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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 6 August-12 August 2014.


















 Activity for the week of 6 August-12 August 2014

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ambang Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) New
Dieng Volcanic Complex Central Java (Indonesia) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) New
Ijen Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Kelut Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Sabancaya Peru New
Slamet Central Java (Indonesia) New
Soputan Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Stromboli Aeolian Islands (Italy) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Kusatsu-Shiranesan Honshu (Japan) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
San Miguel El Salvador Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Ubinas Peru Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ambang  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 0.75°N, 124.42°E  | Elevation 1795 m

PVMBG noted that due to decreased volcanic seismicity and activity the Alert Level for Ambang was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

During 6-12 August, DMPGM reported increasing volcanic activity at Bagana volcano. Thin to thick white vapor plumes from Bagana were accompanied on 6, 8 August by reports of rockfalls. On 10 August an ash plume rose to an estimated several hundred meters above the crater drifting SW and W. Moderate ash was reported in Wakovi (6 km W) and decreased downwind. Residents were advised to evacuate to Gotana (9 km SW) if ashfall continued. On 11 August the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rose to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 55 km SW. On 12 August Darwin VAAC raised the Aviation Color Code to Red as ash plumes rose to 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted up to 167 km SW.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM)



Volcano index photo  Dieng Volcanic Complex  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.2°S, 109.879°E  | Elevation 2565 m

PVMBG noted that due to decreased activity and no observable flow of gas in high concentrations from the crater the Alert Level for Dieng was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not enter the crater and to be vigilant if excavating to depths greater than 1 m around the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

On 9 August INGV reported that volcanic tremor decreased and an ash plume rose to 1 km above the July 25 area of Etna and returned to strong Strombolian activity in the evening. Strombolian activity increased at New Southeast Crater that was accompanied by small emissions of black ash that remained within the crater. The Etna Volcanic Observatory raised the Aviation Color Code to Red on 9 August as an ash plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. returning to Orange on 10 August. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red on 11 August with strong Strombolian activity at Etna accompanied by significant ash.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Ijen  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 8.058°S, 114.242°E  | Elevation 2769 m

PVMBG noted that due to decreased volcanic seismicity the Alert Level for Ijen was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 11 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim or crater floor.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Kelut  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.93°S, 112.308°E  | Elevation 1731 m

PVMBG noted that due to visual and instrumental monitoring results as well as level of potential hazards the Alert Level for Kelut was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 August. Residents and visitors were advised to not approach the crater rim, crater floor, or the rivers that disgorge from Kelut.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

IGP reported that on 6 August there was increasing seismic and fumarolic activity at Sabancaya over the past four days. Fumarolic emissions increased, were white to blueish white and gray and rose to 3 km above the crater. On 9 August IGP reported an explosion that lasted 50 seconds at Sabancaya accompanied by increasing seismic activity including a strong increase in hybrid earthquakes. Intermittent views in cloudy conditions showed strong fumarolic emissions continued.

Source: Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Slamet  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.242°S, 109.208°E  | Elevation 3428 m

PVMBG reported that during 1-12 August 100 thick gray ash plumes rose 300-800 m above the summit drifting N, E, and W, seismicity increased, and ejected material was deposited on the flanks 1.5 km from the crater on the W and SW at Slamet. Incandescence and rumbling/roaring noises were reported. The Alert Level was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 12 August. Residents and tourists were warned not approach the crater within a radius of 4 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Soputan  | Sulawesi (Indonesia)  | 1.112°N, 124.737°E  | Elevation 1785 m

PVMBG noted that the Alert Level for Soputan was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) on 8 August and recommended people not approach within 1.5 km of the summit or within 4 km of the summit on the W.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Stromboli  | Aeolian Islands (Italy)  | 38.789°N, 15.213°E  | Elevation 924 m

INGV reported that during 6-10 August, a new lava overflow occurred from the crater terrace of Stromboli in the central part of the Sciara del Fuoco. This new lava flow began on 6 August accompanied by large landslides of hot material that reached tens of meters onto the ocean surface. On 7-9 August, a second lava overflow occurred from the north of the crater terrace that covered a plateau at 600 m elevation and six arms of the flow reached the sea. Explosions from lava/sea interactions produced jets of steam, ash and blocks the rose tens of meters into the air that continued 10 August.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported an explosion from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano on 6 August that ejected ballistics 300-500 m from Showa crater and a plume that rose 500 m above the crater. On 10 August three explosions ejected ballistics 500-800 m from Showa crater accompanied by volcanic earthquakes and volcanic tremor. On 6-11 August, incandescence was clearly visible at night by high-sensitivity camera. The Tokyo VAAC reported that plumes from explosions on 6, 8-10 August rose to an altitude of 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW, N, E, SE, and S. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 August a low level plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 93 km NE and that on 8 August a plume from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 83 km NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

During 6-12 August, INSIVUMEH reported weak to moderate explosions at Fuego with incandescent blocks being expelled 500-800 m above the crater accompanied by ash that rose 300-400 m above the crater and drifted W and produced rumbling from shock waves that rattled structures up to 8 km from the volcano. On most days, incandescent blocks were expelled 100-200 m above the crater and weak to moderate avalanches of blocks were channeled into the canyons Las Lajas (SE), Trinidad (S), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW) and Barranca Honda. Dark gray to white plumes rose 4.0-4.6 km (13,100-15,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 8-15 km W and SW. Ashfall was reported in villages of Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Panimaché II, Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), Yepocapa (8 km WNW), Hagia Sophia, and around the Observatory. On 6-8 August Washington VAAC reported ongoing emissions and on 7 August an ash plume rose to 4.5 km (15000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 6-12 August HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. On 6 August a small collapse of the north rim and wall of Halema'uma'u Crater temporarily increased spatter on the lava lake surface.

On 6-12 August HVO reported one small lava pond on the S and glow along the S, SE, and NE edges of the crater floor of Pu?u ?O?o . On August 6 June 27th flow front had encroached on forest 7 Km ENE of Pu?u ?O?o . Monitoring of the volcanoes was disrupted by Hurricane Iselle on 7 August and HVO is working to fully recover from the impacts of the storm. In the interim, staff from the Alaska Volcano Observatory and from USGS Headquarters in Reston, VA have increased satellite monitoring for volcanoes in Hawai’i.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

JMA reported on 6, 12 August a white plume rose 800m and 300 m respectively above the crater rim at Kuchinoerabujima. Views of the volcano remained obscured by clouds other days, but instruments recorded volcanic seismicity and volcanic tremor. The Alert Level for Kuchinoerabujima remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Kusatsu-Shiranesan  | Honshu (Japan)  | 36.618°N, 138.528°E  | Elevation 2165 m

On 6-8 August, JMA reported volcanic earthquakes continue at Kusatsu-Shiranesan’s crater, although decreased from early August and tremor was absent. The Alert Level remains at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-12 August white fumarolic plumes rose 50-75 m above Mackenney Crater at Pacaya and drifted 400-500 m NW, W, SW, and S.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 6-12 August cloudy conditions with intermittent views showed steam-and-gas emissions with minor ash rose above Popocatépetl’s crater. On 7 August there was an explosion and ash was reported in the area of Paso de Cortés. On 9 August there were 5 explosions and ash columns that rose 1 km above the crater. Slight nighttime incandescence was observed. The Alert Level remained at to Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported moderate volcanic activity including explosions, long period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and tremor at Reventador during 6-12 August. On 6 August a dark gray plume rose 300 m above the summit and drifted NW. On 7, 8 and 10 August steam and steam-and-minor ash rose 300 to 800 m above the summit and drifted SW and NW. On 9 August views of the volcano were obscured by clouds and no report was available 11 August.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  San Miguel  | El Salvador  | 13.434°N, 88.269°W  | Elevation 2130 m

SNET reported low seismic activity and reduced emissions at San Miguel during 6-12 August. A remote camera and infrared visual display showed mild white fumerolic emissions rose less than 200 m above the crater. Heavy rain has contributed to a debris flow recorded by a station 1.7 km from the north flank on 9 August. On 11 August instruments recorded additional mud flows. SNET reported property damage and two people were affected by these flows.

Source: Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (SNET)



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

On 6-12 August, INSIVUMEH reported fumarolic columns rose to 2.7-2.8 km (8,800-9,200 ft) a.s.l. above Santiaguito to the S, SW and W. On most days, the lava flow (2.3 km in length) moved towards and into Nima Canyon I. Collapse avalanches from the flow front generated columns of fine ash that rose 100-200 m above the flow front drifting E. On 9 August ash was reported on the southeast of Finca San José On the evening of 11-12 August INSIVUMEH reported incandescence at the crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 1-7 August lava-dome extrusion onto Shiveluch’s SE flank was accompanied by moderate ash explosions, incandescence of the dome summit, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Satellite data showed a thermal anomaly over the lava dome on 7 August and the volcano was obscured by clouds in the other days of week. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that during 6-12 August low-level eruptive activity continued at Shishaldin volcano. Web camera and satellite images showed the volcano was mostly cloudy over the past week, but intermittent web camera views showed a steam plume above the summit. On 9-10 August sound waves were detected from the direction of Shishaldin on infrasound sensors in Dillingham, consistent with the low-level activity. On 10 August an area of hot, glowing material was observed in the crater during an overflight of the Shishaldin summit. On 11 August elevated surface temperatures were observed in the summit crater. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 6-12 August IG reported that moderate to high eruptive activity continued at Tungurahua. On 6, 8-9, and 11 August clouds obscured most views of the volcano, but frequent explosion sounds were heard that, on 9 August, shook structures in areas near and around the volcano. On 7 and 10 August Strombolian activity expelled incandescent blocks 500 m below the summit; on 7 August the blocks traveled primarily down the W flank. On 7-9 and 11 August ash and steam-and-ash plumes rose 1-1.5 km (3,300-4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and WNW. On 7 August ash was reported in the town of Quero and 8 August in El Manzano, Pillate, Cahuají and Tisaleo. On 8 August morning rains produced lahars that flowed down the ravines Achupashal, Pingullo and Chontapamba, that interrupted traffic on the Baños-Penipe road. On 9 August night rains caused lahars that flowed down streams Juive and La Pampa. Washington VAAC reported ongoing ash emissions on 6-12 August that, on 7 August, rose 6-6.4 km (20000-21000 ft) a.s.l.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

During 6-9 August INGEMMET reported that the eruption of Ubinas was continuing. On 6-7 August gas-and-minor ash emissions rose 300-1200 m above the crater and drifted NE and S. On 6 August ash was reported in the village of Para (NE). On 8-9 August, white emissions of primarily water vapor rose 100-300 m above the crater and drifted S and SE. On 6 August Buenos Aires VAAC reported intermittent light volcanic ash and emission puffs to 6.7 km (22,000 ft)a.s.l. and continuous emissions of gases and light ash on 7 August.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that during 1-7 August that the moderate explosive eruption continues at Zhupanovsky. On 6 August, KVERT reported an ash plume drifting 260 km ENE of the volcano. Most days satellite data showed the volcano was obscured by clouds.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Concepcion Kick 'em Jenny Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dempo Kolokol Group Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Korovin Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Koryaksky Raikoke Unknown Source
Dukono Krakatau Ranakah Unnamed
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Ebulobo Kuchinoerabujima Rasshua Veniaminof
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 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
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- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
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Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)