Activity for the week of 28 May-3 June 2014
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 May-3 June 2014.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 May-3 June 2014.
Activity for the week of 28 May-3 June 2014
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|San Miguel||El Salvador||New|
|Karymsky||Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Merapi||Central Java (Indonesia)||Ongoing|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||Ongoing|
|Shishaldin||Fox Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
Pavlof | United States | 55.417°N, 161.894°W | Elevation 2493 m
AVO reported that on 31 May elevated surface temperatures were detected over Pavlof in satellite images, suggesting a low-level eruption with lava. Observers camping near the volcano confirmed lava and noted that flows were originating from a vent on the NE flank. A low-level steam plume was visible in satellite images and recorded by the FAA web-cam located in Cold Bay. Several pilots observed a gas-and-ash plume drifting N at altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch. Small explosion signals were detected by a distant infrasound sensor. Later that night weak incandescence from the summit was observed in the webcam. On 1 June clouds obscured web-cam views and ash plumes were not detected in satellite images. The seismic network detected weak activity.
Activity escalated on 2 June, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning. Seismic tremor increased at 1500 and pilots observed ash plumes at altitudes of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed a plume drifting more than 80 km E. Seismicity started to decrease at 2300. The web cam recorded intense lava fountaining at the summit and incandescence from a spatter-fed lava flow on the N flank. On 3 June seismicity again increased and pilots observed ash-and-steam plumes at altitudes of 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted SSW. Later that day AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level to Watch due to a decrease and stabilization of volcanic tremor. Satellite and webcam images showed two distinct parts of the plume: gas and steam with minor amounts of ash rose high above the volcano and drifted S, while pyroclastic flows on the N flank produced diffuse ash that caused hazy air and variable concentrations of ash below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Winds were likely to push ash at lower altitudes WSW.
San Miguel | El Salvador | 13.434°N, 88.269°W | Elevation 2130 m
According to SNET in a report from 1 June, the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (MARN) reported that seismicity at San Miguel remained high. Locals observed more intense gas plumes rising from the crater with occasional minor amounts of ash, especially after rainfall. Rumbling was also reported.
Sangeang Api | Indonesia | 8.2°S, 119.07°E | Elevation 1949 m
PVMBG reported that during January-29 May diffuse white plumes rose at most 25 m above Sangeang Api's crater. On 30 May seismicity increased, with tremor starting at 0500 and becoming continuous at 1348. An eruption at 1555 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and drifted W, causing ashfall over the sea. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The island has no permanent settlements, and is only occupied during the growing and harvest seasons; civil authorities evacuated 135 people to the mainland. Based on satellite images, pilot observations, and the Indonesian Meteorological Office, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 15.2 km (50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 440 km E and 750 km SE.
BNPB reported that on 31 May two larger explosions occurred at 1330 and 2242. According to the VAAC, ash plumes from those explosions rose to altitudes of 13.7-15.2 km (45,000-50,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 280 km NW and other various directions. Later in the day the ash plumes became detached. Ashfall affected many areas in the Bima Regency on the mainland, including Wera, and prompted the evacuation of 7,328 people from four villages within a radius of 8 km from Sangeang Api. The Bima and Tambolaka airports were temporarily closed. According to a news article, all flights to and from the Darwin International Airport in Australia on 31 May were canceled.
The VAAC noted that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. on 1 June and drifted W and SW. During 2-3 June ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-4.3 km (10,000-14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km W.
Santa Maria | Guatemala | 14.757°N, 91.552°W | Elevation 3745 m
INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 May a hot lahar descended the Nimá I river drainage on the S flank of Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex, carrying blocks up to 50 cm in diameter as well as tree trunks and branches. The lahar was 25 m wide and 3 m deep and had a strong sulfur odor. Explosions during 31 May-1 June generated ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted W and SW. Lahars on 1 and 3 June descended and caused flooding in the Nimá I, San Isidro (S), and Samala (E and S) rivers. On 2 June explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500 m, drifted W, and caused ashfall in Monte Bello and Loma Linda. Hot lahars with a sulfur odor again descended Nimá I. On 3 June a lava flow slowly descended the E flank of the dome.
Aira | Kyushu (Japan) | 31.593°N, 130.657°E | Elevation 1117 m
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. On 3 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km NW.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 31 May-1 June explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 350-550 m above the crater and drifted 8 km WNW. During the afternoon and evening of 1 June lahars descended the Las Lajas (SE) and Honda (E) drainages, as well as the Seca (W) drainage which disrupted traffic. Other sections of roadway to the W and S were also affected. Heavy rain continued on 2 June; lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute (SE) drainages, carrying blocks as large as 1.5 m in diameter. Explosions during 2-3 June generated ash plumes that rose 550-650 m and drifted 8 km S and SW. Incandescence rose above the crater and avalanches descended the Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), and Ceniza (SSW) drainages.
Karymsky | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) | 54.049°N, 159.443°E | Elevation 1513 m
KVERT reported that Strombolian and weak Vulcanian activity continued at Karymsky during 23-30 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 25 and 27 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 28 May-3 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.
At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, NE, SE, and S portions of the crater floor. During 30 May-1 June the small lava lake in the NE spatter cone briefly overflowed its rim each morning. On 22 May geologists mapped the farthest point of activity from the Kahauale’a 2 lava flow, 8.4 km NE of Pu’u 'O'o; on 30 May they mapped three small breakouts 1.8-6.2 km from Pu’u 'O'o.
Merapi | Central Java (Indonesia) | 7.54°S, 110.446°E | Elevation 2910 m
PVMBG reported that during 16-22 May seismicity at Merapi fluctuated at normal levels and deformation measurements showed no significant changes. Solfatara plumes rose 300 m and drifted W on 27 May. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 May.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 23-30 May lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by ash explosions, incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. An explosion on 26 May generated an ash plume that rose as high as 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 800 km SSE. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 23-25 and 27-28 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Shishaldin | Fox Islands (USA) | 54.756°N, 163.97°W | Elevation 2857 m
AVO reported that, although cloud cover frequently obscured views of Shishaldin during 28 May-3 June, elevated surface temperatures at the summit were detected in satellite images, and minor steam emissions were observed in webcam images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Ubinas | Peru | 16.355°S, 70.903°W | Elevation 5672 m
Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during 28-29 May ash emissions at Ubinas continued; gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.6-2.5 km above the crater and drifted ESE. Ashfall was reported in various towns downwind of the plumes, including Querapi (4 km S), Ubinas (6.5 km SSE), Escacha, Chojata, San Miguel, and Tonohaya. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that seismicity fluctuated during 2-3 June. Satellite and webcam images as well as pilot observations indicated continuous emission of gas and ash that rose to altitudes of 6.7-10.7 km (22,000-35,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Agung||Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotobi||Salak|
|Aira||Fuego||Little Sitkin||San Miguel|
|Apoyeque||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Asamayama||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Bagana||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Banda Api||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere Hills|
|Bardarbunga||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufrière St. Vincent|
|Barren Island||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Brava||Inielika||Negro, Cerro||Sulu Range|
|Bristol Island||Ioto||Nightingale Island||Sumbing|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kambalny||Nyamuragira||Tair, Jebel at|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Katla||Palena Volcanic Group||Tara, Batu|
|Copahue||Kick 'em Jenny||Pinatubo||Tokachidake|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Kolokol Group||Ranakah||Ubinas|
|Epi||Kusatsu-Shiranesan||Rincon de la Vieja||West Mata|
|Erta Ale||Lamington||Ritter Island||Witori|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Langila||Ruang||Yasur|
|Fernandina||Lascar||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zhupanovsky|
|Fogo||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Sabancaya||Zubair Group|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)