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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 10 April-16 April 2013.


















 Activity for the week of 10 April-16 April 2013

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Galeras Colombia New
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kizimen Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Paluweh Indonesia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Rabaul New Britain (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sangay Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Tolbachik Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that during 10-16 April earthquakes at Galeras were located in various areas as far as 13 km from the crater, at depths no greater than 14 km and with maximum magnitudes of 2. Moderate levels of sulfur dioxide were detected; plumes drifted NW. Cameras recorded ash emissions all week, especially on 9, 11, 12, and 14 April, when pulsating activity produced plumes that drifted W. Plumes rose no more than 1 km above the crater. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

INGEOMINAS reported that during 13-14 April seismicity associated with fluid movement beneath Nevado del Ruiz was detected along with volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The earthquakes were located NW of Arenas Crater at depths between 5 and 9 km; the largest was a M 2.6, felt by officials of Los Nevados National Park in the area of Brisas (50 km SW). During the early morning of 14 April webcams recorded a gas-and-ash plume that rose 630 m and drifted NW. On 15 April a M 3 volcano-tectonic earthquake was located NW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 6.6 km. Later that day a M 2.5 volcano-tectonic earthquake was located again NW of Arenas Crater at a depth of 5.78 km. On 16 April at 0714 a M 3.2 earthquake was located in the same area at a depth of 6.22 km. Earthquakes continued to be felt by officials in the National Park. A gas-and-steam plume rose 1 km above the crater and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions were significant and deformation was detected. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity").

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that occasional very small eruptions from Sakura-jima's Showa Crater occurred during 8-12 April. Crater incandescence was detected at night. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 13 April an eruption produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 10-11 April ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km SW and W. On 15 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 30 km S and W. The next day ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 13-16 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-45 km NW, N, NE, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that a weak thermal anomaly over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, was detected in satellite images during 12-13 April; cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano on other days during 8-15 April.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the tenth eruptive episode of 2013 began at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 8 April with sporadic ash emissions occasionally accompanied by incandescent material. A large explosion at 2252 was heard up to 15 km away. The ash emissions continued for about 48 hours. In the late afternoon on 10 April Strombolian activity began, producing minor ash emissions during some of the explosions. In the morning on 11 April Strombolian explosions occurred about every 2-5 seconds, ejecting incandescent pyroclastics several tens of meters above the crater rim. Strombolian activity increased slowly in intensity and frequency of explosions throughout the day; contemporaneously the volcanic tremor amplitude continued to show a gradual rise. Late in the afternoon frequent and very powerful Strombolian explosions occurred every 1-2 seconds and were widely audible around the volcano. Jets of incandescent pyroclastics often rose 200 m above the crater rim and generally contained minor amounts of ash. Around 1840, a small amount of lava flowed over the deep breach in the SE rim of the crater. In the late evening it stopped and showed evidence of cooling.

Around 0110 on 12 April another small lava flow traveled S then SE from the saddle between the two cones of the Southeast Crater (SEC). Throughout the night powerful explosions alternated with intermittent, low lava fountains. At daybreak on 12 April a dense eruption plume containing relatively minor amounts of pyroclastic material drifted ESE. Until about 1025 on 12 April, all eruptive activity occurred exclusively at one or two closely spaced vents within the NSEC, then lava was emitted from two vents at the NE base of the NSEC cone. At 1024 a flow of hot pyroclastic material from the same area traveled about 2 km NE in less than 1 minute.

In the meantime, eruptive activity continued at the NSEC with frequent, powerful Strombolian explosions and emission of modest quantities of volcanic ash, which was rapidly dispersed. Lava emission from the SSE rim of the NSEC, the saddle, and the NE base of the cone remained active. Shortly before 1200, the eruptive activity changed from low lava fountains to Strombolian explosions and intermittent ash emissions. Vigorous ash emissions resumed at 1214 both from the main vent of the NSEC and from the saddle vent. Expulsion of blocks, bombs and ash from the saddle vent continued until 1234, when the main vent of the NSEC reactivated, and for the next nearly 20 minutes both vents were the source intense ash emissions.

The activity shifted back entirely to NSEC, entering into the true paroxysmal phase of this episode at 1250 with sustained lava fountaining, accompanied by a return to high levels of the volcanic tremor amplitude. During the following 10 minutes, there was a considerable increase in the quantity of pyroclastic material in the plume, which drifted ESE. Tephra fall (ash and small lapilli) affected Fleri, Zafferana Etnea, Milo and S. Maria la Scala, although the quantity of fallout was much smaller compared to those of the previous paroxysms. Sustained lava fountaining continued for about one hour; a few minutes after 1400 the activity switched to sporadic Strombolian explosions and ash emissions, which gradually diminished in vigor. During 1400 and 1410, repeated collapses occurred on the SE flank of the NSEC cone, possibly from new vents at the base of the cone, from which a new lava flow traveled toward the Valle del Bove. The collapses generated avalanches and clouds ash. Explosive activity progressively diminished and completely ceased around 1700.

On the evening of 12 April, the lava flows emitted from the saddle and from the various vents on the flanks of the cone were incandescent and slowly moving; during the night, the surveillance cameras showed the cessation of all lava emission and the cooling of the flows. However, on the morning of 13 April, slow lava effusion resumed from the lower of the vents and a small flow advanced a few hundred meters. This flow ceased in the early morning hours the following day. Once more, on the evening of 14 April, there was a rather weak resumption of effusive activity from this vent, which ceased after a few hours.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 10-16 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from four spatter cones on the crater floor. Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, traveled across the NE flank of Pu'u 'O'o cone to the cone's base and advanced more than 4.9 km NE over older flows. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two main locations spanning the National Park boundary.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kizimen  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.131°N, 160.32°E  | Elevation 2334 m

KVERT reported that during 5-12 April moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Lokon-Empung  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.358°N, 124.792°E  | Elevation 1580 m

Based on both web-camera views and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 11 April an ash plume from Lokon-Empung rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SW. Ash was not detected in satellite imagery.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that during 1-14 April Strombolian activity was observed from Manam Southern Crater. During 1-7 April ash plumes rose above the crater. Island residents reported incandescent tepha ejections from the crater at night, and roaring and rumbling noises. Activity increased on 8 April. Strombolian activity was sustained for extended periods during 9-11 and 13-14 April. Loud roaring and rumbling noises were reported by residents in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. A few loud banging noises on 13 April rattled bush-material houses at Dugulava village on the SW side of the island. Most fragments from the Strombolian eruptions, including a small volume of lava, were channeled into SW valley. Ash plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit crater and drifted NW. White vapor plumes rose from Main Crater during the reporting period.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Paluweh  | Indonesia  | 8.32°S, 121.708°E  | Elevation 875 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 16 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 37 km E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 10-16 April seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained ash. Incandescence from the crater was observed at night and sometimes increased in conjunction with emissions. On 10 April gas-and-steam plumes rose 800 m above the crater and drifted ESE, and ash plumes rose 900 m and also drifted ESE. During 11-13 April gas-and-ash plumes rose 500 m and drifted NE. An explosion on 13 April produced a steam-and-ash plume that rose 400 m and drifted NE. Ashfall was reported in the towns of San Nicolas de los Ranchos (15 km ENE) and Huejotzingo (27 km NE), and in the northern part of Puebla (40 km E). On 14 April a period of tremor was accompanied by continuous emissions of dense steam-and-gas plumes with small amounts of ash that rose as high as 1 km and drifted NE. The next day ash plumes rose 1.5 km above the crater, and incandescent tephra ejected from the crater landed 400 m away on the NE flank. On 16 April gas-and-steam plumes rose 1 km and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Rabaul  | New Britain (Papua New Guinea)  | 4.271°S, 152.203°E  | Elevation 688 m

RVO reported that roaring and rumbling noises from Rabaul were heard during 1-14 April, especially at night. White vapor plumes with ash rose at most 100 m above the main crater and drifted NW, causing ashfall in Rabaul town (3-5 km NW).

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

According to the Washington VAAC, on 12 April an ash plume from Reventador was observed in visible satellite images along with a corresponding thermal anomaly in short wave infrared images.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sangay  | Ecuador  | 2.005°S, 78.341°W  | Elevation 5286 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 April an ash plume from Sangay drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 5-12 April a viscous lava flow effused on the E flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Tolbachik  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.832°N, 160.326°E  | Elevation 3611 m

KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 5-12 April that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.5 km (11,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A very large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. A weak thermal anomaly was detected over the crater of the volcano on 6 and 9 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)