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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

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You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 September-13 September 2016.


















 Activity for the week of 7 September-13 September 2016

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Sabancaya Peru New
White Island North Island (New Zealand) New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Grimsvotn Iceland Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing
Yasur Vanuatu Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

KVERT reported that a Strombolian eruption at Klyuchevskoy continued during 2-9 September. Volcanic bombs that were ejected above the summit crater and the cinder cone landed in the Apakhonchich drainage on the E flank. A lava flow traveled down the Apakhonchich drainage and also down the SW flank. Satellite images showed a large and bright daily thermal anomaly at the volcano.

At 0943 and 1443 on 7 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 6.5-7.5 km (21,300-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 75 km SSW and ESE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale), and then lowered back to Orange within a few hours. Explosions at 1804 on 7 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45 km NE. At 0034, 0758, 1341, and 1850 on 8 September explosions generated ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 145 km NE, NW, W, and SW. Ash plumes from explosions on 9 September did not go as high, rising to altitudes of 3-5 km (10,000-16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifting 315-535 km SW. Minor ash deposits at Koryaksky and Avachinsky volcanoes were detected during 2100-2140; ash plumes continued to drift and dissipate over the Avachinsky bay.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

On 8 September PHIVOLCS noted that recent changes at Mayon prompted a change in the Alert level from 0 to 1 (on a 0-5 scale). Continuous gas measurements consistently showed increased sulfur dioxide emissions above the baseline level of 500 tonnes/day, sometimes as high as 1,000 tonnes/day, since July. Global Positioning System data and tilt measurements showed a consistent inflationary trend since July, and precise leveling and electronic distance surveys the last week of August also indicated edifice inflation, possibly due to magma movement at depth. An earthquake swarm (146 events) located 10 km SE during 3-6 August likely indicated rock fracturing processes but may or may not be associated with magmatic activity. Steam emissions from the crater ranged from weak to moderate. PHIVOLCS reminded residents of the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) around the volcano.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Piton de la Fournaise  | Reunion Island (France)  | 21.244°S, 55.708°E  | Elevation 2632 m

OVPDLF reported that seismicity at Piton de la Fournaise was low in August, following an elevated number of volcano-tectonic events the second half of July. Gas emissions were low and dominated by water vapor; CO2 emissions had been elevated during 21-27 July. Inflation had stopped in early August and slight deflation was detected through 2 September.

Seismicity increased on 10 September, and elevated levels of SO2 at fumaroles were detected. A seismic crisis began at 0735 on 11 September, characterized by several earthquakes per minute. Deformation suggested magma migrating to the surface. Volcanic tremor began at 0841, synonymous with the beginning of the eruption. Several fissures opened in the N part of the l'Enclos Fouqué caldera, between Puy Mi-côte and the July 2015 eruption site, and produced a dozen 15-30-m-high lava fountains distributed over several hundred meters. Tremor levels decreased by a factor of four, and by 2100 were stable. The eruption continued on 12 September.

Source: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that during a field inspection of Sabancaya on 25 August scientists noted five new fumarolic areas; two were located in the N part of the summit area, and three were on the NE flank. The number of hybrid earthquakes increased during 25-27 August. A small explosion at 0651 on 27 August produced a dense ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted E.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI)



Volcano index photo  White Island  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 37.52°S, 177.18°E  | Elevation 321 m

GeoNet reported that on 6 September scientists visited White Island for routine monitoring and maintenance of the monitoring network. Observations during the visit confirmed that Crater Lake was growing though at a lower level (28.4 m below the overflow level) since the 27 April eruption removed 13-15 m of lake floor sediments. Thermal IR images of a rocky lava mound in the back of the 1978/90 Crater (in the same area a lava dome grew in 2012) revealed two areas of hot gas output; temperatures in one area had decreased since August while temperatures in the second area had remained at similar levels.

On 13 September minor and passive ash emissions rose from the vent on the 2012 lava dome. The Volcanic Alert Level was raised from 1 to 3 (Minor Volcanic Eruption) and the Aviation Colour Code was raised from Green to Orange. Based on ground observations and satellite data the ash plume drifted E. Seismic activity and gas flux remained low, and there were no measureable acoustic signals. Minor ash emissions continued the next day.

Source: GeoNet



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 September ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW and W. On 9 September an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-160 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on satellite and webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 7 September an ash plume from Colima rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-13 September ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 115 km NE, E, ESE, and SE.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 8 September INSIVUMEH reported that the 12th eruptive episode at Fuego in 2016 had ended. Weak explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 750 m above the crater and drifted more than 8 km W and SW. Lava fountains rose 100 m above the crater rim; the lava flow in the Las Lajas (SE) drainage was no longer advancing. During 11-13 September explosions produced ash plumes that rose 450-850 m and drifted 6-10 km NW, W, and SW. Explosions ejected incandescent material as high as 150 m above the crater rim.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Grimsvotn  | Iceland  | 64.416°N, 17.316°W  | Elevation 1719 m

On 8 September the Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO) stated that the water level of the Skaftá river at Sveinstindur (the closest gauging station at 28 km downstream from the ice margin) rose significantly in the previous 24 hours, suggesting the beginning of a glacial outburst flood (jökulhlaup), originating from Grímsvötn's Western Skaftá ice cauldron. The discharge rate of Skaftá at Sveinstindur was 270 m³/s. IMO warned that hydrogen sulfide released from the floodwater as it drains is particularly potent at the river outlet from the ice margin, where concentrations may reach poisonous levels.

Source: Icelandic Met Office (IMO)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that Karymsky was quiet during March-August, noting that the last moderate explosion occurred in February and the last thermal anomaly over the volcano was detected in May. On 2 September the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 7-13 September HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent. The lake level fluctuated between 5 and 20 m below the Halema’uma’u floor, and was easily visible from the Jaggar Museum (NW rim of Kilauea Caldera). The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean at multiple areas near Kamokuna. A large section of the W part of the delta had collapsed on 5 September, causing a small explosion. Scattered breakouts were active 1.7-2 km inland from the coast.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Based on satellite images, the Washington VAAC reported that ash emissions at Nevado del Ruiz began at 0615 on 13 September, producing a plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. By 1345 the ash had dissipated.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

During an overflight of Popocatépetl on 30 August CENAPRED scientists confirmed that explosions during 27-28 August had destroyed lava dome 69 (first identified on 1 August). The crater which had hosted the dome was 300 m in diameter and 30 m deep.

Each day during 7-13 September there were 35-133 emissions, some of which contained minor amounts of ash on 8 September. Cloud cover sometimes prevented observations, though gas-and-steam plumes were visible daily. Crater incandescence was visible at night and sometimes was more intense in conjunction with emissions. An explosion at 1450 on 8 September produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater. On 11 September an explosion at 0925 generated a plume that rose 1 km, and an explosion at 2323 ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Ruapehu  | North Island (New Zealand)  | 39.28°S, 175.57°E  | Elevation 2797 m

On 7 September GeoNet reported that the temperature of Ruapehu’s summit Crater Lake had been declining, cooling to 12 ºC on 15 August which was the lowest temperature since the 1995/1996 eruptions, but had recently started to rapidly heat. The temperature began to slowly and variably rise in late August; however, by 2 September a rising trend was apparent. On 4 September tremor levels also increased, and remained elevated. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 1 (minor volcanic unrest) and the Aviation Colour Code remained at Green.

Source: GeoNet



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

INSIVUMEH reported that a strong explosion at 1455 on 11 September generated a dense ash plume that rose 2.5 km above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted 25 km W and SW. A moderate explosion during 11-12 September produced an ash plume that rose 900 m and drifted SW.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 2-9 September lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 0200 on 13 September ash emissions from Turrialba rose 300 m and drifted NNW.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Yasur  | Vanuatu  | 19.532°S, 169.447°E  | Elevation 361 m

On 9 September the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory stated that the Alert Level for Yasur remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-4) and that explosions continued to be intense. VGO reminded residents and tourists that hazardous areas were near and around the volcanic crater, within a 600-m-radius permanent exclusion zone, and that volcanic ash and gas could reach areas impacted by trade winds.

Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department (VMGD)



Weekly Reports Archive

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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)