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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 28 December-3 January 2017.


















 Activity for the week of 28 December-3 January 2017

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Bogoslof Fox Islands (USA) New
Cayambe Ecuador New
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) New
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Sabancaya Peru New

Bagana Bougainville (Papua New Guinea) Ongoing
Bulusan Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Colima Mexico Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Nevado del Ruiz Colombia Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Sinabung Indonesia Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported strong gas-and-steam emissions at Bezymianny during 23-30 December and a daily thermal anomaly over the volcano. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Bogoslof  | Fox Islands (USA)  | 53.93°N, 168.03°W  | Elevation 150 m

On 27 December AVO noted that since there was no indication of elevated seismicity at Bogoslof during the previous day the Aviation Color Code (ACC) was lowered to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level (VAL) was lowered to Orange. AVO noted that there is no ground-based volcano monitoring equipment on Bogoslof; activity is monitored by satellite images, information from the Worldwide Lightning Location Network pertaining to volcanic-cloud lightning, and data from seismic and infrasound instruments on other islands.

An increase of volcanic tremor started to be detected at 1755 on 28 December with the largest burst, recorded at 1807 and lasting 50 minutes. Inclement weather prevented satellite confirmation of accompanying emissions. The report noted that this type of seismic activity had accompanied each of the previous explosions at Bogoslof since the eruption began last week, prompting AVO to issue a Volcano Activity Notice (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) in case there was an ash plume released.

Another increase in seismicity began at 1900 on 29 December and progressed, merging into a continuous tremor sequence indicative of a possible ash-producing eruption. At 2345 a 30-minute-long, ash-producing event began, with an ash plume possibly rising as high as 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted NE. The ACC and VAL were raised to Red and Warning, respectively. A 45-minute-long explosive event began at 2230 on 30 December, indicated by seismic data and lightning strikes. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. No further explosions were detected afterward, so on 1 January 2017 the ACC was lowered to Orange and the VAL was lowered to Watch. Increased seismicity detected at 1353 on 2 January and lasting about 10 minutes likely indicated a relatively minor explosion; meteorological cloud cover prevented visual observations.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Cayambe  | Ecuador  | 0.029°N, 77.986°W  | Elevation 5790 m

On 28 December IG reported continued anomalous seismic activity at Cayambe characterized by volcano-tectonic and long-period earthquakes located 2-8 km below the summit. As many as 40 earthquakes had been recorded each day for the previous two weeks and starting on 24 December that number again increased, especially for volcano-tectonic events. A swarm on 27 December consisted of 100 small-magnitude events. A strong sulfur odor persisted, and cracks in the glacier near the summit that climbers has recently reported were visible during an overflight. In addition, deformation on the flanks was detected in GPS data.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

KVERT reported that, according to observers in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island) about 7 km E, explosions at Ebeko produced ash plumes during 24-27 December that rose to an altitude of 2.5 km (8,200 ft) a.s.l. Minor ashfall was noted in Severo-Kurilsk on 23 and 26 December. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Klyuchevskoy  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.056°N, 160.642°E  | Elevation 4754 m

Based on satellite and webcam images KVERT reported that explosions at Klyuchevskoy recorded on 1 January generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 114 km SE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

On 28 December the Technical and Scientific Committee for volcanic risk management of the Arequipa region (comprised of five groups including IGP's OVS and INGEMMET's OVI) recommended that the Alert Level for Sabancaya be raised from Yellow to Orange based on increased activity detected during 8 November-26 December. A progressive increase in the number of explosions per day to 52 was noted along with the detection of 14 daily hybrid events. Harmonic tremor was recorded on 21, 24, and 25 December. Thermal anomalies were identified by the MIROVA system with the last one being recorded on 24 December. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 4.5 km above the crater and drifted 40 km in different directions, affecting the villages of Maca, Achoma, Yanque, and Chivay, and areas to the W and NW including Huambo, Cabanaconde, Pinchollo, Lari, Tapay, and Madrigal. The public was warned to stay at least 12 km away from the volcano. An explosion on 2 January 2017 generated an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted more than 30 km S and SW.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Bagana  | Bougainville (Papua New Guinea)  | 6.137°S, 155.196°E  | Elevation 1855 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 31 December ash plumes from Bagana rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-55 km NE, E, and ESE. Only weak steam emissions were observed the next day.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bulusan  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 12.769°N, 124.056°E  | Elevation 1535 m

PHIVOLCS reported that a phreatic explosion occurred at 1440 on 29 December from a vent on Bulusan's upper SE flank. The seismic network recorded the event as an explosion-type earthquake that lasted about 16 minutes. A grayish ash plume rose 2 km above the vent and drifted WSW, causing minor amounts of ash to fall in areas downwind including the barangays of Cogon, Tinampo, Bolos, Umagom, Gulang-gulang, and Monbon of Irosin, and Caladgao and Guruyan of Juban. Residents of Guruyan, Juban, Monbon, and Tinampo of Irosin noted a sulfur odor. The Alert Level remained at 1, indicating abnormal conditions and a 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Colima  | Mexico  | 19.514°N, 103.62°W  | Elevation 3850 m

Based on webcam and satellite images, information from the Mexico City MWO, and wind data the Washington VAAC reported that during 28 December 2016-3 January 2017 ash plumes from Colima rose to altitudes of 4.6-7.6 km (15,000-25,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 135 km in multiple directions.

Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

Based on satellite and webcam images, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 28-30 December continuous gas-and-ash emissions from Copahue rose to altitudes of 3.6-3.9 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SSE, ESE, and E.

Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery and model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-29 and 31 December ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 nm SE, S, and SSW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 28 December 2017-3 January 2017 HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise and fall, circulate, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook vent, and was visible from the Jaggar Museum overlook on most days. Webcams recorded incandescence from long-active sources within Pu'u 'O'o Crater and from a vent high on the NE flank of the cone. The 61G lava flow, originating from a vent on Pu'u 'O'o Crater's E flank, continued to enter the ocean near Kamokuna at the easternmost lava delta. An active branch of 61G remained active E of Pu'u 'O'o and advanced slowly E at a rate of only a few tens of meters per day. On 31 December almost all of the Kamokuna lava delta had collapsed, along with a large section (180 m long and 70 m wide) of the older sea cliff E of the lava delta.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Nevado del Ruiz  | Colombia  | 4.892°N, 75.324°W  | Elevation 5279 m

Servicio Geológico Colombiano’s (SGC) Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales reported that during 27 December 2016-2 January 2017 seismicity at Nevado del Ruiz continued to indicate unrest. Some of the seismic signals were associated with gas-and-ash emissions, as confirmed by webcam images and officials in the Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados. A low-energy thermal anomaly was identified by the MIROVA system on 29 December. On 2 January a gas, water vapor, and ash plume rose 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifted between SW and NW directions. The Alert Level remained at III (Yellow; the second lowest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that during 23-30 December lava-dome extrusion onto Sheveluch’s N flank was accompanied by strong fumarolic activity, dome incandescence, ash explosions, and hot avalanches. Satellite images showed a daily thermal anomaly over the dome. Explosions recorded by a webcam on 24 December generated ash plumes that rose 6.5-7 km (21,300-23,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

Based on PVMBG observations, webcam views, satellite images, and wind data the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28 December 2016-1 January 2017 ash plumes from Sinabung rose 3-5.6 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and sometimes drifted SW. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images on 30 December.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that at 2212 on 28 December and at 0335 on 30 December events at Turrialba generated plumes of unknown height due to poor visibility conditions. An event at 0801 on 30 December produced a dense and passive emission of ash that rose 300 m above the crater and drifted SW. An event later that same day, at 2001, produced a plume that was not visible.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



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Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
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Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)