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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 6 May-12 May 2015.


















 Activity for the week of 6 May-12 May 2015

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) New
Calbuco Chile New
Hakoneyama Honshu (Japan) New
Karangetang Siau Island (Indonesia) New
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) New
Telica Nicaragua New

Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Batu Tara Komba Island (Indonesia) Ongoing
Chirinkotan Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Chirpoi Kuril Islands (Russia) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Etna Sicily (Italy) Ongoing
Grimsvotn Iceland Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Shishaldin Fox Islands (USA) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing
Zhupanovsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

PHIVOLCS reported that at 2146 on 6 May a phreatic explosion from a vent on the upper NW flank of Bulusan generated an ash plume that rose 250 m before drifting W. Seismic data indicated that the event lasted 3.5 minutes. Traces of ash were reported in Sitio Tulay of Bagsangan Barangay, and in the Cogon, Monbon, and Tinampo Barangays. The Alert Level was raised to 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ). During 8-9 and 11-12 May diffuse white emissions rose from vents on the SW and upper NW flanks.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Calbuco  | Chile  | 41.33°S, 72.618°W  | Elevation 1974 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that on 6 May activity at Calbuco fluctuated; a sudden increase of tremor that began at 1304 and lasted two hours was accompanied by increased gas-and-ash emissions. During 7-11 May the gas-and-ash emissions were steady and low (less than 1 km), and drifted E, SE, and S; inclement weather prevented observations during 8-10 and 12 May. Moderate levels of tremor were detected through 9 May, and then decreased to low levels through 12 May. According to ONEMI, the number of evacuees within the 20-km evacuation zone remained at 6,685 on 12 May. In addition 3,221 animals, including sheep, goats, cows, and horses, had been evacuated. The Alert Level remained at Red (the highest level on a four-color scale).

Satellite images showed that the aerosol plume from the initial few days of the eruption had traveled around the world once; faint layers of the plume were 14-16 km above parts of South America during 8-9 May.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Mike Fromm, US Naval Research Laboratory



Volcano index photo  Hakoneyama  | Honshu (Japan)  | 35.233°N, 139.021°E  | Elevation 1438 m

On 6 May JMA raised the Alert Level for Hakoneyama from 1 to 2 (on a 5-level scale). Seismicity had increased on 26 April, and on 5 May three events occurred that were Intensity I. Inclinometer data showed variations related to seismicity, and vigorous steaming from the hot springs was observed. Seismicity remained elevated at least through 10 May.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Karangetang  | Siau Island (Indonesia)  | 2.781°N, 125.407°E  | Elevation 1797 m

BNPB reported that activity at Karangetang had increased. On 7 May at 1400 an eruption that ejected incandescent material and produced a dense ash plume also generated a pyroclastic flow that traveled as far as 4 km E, leveling four houses in Kora-Kora. There were no reported fatalities, and 465 people quickly evacuated. The next day pyroclastic flows descended the S flank 2.5 km, in the Kahetang (E) and Awang drainages. Incandescent material continued to be ejected. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4); visitors and residents were warned not to approach Karangetang within a 4-km radius.

Based on satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 May an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. drifted almost 85 km E, and dissipated two days later. On 12 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SW. Pyroclastic flow activity was also reported.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 6-12 May HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Lava overflowed the rim multiple times almost daily, and since the first overflow on 28 April, had built up a rim that by 8 May was 10 m higher than the Halema'uma'u crater floor. Contemporaneously with deflation detected during 10-12 May, the lake receded, and by 12 May was barely visible from the Jaggar Museum.

At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, lava erupted from several vents multiple times onto the crater floor. An overflight on 8 May revealed an active lava pond in an isolated vent W of the main crater. The June 27th NE-trending lava flow continued to be active with three areas of breakouts within and along the flow-field margins, within 8 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o. Most of the surface flows were fed from the 21 February breakout and located less than 3 km from the NE rim of Pu'u 'O'o. Forest burned about 8 km NE of the crater.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Telica  | Nicaragua  | 12.606°N, 86.84°W  | Elevation 1036 m

Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 11 May multiple emissions of gas and ash from Telica rose to an altitude below 1.8 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The emissions dissipated within six hours.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported 105 explosions during 1-11 May from Showa Crater at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano tephra was ejected as far as 1,800 m. Incandescence from the crater was visible at night. Explosions occurred at 2309 on 4 May, and at 1049 and 1126 on 8 May. Sulfur dioxide gas emissions measured during fieldwork conducted on 8 May were 2,300 tons per day (400 tons per day was measured on 16 April). An explosion at 2021 on 10 May generated a large ash plume that rose 3.2 km.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Batu Tara  | Komba Island (Indonesia)  | 7.791°S, 123.585°E  | Elevation 633 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 6-9 May ash plumes from Batu Tara rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55-85 km W and WNW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Chirinkotan  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 48.98°N, 153.48°E  | Elevation 724 m

SVERT reported that on 10 May a thermal anomaly over Chirinkotan was detected in satellite images. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano on the other days during 4-11 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Chirpoi  | Kuril Islands (Russia)  | 46.532°N, 150.871°E  | Elevation 742 m

SVERT reported that satellite images over Snow, a volcano of Chirpoi, detected a thermal anomaly during 6-8 and 11 May. Cloud cover obscured views on other days during 4-11 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite images, wind data, webcam views, and the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 May ash plumes from Colima rose to an altitude of 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 80-200 km E. On 10 May ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE and ESE. Ash emissions were recorded by the webcam on 11 May.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-10 May ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-110 km E and NE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Etna  | Sicily (Italy)  | 37.748°N, 14.999°E  | Elevation 3295 m

INGV reported weak Strombolian activity inside Etna’s New Southeast Crater (NSEC) during 11-12 May, mainly from a depression on the E part of the crater and sometimes from a second vent in the middle of the crater. This activity was preceded by a sudden increase in tremor amplitude and intense degassing during 2-3 May; visible activity did not accompany the episode, and after a few days tremor returned to normal levels.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)



Volcano index photo  Grimsvotn  | Iceland  | 64.416°N, 17.316°W  | Elevation 1719 m

According to the Icelandic Meteorological Office, a small glacial outburst flood (jökulhlaup) from Grímsvötn's subglacial lake was occurring on 6 May, increasing the water level in the Gígjukvísl River. Electrical conductivity measurements indicated a considerable increase of a geothermal contribution to the river water. Based on information from the Institute of Earth Sciences, the water available for drainage was 0.2-0.3 cubic kilometers, therefore the maximum discharge of the flood was expected to be less than 700 cubic meters per second, occurring towards the middle of the week. Seismic tremor had increased due to the flood and not volcanic activity. The report warned that hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet at the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported moderate activity at Karymsky during 1-8 May. Satellite images showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano during 4-6 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Klyuchevskoy during 1-9 May. Satellite images detected a daily weak thermal anomaly over the volcano, and gas-and-steam plumes containing ash drifting over 450 km SE during 2-5 May. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 13 May.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

RVO reported that activity at both Manam's Southern Crater and Main Crater was low during 1-30 April; variable amounts of white emissions rose from both craters. Incandescence from Southern Crater was visible at night during 2, 6, 8-10, 15, 21, and 29-30 April, and from main Crater during 8-10, 15, 21, and 29-30 April. The seismicity was characterized by sub-continuous and continuous volcanic tremor, and discrete low-frequency earthquakes. Sulfur dioxide flux was slightly higher at the end of April; distinct sulfur dioxide levels were detected on 2 May.

Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that during 6-12 May the seismic network at Popocatépetl recorded 17-56 daily emissions mostly consisting of water vapor and gas. Nighttime crater incandescence was noted almost every night; sometimes the incandescence would become more intense with accompanying emissions. Explosions were detected at 0949 and 1113 on 7 May. The next day steam-and-gas emissions with low ash content drifted SSW. An explosion was detected at 0411. Ash was visible in water vapor-and-gas emissions during 10-11 May. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 1-8 May lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by incandescence, hot block avalanches, and fumarolic activity. A daily thermal anomaly was also detected in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Shishaldin  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 54.756°N, 163.97°W  | Elevation 2857 m

AVO reported that seismicity at Shishaldin continued to be elevated over background levels 6-12 May indicating that low-level eruptive activity confined to the summit crater likely continued. Periodically, elevated temperatures in the crater were detected and steaming was recorded by the webcam, although cloud cover sometimes prevented views of the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that a 4-minute-long ash emission from Turrialba occurred at 1004 on 6 May. The ash plume rose vertically about 600 m above the crater. Another ash emission occurred at 1245 on 11 May, and tremor was detected. No direct observations of ash were possible due to inclement weather.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Zhupanovsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 53.589°N, 159.15°E  | Elevation 2899 m

KVERT reported that moderate activity continued at Zhupanovsky during 1-8 May. Satellite images detected a thermal anomaly over the volcano on 3 and 5 May. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
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Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
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Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
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Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
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Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)