Activity for the week of 17 April-23 April 2013
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
||Komba Island (Indonesia)
||Hawaiian Islands (USA)
||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
||Papua New Guinea
||New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
||Central Kamchatka (Russia)
||Central Kamchatka (Russia)
New Activity / Unrest
| Sulawesi (Indonesia)
| 1.112°N, 124.737°E
| Elevation 1785 m
CVGHM reported that seismicity at Soputan increased during January-18 April and then significantly increased on 19 April. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April. Visitors and residents were prohibited from going within a 6.5-km radius of the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
| Kyushu (Japan)
| 31.593°N, 130.657°E
| Elevation 1117 m
Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 17 April an eruption from Sakura-jima produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. JMA reported that three large eruptions from Showa Crater occurred during 19-22 April and ejected tephra at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was detected at night.
Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Komba Island (Indonesia)
| 7.791°S, 123.585°E
| Elevation 633 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 17 and 20-21 April ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-55 km N, NW, and W. On 23 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 18-27 km NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| Sicily (Italy)
| 37.748°N, 14.999°E
| Elevation 3295 m
Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo reported that the eleventh lava-fountaining episode of 2013 began at Etna's New Southeast Crater (NSEC) on 18 April. Activity increased on 16 April with ejected incandescent tephra and small ash puffs from a vent inside NSEC, followed by weak Strombolian explosions. Strombolian explosions became more frequent and intense on the morning of 18 April and then were almost continuous by 1300. During the next two hours lava fountains developed and a dense plume drifted SSW. Ash and lapilli fell in between the villages of Ragalna, Belper, and Paterno, as well as the tourist area "Etna Sud." Lapilli-fall was a few centimeters deep and clasts were at most 5 cm in diameter. Three lava flows were produced; the largest flowed through the deep notch in the SE rim of the crater and traveled 4 km towards the Valle del Bove. The interaction of the lava with snow led to rapid melting, generating small lahars. The two other lava flows originated in the saddle between the two SEC cones; one traveled N and the other S. After the lava fountains ceased, strong explosions were heard the rest of the day. On 19 April explosions produced little puffs of ash and ejected hot tephra.
The twelfth episode occurred two days later during the late afternoon of 20 April. Intermittent explosions ejected incandescent tephra and generated small ash puffs on 19 April. During the evening a large dark plume rose from NSEC, and sporadic Strombolian explosions were observed. The explosive activity ceased in the late evening, but shortly afterwards the lower of the two effusive vents at the base of the NSEC cone produced a lava flow that traveled 1.5 km towards the Valle del Bove. Around 1700 ash puffs rose from the crater, followed by incandescent tephra ejected at 1713. Within a few minutes sustained lava fountains were observed, along with a tall eruption plume that drifted E. Ash and lapilli fell over a wide area to the E, including along the Ionian coastline, just S of Guardia Mangano, up to Fiumefreddo, including the towns of Taormina, Ripon, and Mascali, and further upstream, including Santa Venerina, Zafferana, Milo, and Sant'Alfio.
On 20 April several lava flows on the W wall of the Valle del Bove interacted with the snow, generating explosions and lahars. Around 1815 lava-fountain activity decreased and turned into explosions and ash emissions. At 1840 the paroxysm was over. In the evening, the lava flow emitted from the effusive vent at the base of the SE part of the NSEC cone was still well-fed. Poor weather conditions prevented visual observations until the evening of 21 April, when surveillance videos showed sporadic Strombolian explosions accompanied by small ash puffs at the NSEC, and the emission of a small lava flow from the base of the cone.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
| Hawaiian Islands (USA)
| 19.421°N, 155.287°W
| Elevation 1222 m
During 17-23 April HVO reported that the circulating lava lake periodically rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas.
At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the crater floor. Just before midnight on 19 April a vigorous lava flow gushed out of the N spatter cone and quickly covered the N portion of the crater floor, then went over the E rim. The lava pond on the NE crater's edge briefly overflowed. On 21 April the two spatter cones on the S portion of the crater floor produced lava flows.
Two lava flows (Peace Day and Kahauale'a) were fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o. Multiple lava flows from the NE spatter cone, collectively called the Kahauale'a flow, stopped advancing on 20 April, although a few breakout lava flows were observed during 20-22 April. Peace Day activity consisted of lava flows active above the pali (5 km SE of Pu'u 'O'o), on the pali, and on the coastal plain. Lava also entered the ocean at two or three locations spanning the National Park boundary.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
| Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.131°N, 160.32°E
| Elevation 2334 m
KVERT reported that during 12-19 April moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. Satellite images detected a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
| Papua New Guinea
| 4.08°S, 145.037°E
| Elevation 1807 m
RVO reported that a high level of activity at Manam continued on 15 April. Ash plumes rose 500 m above the crater. A loud explosion was heard at 0804. At about 1950 dense ash plumes rose 2 km and drifted SW. At night loud jet-like noises were reported by residents in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. Bright red glow was visible within the dense mixture of ash plumes and atmospheric clouds. Lava was observed flowing from a new vent on the headwall of SW valley during a brief clear period from 1800 to 1850. Ash and scoria fell in most villages between Dugulava on the SW side of the island and Kuluguma on the NW side. Similar activity continued during the first half of 16 April and then changed to gentle light gray ash emissions until 20 April. On 23 April dense white vapor plumes occasionally rose from the crater.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| 8.32°S, 121.708°E
| Elevation 875 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 20 April an ash plume from Paluweh rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NW.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
| New Britain (Papua New Guinea)
| 4.271°S, 152.203°E
| Elevation 688 m
RVO reported that during 15-23 April white vapor plumes containing some ash rose at most 100 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted SE. Roaring and rumbling noises were less intense than during previous weeks. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 18 April an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted more than 35 km E. Satellite images later that day showed that the plume had dispersed.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 56.653°N, 161.36°E
| Elevation 3283 m
Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 12-19 April a viscous lava flow effused on the NW flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 22 April ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. Subsequent images that day showed that the ash had dissipated. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
| Central Kamchatka (Russia)
| 55.832°N, 160.326°E
| Elevation 3611 m
KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 12-19 April that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure. Gas-and-ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. A large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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