Activity for the week of 7 December-13 December 2016
Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 December-13 December 2016.
You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 7 December-13 December 2016.
Activity for the week of 7 December-13 December 2016
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
|Bezymianny||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Copahue||Central Chile-Argentina border||New|
|Ebeko||Paramushir Island (Russia)||New|
|Langila||New Britain (Papua New Guinea)||New|
|Sheveluch||Central Kamchatka (Russia)||New|
|Bagana||Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)||Ongoing|
|Kilauea||Hawaiian Islands (USA)||Ongoing|
|Nevado del Ruiz||Colombia||Ongoing|
|Suwanosejima||Ryukyu Islands (Japan)||Ongoing|
Bezymianny | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 55.972°N, 160.595°E | Elevation 2882 m
Based on KBGS RAS (Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services, Russian Academy of Sciences) data, KVERT noted that seismicity at Bezymianny began to increase on 18 November. The temperature of a thermal anomaly detected in satellite images increased on 5 December, and then significantly increased on 13 December, which was likely caused by lava-dome extrusion. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange.
Copahue | Central Chile-Argentina border | 37.856°S, 71.183°W | Elevation 2953 m
Based on satellite and webcam images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 7-9 and 11 December diffuse gas, water vapor, and ash plumes from Copahue rose to altitudes of 3-3.3 km (10,000-11,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE, E, ESE, and SW. Inclement weather mostly prevented observations on 10 December.
Ebeko | Paramushir Island (Russia) | 50.686°N, 156.014°E | Elevation 1103 m
KVERT reported that, according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, a gas-and-steam plume containing a small amount of ash rose from Ebeko to an altitude of 1.5 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l., and drifted 6 km N during 8-9 December. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale). During 9-10 December gas-and-steam plumes with minor amounts of ash rose from two vents, in Sredniy Crater (middle part) and Severny Crater (N part), to altitudes of 1.8-1.9 km (4,900 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 4-5 km NW.
Langila | New Britain (Papua New Guinea) | 5.525°S, 148.42°E | Elevation 1330 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-9, 11, and 13 December ash plumes from Langila rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 110 km W, WNW, and N.
Sheveluch | Central Kamchatka (Russia) | 56.653°N, 161.36°E | Elevation 3283 m
KVERT reported that during 2-9 December lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a thermal anomaly over the dome on clear days, and ash plumes drifting 60 km NW on 8 December.
On 10 December explosions generated ash plumes observed in satellite images that rose to altitudes of 10-11 km (32,800-36,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 320 km NNE and N. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Satellite images later that day showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano but no ash emissions; the leading edge of the ash plume released earlier was 910 km NNE, drifting at an altitude of 11 km (36,000 ft). The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.
Bagana | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) | 6.137°S, 155.196°E | Elevation 1855 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 8-13 December ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, S, and NE.
Colima | Mexico | 19.514°N, 103.62°W | Elevation 3850 m
Based on webcam and satellite images, and information from the Mexico City MWO, the Washington VAAC reported that ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.6-7.3 km (15,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l. during 7-11 December and drifted almost 170 km in multiple directions.
Dukono | Halmahera (Indonesia) | 1.693°N, 127.894°E | Elevation 1229 m
Based on analyses of satellite imagery, VONAs issued by the Dukono Volcano Observatory, and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 7-13 December ash plumes from Dukono rose as high as 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 305 km NE, E, and SE.
Fuego | Guatemala | 14.473°N, 90.88°W | Elevation 3763 m
INSIVUMEH reported that during 6-7 December the number of explosions at Fuego increased to 3-5 per hour. Ash plumes rose 1 km above the crater and drifted 12 km W and SW, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km N). Incandescent block avalanches reached vegetated areas. Activity continued at the same level through 12 December, although 4-6 explosions per hour were detected during 12-13 December. Ash plumes from explosions during 8-12 December rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 12-15 km W, SW and S. Ash fell in the same areas downwind. During 8-9 and 11-12 December incandescent material was ejected 200 m above the crater, causing avalanches of material in the crater and towards the main ravines.
Kilauea | Hawaiian Islands (USA) | 19.421°N, 155.287°W | Elevation 1222 m
During 7-13 December HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent; the lake level rose as high as 9 m below the Halema’uma’u floor. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day.
Nevado del Ruiz | Colombia | 4.892°N, 75.324°W | Elevation 5279 m
Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 6-12 December seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz was characterized by a decrease in the number and magnitude of earthquakes compared to the previous week. Significant amounts of water vapor and gas rose from the crater. On 7 December a low-energy thermal anomaly near Arenas Crater was detected by the MIROVA system. On 9 December gas and water vapor plumes sometimes containing ash rose 2 km above the crater rim and drifted between SW and NW directions. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).
Novarupta | United States | 58.27°N, 155.157°W | Elevation 841 m
According to NASA's Earth Observatory, a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image acquired on 2 December of the Katmai area showed a plume of re-suspended ash which had been deposited during the 1912 eruption.
Source: NASA Earth Observatory
Sabancaya | Peru | 15.787°S, 71.857°W | Elevation 5960 m
Although weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views of Sabancaya, the Buenos Aires VAAC noted that some clear observations during 7-13 December revealed continuous gas-and-water-vapor emissions with sporadic ash puffs which rose to variable heights. Plumes drifted SW, SE, and ENE.
Suwanosejima | Ryukyu Islands (Japan) | 29.638°N, 129.714°E | Elevation 796 m
Based on JMA notices, pilot observations, and satellite-image analyses, the Tokyo VAAC reported that explosions at Suwanosejima on 13 December generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE.
Turrialba | Costa Rica | 10.025°N, 83.767°W | Elevation 3340 m
OVSICORI-UNA reported that after three days of continuous ash emissions at Turrialba activity decreased during the morning of 8 December. Weak and sporadic emissions rising no higher than 200 m above the vent were observed in the afternoon. Events at 0919 and 0934 on 9 December produced ash plumes that rose 500 m and drifted NW. Weak and sporadic ash emissions the rest of the day rose no higher than 500 m. Passive ash emissions on 12 December did not exceed 500 m and drifted NW.
Weekly Reports Archive
|Ambang||Gaua||Maly Semyachik||Sarychev Peak|
|Anatahan||Great Sitkin||Manda Hararo||Semeru|
|Apoyeque||Guagua Pichincha||Maroa||Seulawah Agam|
|Axial Seamount||Hokkaido-Komagatake||Metis Shoal||Slamet|
|Azul, Cerro||Home Reef||Misti, El||Soputan|
|Balbi||Huila, Nevado del||Monowai||Soufriere Hills|
|Bamus||Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai||Montagu Island||Soufriere St. Vincent|
|Banda Api||Ibu||Moyorodake [Medvezhia]||South Sarigan Seamount|
|Barren Island||Iliamna||Myojinsho||St. Helens|
|Bezymianny||Inielika||Negra, Sierra||Sulu Range|
|Callaqui||Kadovar||NW Rota-1||Tair, Jebel at|
|Campi Flegrei Mar Sicilia||Kanaga||Nyiragongo||Talang|
|Chillan, Nevados de||Kavachi||Palena Volcanic Group||Tenerife|
|Concepcion||Kick 'em Jenny||Peuet Sague||Tolbachik|
|Descabezado Grande||Kolokol Group||Rabaul||Ulawun|
|Dieng Volcanic Complex||Korovin||Ranakah||Unknown Source|
|Epi||Kverkfjoll||Rincon de la Vieja||Witori|
|Erta Ale||Lamongan||Ritter Island||Yasur|
|Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group]||Lanin||Ruang||Zavodovski|
|Fernandina||Lengai, Ol Doinyo||Ruiz, Nevado del||Zubair Group|
|Fournaise, Piton de la||Lewotolo||Salak|
|Fourpeaked||Little Sitkin||San Cristobal|
News Feeds and Google Placemarks
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.
2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.
3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.
4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.
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RSS and CAP Feeds
An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.
CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)
ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)
OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)