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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 26 November-2 December 2014.


















 Activity for the week of 26 November-2 December 2014

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Asosan Kyushu (Japan) New
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) New
Fogo Cape Verde New
Heard Kerguelen Plateau New
Moyorodake [Medvezhia] Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia) New
Sinarka Shiashkotan Island (Russia) New
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bardarbunga Iceland Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Kuchinoerabujima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Asosan  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 32.884°N, 131.104°E  | Elevation 1592 m

JMA reported that on 25 November an eruption from Asosan’s Nakadake Crater occurred after increased tremor detected a few hours earlier. Ash plumes rose from the crater and produced ashfall to the E in Hanoi Aso (Kumamoto Region), Taketa (30 km NE, Oita Region), Gokase (25 km WSW, Miyazaki Region), and in Minamiaso (10 km SW, Kumamoto Region). Incandescence from the crater was recorded at night with webcams. On 26 November tephra was ejected 100 m above the crater rim and an ash plume rose 1 km. Tremor continued to be elevated. The eruption remained strong on 27 November, and ash plumes rose 1.5 km. During a field survey in an area S of Nakadake Crater volcanologists observed Strombolian activity in the crater, 7 cm of ash deposition, and fist-sized scoria. Ashfall was reported in a wide area to the W, mainly in Kumamoto (38 km WSW). According to a news article, flights in and out of Kumamoto airport were either cancelled or diverted. On 28 November ash plumes rose 1.5 km. The eruption continued through 30 November; ash plumes rose at most 1.5 km and incandescent material was ejected onto the crater rim. Inclement weather mostly prevented views of the crater during 1-2 December, but the small-scale eruption likely continued. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-5).

Sources: Agence France-Presse (AFP), Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that since 21 November a thermal anomaly and increased gas-and-steam emissions at Chirinkotan were detected in satellite images. A thermal anomaly was detected on 25 November, and a diffuse steam-and-gas plume drifted 40 km SE on 27 November. Steam-and-gas emissions were again observed on 28 and 30 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fogo  | Cape Verde  | 14.95°N, 24.35°W  | Elevation 2829 m

According to news articles the eruption from Fogo's Pico cone inside the Cha Caldera continued during 26 November-2 December. In the morning of 30 November the eruption intensified; lava traveled at a rate of 20 m/hour and caused the closure of the only alternative route between the national park and Portela, the main town in the caldera. Authorities warned all residents in the caldera to evacuate. Lava destroyed almost 25 homes, a large area of agricultural land, the Parque Natural do Fogo museum, and other infrastructure. By 2 December there were two lava fronts. After about 24 hours of minimal advancement, the rate of advancement increased; lava overtook several more houses, a school, and a hotel.

Sources: Fogo News, Observador



Volcano index photo  Heard  | Kerguelen Plateau  | 53.106°S, 73.513°E  | Elevation 2745 m

According to a NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) scientist, thermal anomalies seemingly on the E flank of Heard were detected in Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite images during 2-30 November. Dense cloud cover prevented views of the volcano during 1-2 December. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images had detected thermal anomalies from September 2014 to 21 July 2014, and again on 16 November 2014, due to a persisting lava lake and possible lava flows.

Sources: NASA MODIS Rapid Response System, Michael J. Pavolonis (NOAA/NESDIS), personal communication



Volcano index photo  Moyorodake [Medvezhia]  | Iturup (Etorofu) Island (Japan/Russia)  | 45.389°N, 148.838°E  | Elevation 1124 m

On 27 November SVERT reported that during the previous 10 days a thermal anomaly and strengthening steam-and-gas activity were detected over Kudriavy, a stratovolcano of the Medvezhia volcanic complex. The size and intensity of the thermal anomaly increased considerably on 27 November. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow. Diffuse steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 29 November.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinarka  | Shiashkotan Island (Russia)  | 48.873°N, 154.182°E  | Elevation 911 m

SVERT reported that on 27 November satellite images of Sinarka showed steam-and-gas emissions drifting 50 km SE. Cloud cover obscured views on the other days during 24 November-1 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that strong explosions at Zhupanovsky were detected at 0206 on 23 November and 1214 on 25 November. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 350 km E on 22 November and SE during 25-27 November. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 22, 25, and 27 November; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that periodic, small-scale explosions from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima were detected during 25-28 November. Weak incandescence from the crater was visible during 25-26 November. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5). The Tokyo VAAC reported that during 27-30 November plumes rose to altitudes of 1.5-4.9 km (5,000-16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, and SE. An eruption on 2 December generated a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bardarbunga  | Iceland  | 64.633°N, 17.516°W  | Elevation 2000 m

During 26 November-2 December, IMO maintained Aviation Colour Code Orange due to continued activity at Bárdarbunga’s Holuhraun eruptive fissure. Based on a field report from 25 or 26 November the activity was characterized as pulsating; lava surged from the vent for 2-3 minutes, every 5-10 minutes, causing bulges in the upper parts of the lava channel. Measurements obtained during an overflight on 26 November indicated that the total amount of subsidence of the Bárdarbunga Caldera was about 50 m, with an estimated volume of 1.4 cubic kilometers. The rate of subsidence in the center of the caldera had decreased slowly compared to the first month of the eruption. Observers in Dyngjusandur, NE of the vent, photographed the plume at 1441 on 27 November and indicated that the top of the plume was 3.1 km above Dyngjusandur, and the base of the aerosol-laden lower part of the plume was about 1.4 km above the sand plain. A thermal image from 1 December showed several changes to the lava field: in just over 24 hours a new lava extrusion at the NE margin traveled 450 m; a new flow traveled N, just W of the lava lake; and a new flow was forming S of the lava lake, and then to the E of that flow. The lava field covered just over 75 square kilometers on 1 December.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, showed a thermal anomaly on 27 November. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 25 November-1 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite image analyses, the Washington VAAC reported that on 30 November an ash puff from Colima drifted NE. Later that day a puff of likely gas and ash drifted E at an altitude below 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

The Buenos Aires VAAC reported that on 26 November diffuse steam-and-gas emissions from Copahue, recorded by the ODVAS webcam and satellite images, possibly contained a small amount of ash. The plume rose to altitudes of 3.4-3.7 km (11,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km E. On 30 November a pilot observation and webcam views revealed a diffuse and continuous plume near the summit. During 1-2 December a diffuse plume was detected in satellite images while the webcam recorded continuous ash emissions.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 28-30 November explosions at Fuego produced ash plumes that rose at most 1.2 km above the crater and drifted as far as 25 km S, SW, and W. Shock waves from some of the explosions rattled structures near the volcano. Incandescent material was ejected 100-150 m above the crater duirng 29-30 November. Ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), and surrounding communities.

In a special bulletin issued on 1 December, INSIVUMEH reported that activity remained similar to the previous few days, characterized by periods of more frequent and intense explosions observed 6-8 times per hour. Dense gray ash plumes rose almost 1.3 km and drifted 20 km W and SW. Ash fell in Morelia, Santa Sofía, Panimaché, and Yepocapa. Some explosions were audible up to 30 km away. Shock waves vibrated structures on the S and SW flanks. Incandescent blocks descended multiple drainages. During 1-2 December explosions generated ash plumes that rose 850 m and drifted 15 km S and SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 26 November-2 December HVO reported that Kilauea’s 27 June NE-trending lava flow continued to be active. During an overflight on 1 December volcanologists observed a narrow lava flow that had originated from the W edge of the flow field and traveled 2.8 km N, burning vegetation along its path. They noted that weak surface activity was present in three areas upslope: the W side of the flow field that had produced the new lava flow, the E edge of the crack system, and at a breakout 3.5 km upslope of Pu'u 'O'o. They also measured a cross-sectional area of the lava stream within a tube near Pu'u 'O'o and found a 25% reduction in area compared to the previous week. The result was consistent with less lava flowing through the tube due to the summit deflation, which has been ongoing since 29 November.

The circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of tephra onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away. At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from several outgassing openings in the crater floor.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Kuchinoerabujima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 30.443°N, 130.217°E  | Elevation 657 m

JMA reported that no eruptions occurred from Kuchinoerabujima during 25-28 November although the level of activity remained elevated. White plumes rose 200 m above the crater. Low-level seismicity continued and tremor was absent. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 21-27 November lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot avalanches, and fumarolic activity. Strong explosions at 1021 on 23 November and 0328 on 26 November generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l and drifted 400 km NE and 200 km SE, respectively. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the dome during 22-23 and 26-27 November; cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that although seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated, levels declined during 26 November-2 December. Elevated crater temperatures were detected in satellite images during periods of clear weather from 26 to 28 November. A low-level lava eruption was likely still occurring within the summit crater of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on webcam views and weather models, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 2-3 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruapehu Zubair Group
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)