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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 4 April-10 April 2018.


















 Activity for the week of 4 April-10 April 2018

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Ambae Vanuatu New
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) New
Lascar Chile New
Nevados de Chillan Chile New
Sinabung Indonesia New

Agung Bali (Indonesia) Ongoing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Ongoing
Copahue Central Chile-Argentina border Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Sabancaya Peru Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Turrialba Costa Rica Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Ambae  | Vanuatu  | 15.389°S, 167.835°E  | Elevation 1496 m

Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory (VGO) reported sustained ash and/or gas emissions from Ambae’s Lake Voui during March through 4 April. Satellite data showed a significant sulfur dioxide gas emission (~0.15 Tg SO2) beginning in the very early hours of 6 April, indicating that the SO2 emission was the largest since Calbuco in April 2015. No significant high-altitude ash plume accompanied the emission, though the eruption generated lightning detected by the WWLLN (World Wide Lightning Location Network). Pictures of local areas posted on social media showed the continuing and significant ashfall on the island. Within a few days, by 8 April, the sulfur dioxide plume had spread across an area from the E coast of Australia to Tahiti, a distance of about 6,000 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 0-5).

Sources: Simon Carn, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-hazards Department, Rocky Planet



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

JMA reported that an explosive eruption at Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, occurred at 0531 on 5 April and generated an ash plume that rose 8 km above the crater rim. According to news articles lightning was detected in the ash plume. JMA noted that incandescent tephra was ejected 1.1 km from the vent, and a pyroclastic flow traveled 800 m down the SE flank. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased to 1,400 tons/day, from 300 tons/day last measured on 28 March. The eruption possibly ceased at 0715. During an overflight later that day scientists confirmed a large amount of ashfall in parts of Kobayashi City and other areas of the Miyazaki Prefecture, in part of Takahara Town, and in areas of the Kumamoto prefecture. White plumes rose 200 m during 6-9 April. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-5).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Lascar  | Chile  | 23.37°S, 67.73°W  | Elevation 5592 m

OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that, although seismicity at Láscar during March was low, characteristics of the signals were similar to patterns observed prior to previous minor phreatic explosions, particularly before events in 2013 and 2015. The Alert Level was raised to Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 5 km of the crater. ONEMI declared an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for San Pedro de Atacama.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Nevados de Chillan  | Chile  | 36.868°S, 71.378°W  | Elevation 3180 m

Servicio Nacional de Geología and Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) reported continuing activity through 5 April associated with growth of the Gil-Cruz lava dome in Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater. During 16-31 March the seismic network recorded 44 volcano-tectonic events with maximum local magnitude (ML) of 2.6. In addition, there were 3,874 earthquakes associated with fluid movement; of those 2,645 earthquakes were long-period events. A total of 1,229 tremor events were also detected. Explosive events totaled 765, mainly accompanying magmatic gas emissions and/or acoustic signals recorded by microphones on the flanks. Acoustic pressure from explosions increased on 24 March, and culminated with two major explosions on 30 and 31 March exceeding pressures much higher than previously recorded since the emergence of the dome. Webcam images showed mainly gas emission from explosions, rising no higher than 2 km above the crater rim. Incandescence associated with some explosions was sporadically visible at night.

During an overflight on 3 April scientists observed intermittent whitish-to-grayish emissions rising from the SE-NW-trending fissure on the lava dome’s surface. They also noted lapilli deposits as far as 1 km. Even though subsidence in the central part of the dome was visible, the dome had grown compared to the last observation on 11 March. The dome had extended E to the edge of Nicanor Crater and rose higher than the crater rim, although was mostly circular. The maximum temperature of the dome surface was 670 degrees Celsius. The report noted that a decrease in daily seismic events (suggesting pressurization), two significant explosions, and the dome growing higher than the crater rim prompted OVDAS- SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Orange, the second highest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the communities of Pinto, Coihueco, and San Fabián.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Sinabung  | Indonesia  | 3.17°N, 98.392°E  | Elevation 2460 m

PVMBG and BNPB reported that an eruption at Sinabung at 1607 on 6 April generated a dark gray ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater, and a pyroclastic flow that descended the SE and SW flanks 3.5 km. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector. According to news articles, ashfall affected hundreds of hectares of agricultural land in the district of Karo, North Sumatra, and the Alas Leuser airport was closed on 7 April due to ash. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions of 7 km on the SSE sector, 6 km in the ESE sector, and 4 km in the NNE sector.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), People's Daily Online (China), Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), KompasTV



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

PVMBG reported that an event at Agung at 1737 on 5 April generated an ash plume that rose 500 m above the crater rim and drifted W. Seismicity was dominated by high- and low-frequency earthquakes. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the exclusion zone continued at a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that there were two events and 10 explosions at Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 2-9 April. Tephra was ejected as far as 1.1 km from the crater, and plumes rose as high as 3.4 km above the crater rim. An event at Showa Crater generated a plume that rose 1.3 km. An explosion at 0909 on 9 April at Minamidake crater ejected large boulders 1.3 km, and produced a plume that rose 1 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 29-30 March and 2-3 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Cleveland  | Chuginadak Island (USA)  | 52.825°N, 169.944°W  | Elevation 1730 m

AVO reported that seismic and infrasound sensors recorded a small explosion at Cleveland at 0355 on 4 April. A subsequent satellite image indicated that hot material ejected from the event was deposited on the W flank, possibly reaching the coastline. A small ash cloud drifted SW at or below 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Watch. Hours later, a small, short-duration seismic event coupled with satellite data suggested a small ash emission. The Alert level was lowered back to Yellow/Advisory on 6 April due to no further signs of activity.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Volcano index photo  Copahue  | Central Chile-Argentina border  | 37.856°S, 71.183°W  | Elevation 2953 m

According to ONEMI, OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-31 March there were 83 volcano-tectonic events recorded at Copahue, and 204 earthquakes indicting fluid movement. Tremor levels increased on 24 March, the same day as the phreatic explosion, though by the next day decreased to baseline levels. Webcams recorded gas plumes rising from El Agrio crater as high as 1 km. During an overflight on 3 April scientists observed the crater lake, and continuous white gas plumes rising almost 400 m. The Alert Level remained at Yellow (second highest level on a four-color scale); SERNAGEOMIN recommended no entry into a restricted area within 1 km of the crater. ONEMI maintained an Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) for the municipality of Alto Biobío.

Sources: Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on analyses of satellite imagery, wind model data, and notices from PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-10 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.1 km (5,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Based on observations by volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 31 March-6 April generated ash plumes that rose as high as 2.7 km (8,900 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose as high as 1.1 km and drifted 10-15 km SW and S. Sometimes the explosions were accompanied by weak shock waves. Incandescent material was ejected as high as 200 m above the crater rim, and generated avalanches of material in the Seca (Santa Teresa, W), Cenizas (SSW), Las Lajas (SE), and Trinidad (S) ravines. During 9-10 April ash fell in areas downwind including in Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Panimaché (8 km SW), Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW), and San Pedro Yepocapa (8 km NW).

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 4-10 April HVO reported that the lava lake continued to rise, fall, and spatter in Kilauea’s Overlook crater. Surface lava flows were active above Pulama pali. Webcams recorded spattering from a small lava pond in a pit on the W side of Pu'u 'O'o Crater. The lava flow from a vent on the SE part of the crater floor continued to expand through 6 April. A rockfall at 1028 on 6 April triggered an explosion in the lava lake, damaging the webcam power system on the crater rim.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 4-10 April white steam plumes from Mayon drifted WNW, WSW, and SW. Crater incandescence was visible at night. The sulfur dioxide flux was 899 tonnes/day on 5 April. Tiltmeter data recorded deflation since 20 February despite short-term episodes of inflation at the lower and middle flanks. Precise leveling data showed deflation during 22-29 March relative to surveys conducted during 10-19 March. Overall ground deformation data suggested inflation compared to baseline levels. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

INSIVUMEH reported that during 7-10 April Strombolian explosions at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater ejected material as high as 40 m above the crater rim. Lava flows had traveled 250 m down the NW flank, 200 m down the W flank, and 150 m down the SW flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Sabancaya  | Peru  | 15.787°S, 71.857°W  | Elevation 5960 m

Observatorio Vulcanológico del Sur del IGP (OVS-IGP) and Observatorio Vulcanológico del INGEMMET (OVI) reported that explosive activity at Sabancaya was similar compared to the previous week; explosions averaged 15 per day during 2-8 April. Seismicity was dominated by long-period events, with signals indicating emissions. Gas-and-ash plumes rose as high as 3.2 km above the crater rim and drifted 30 km NE, SE, and S. Ashfall was reported in Achoma (25 km NE), Chivay (36 km NE), and Huanca. The MIROVA system detected three thermal anomalies. The report noted that the public should not to approach the crater within a 12-km radius.

Sources: Instituto Geológico Minero y Metalúrgico (INGEMMET), Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on JMA notices and satellite data, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 4-6 and 9 April explosions at Suwanosejima produced plumes that rose 1.2-2.4 km (4,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, and E.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Turrialba  | Costa Rica  | 10.025°N, 83.767°W  | Elevation 3340 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that events at Turrialba at 1230 on 5 April and 0609 on 9 April generated plumes that rose 500 and 300 m above the crater rim, and drifted S and W, respectively.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Weekly Reports Archive

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Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
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Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
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Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
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Erebus Lamington Rinjani Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
Etna Langila Rotorua Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fonualei Lewotobi Sakar
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)