island North Island (New Zealand) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and a pilot observation, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 28 March steam-and-gas emissions with small amounts of ash rose from Copahue.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

CVGHM reported that during 10-26 March gas emissions continued to be elevated at Timbang, a cone that is part of the Dieng Volcanic Complex. Plumes containing carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide drifted 2 km, and were toxic at a distance of 550 m. Seismicity increased during 13-26 March and then significantly increased on 27 March. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 27 March and warned the public not to approach Timbang Crater within a 1 km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]  | Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia)  | 45.012°N, 147.871°E  | Elevation 1158 m

Based on analysis of satellite images, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 March a possible eruption from Grozny Group may have produced a plume that rose 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A later VAAC notice stated that ash had dissipated.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 27 March-2 April explosions from Fuego generated rumbling noises, occasional shock waves, and ash plumes that rose 0.6-1.3 km above the crater and drifted 8-15 km W, SW, and S. Incandescent material was ejected 100-200 m above the crater. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Hagia Sophia. Block avalanches descended the flanks and during 1-2 April reached vegetated areas.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Hekla  | Iceland  | 63.983°N, 19.666°W  | Elevation 1490 m

On 29 March the Icelandic Meteorological Office noted that Hekla had been quiet the previous few days; no additional earthquakes had been detected since a period of increased seismicity during 10-26 March. The Icelandic Civil Defense continued to maintain a level of "uncertainty".

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Hierro  | Spain  | 27.73°N, 18.03°W  | Elevation 1500 m

On 18 March seismic activity at El Hierro sharply increased. Earthquakes were initially located around the NW tip of the island, at about 20 km depth, then later migrated W about 12-15 km offshore W of El Hierro Island, at similar depth. About 100 earthquakes of Mb 3.5 (body wave measurement) or greater had been located, many of them felt by residents. The biggest events occurred on 29 March (Mb 4.7) and 31 March (Mw 4.6, moment magnitude) both at 20 km depth. IGN's GPS data showed inflation of the island, with maximum deformation at the westernmost station of about 10 cm in the horizontal component and about 11 cm in the vertical. Deformation rates reached a maximum during 23-24 March. An increase in carbon dioxide flux was observed in the W area.

Rockfalls were reported on the steep slopes, especially during 26-29 March. On the evening of 27 March the Plan de Protección Civil por Riesgo Volcánico (PEVOLCA) raised the Volcanic Alert Code for the population to Yellow, and closed the access to the W part of the island.

Source: Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

In an Instituto Geofísico de Perú (IGP) report, a photo showed a fumarolic plume rising above Sabancaya on 8 March. During the third week of March, a bluish colored plume rose 500 m above the crater, possibly indicating sulfur dioxide emissions. On 25 March the seismic network detected a continuing high rate of volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes and an increasing number of long-period (LP) events. On 27 March and 1 April VT earthquakes continued to be dominant and located below the NE sector of the crater. The number and amplitude of LP events did not change.

Previously, residents of Sallalli, 11 km S of Sabancaya, reported that fumarolic activity had increased on 5 December 2012. Four earthquakes within 15 km of the crater during 22-23 February caused damage in Maca, 20 km NE. In response, the Instituto Geofísico de Perú (IGP) installed seismic stations and recorded hundreds of earthquakes per day.

INGEMMET also installed monitoring equipment, and in partnership with IGP increased monitoring efforts. On 27 February scientists observed that the emissions were mostly water vapor, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. During 28 February-5 March there were 400-500 earthquakes per day recorded, mostly volcano-tectonic events.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

IG reported that during 27 March-2 April seismicity at Tungurahua continued to trend downward, remaining at moderate levels. Cloud cover often prevented observations; a weak steam plume was observed rising from the crater on 27 March.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions from Sakura-jima during 28 March-1 April generated plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.7 km (6,000-9,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. JMA reported that during 29 March-1 April four explosions from Showa Crater ejected tephra at most 1.3 km from the crater.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 30 March-1 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 2.4-3 km (8,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-75 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 27 March-2 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.4 km NE over older flows. A branch also traveled S, just S of Pu'u Kahauale'a. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 22-29 March moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 27 March-1 April ash plumes from Paluweh rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-100 km N, NE, and E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 26 March-1 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that contained ash. Although views of the volcano were often obscured by cloud cover, gas-and-ash plumes were observed daily. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night and sometimes increased in conjunction with emissions. On 26 March incandescent fragments ejected as far as 1 km from the crater landed on the NNE flanks. An explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater. On 29 March incandescent fragments ejected 700 m from the crater landed on the N and NE flanks. On 31 March ash emissions were observed continuously for about an hour. Ash plumes rose over 2 km and drifted E. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 27-29 March explosions from Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SW. During 29-30 March ashfall was reported in El Faro (SW flank) and La Florida (5 km S). An explosion during 1-2 April generated ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted SE, causing ashfall in San José. Avalanches were generated by active lava flows during 29 March-2 April.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 22-29 March a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

MVO reported that during 22-29 March activity at the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A pyroclastic flow traveled down the Tar River Valley (E) at about 0500 on 28 March. The flow was not observed directly, but the deposits indicated that it traveled halfway down the valley, 1-1.5 km from the dome. There were no reports of ashfall; any ash was probably blown over Plymouth and out to sea. The source of the flow was not known due to cloud cover, but was likely from the failure a large slab that had been slowing moving away from the dome. Heavy rainfall during the evening of 28 March generated large lahars in several valleys around the volcano, including in the Belham Valley (NW). These started at about 1900 and lasted for several hours. The Hazard Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 22-29 March that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the fissure. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tongariro  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.157°S, 175.632°E  | Elevation 1978 m

On 25 March GeoNet reported that Tongariro remained quiet with no eruptive activity being detected since the explosion on 21 November 2012. Steam-and-gas plumes rose from the Te Maari Craters. The Aviation Colour Code was lowered to Green (second lowest on a 4 four-color scale) and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: GeoNet



Volcano index photo  White Island  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 37.52°S, 177.18°E  | Elevation 321 m

On 26 March GeoNet Data Centre reported that a pattern of repeating minor activity at White Island had become established over the last month. Periods of passive steaming and degassing were accompanied by very low levels of volcanic tremor. This activity alternated with minor mud-and-steam explosions from the active crater when there was strong volcanic tremor. Sulfur dioxide gas measurements on 20 March were at similar levels to the past month, although carbon dioxide levels were higher. The Aviation Colour Code remained at Yellow and the Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Source: GeoNet



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Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)