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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 13 March-19 March 2019.


















 Activity for the week of 13 March-19 March 2019

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Barren Island Andaman Islands (India) New
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) New
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) New
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) New
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) New
Tengger Caldera Eastern Java (Indonesia) New
Villarrica Chile New

Agung Bali (Indonesia) Ongoing
Aira Kyushu (Japan) Ongoing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) Ongoing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) Ongoing
Kerinci Indonesia Ongoing
Krakatau Indonesia Ongoing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Ongoing
Poas Costa Rica Ongoing
Popocatepetl Mexico Ongoing
Reventador Ecuador Ongoing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Barren Island  | Andaman Islands (India)  | 12.278°N, 93.858°E  | Elevation 354 m

Based on analysis of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 March ash plumes from Barren Island rose to altitudes of 0.9 km (3,000 ft) and 1.2 km (4,000 ft) a.s.l., respectively, and drifted W and SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Bezymianny  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 55.972°N, 160.595°E  | Elevation 2882 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was identified in satellite images during 12-15 March, and intense gas-end-steam emissions continued to rise from the crater. Hot avalanches originating from the top of the lava dome were visible in webcam images at night.

Late on 15 March KVERT reported that activity continued to intensify noting that the number of hot avalanches increased and ash plumes from the avalanches drifted about 100 km SE. The temperature of the thermal anomaly also increased. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale). Seismic data suggested that a powerful explosive eruption began at 0511 on 16 March. At 0530 webcam images recorded explosions generating ash plumes that rose as high as 15 km (49,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 10 km E. Thirty minutes later satellite images indicated continuing ash emissions rising to 15 km a.s.l. Ashfall was reported in Ust-Kamchatsk Village (120 km ENE) during 0650-0730. An ash plume, 79 x 65 km in dimension, was also identified drifting ENE.

Strong explosions continued to produce ash plumes on 16 March, although they were lower-altitude (5-6 km (16,400-19,700 ft) a.s.l.) and had a higher concentration of ash. The plumes drifted E. By 0930 ash plumes were rising to altitudes of 4-4.5 (13,100-14,800 ft) a.s.l.; ash plumes drifted 100 km E. A large ash plume, 120 x 130 km in dimension, continued to drift E at an altitude of 15 km. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). By 1307 on 16 March satellite images showed ash plumes drifting 650 km E. The report noted that ashfall was likely occurring in Nikolskoye (370 km ESE) on Bering Island.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

KVERT reported that during 8-12 March explosions at Karymsky generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 100 km E. A thermal anomaly was visible on 10 and 12 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kirishimayama  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.934°N, 130.862°E  | Elevation 1700 m

The number of volcanic earthquakes below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak), a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group, increased on 25 February prompting JMA to raise the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-5). The number of daily volcanic earthquakes decreased during 3-4 March, and each day through 18 March only a few were recorded.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Mayon  | Luzon (Philippines)  | 13.257°N, 123.685°E  | Elevation 2462 m

PHIVOLCS reported that during 13-19 March white steam plumes periodically emitted from Mayon drifted mainly W and SW, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Three phreatic events, recorded at 1510, 1518, and 1534 on 12 March, generated light-brown-to-grayish ash plumes that rose 500-1,000 m above the crater rim and drifted SW. Six phreatic events on 13 March, recorded at 0906, 0939, 0946, 0955, 1000, and 1059, produced ash plumes that rose 200-700 m and drifted W. A phreatic event at 1855 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 0-5 scale) and PHIVOLCS reminded residents to stay away from the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone and the 7-km Extended Danger Zone on the SSW and ENE flanks.

Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)



Volcano index photo  Tengger Caldera  | Eastern Java (Indonesia)  | 7.942°S, 112.95°E  | Elevation 2329 m

PVMBG reported that during 1 January-17 March plumes rising from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone were generally white to gray in color, had variable densities, and rose no higher than 700 m above the crater rim. Tremor signals increased on 10 March and were accompanied by changes in the color and height of the emissions. On 16 March a dense gray ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E, causing ashfall in areas both inside and outside the caldera. Two seismic signals indicating explosions were recorded around 1547 on 17 March. Periods of continuous ash emissions were observed during 17-18 March, with ash plumes rising as high as 1.2 km above the crater rim and drifting NE, N, NW, and W. At 1020 on 19 March a black ash plume rose 1.5 km and drifted E and NE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Villarrica  | Chile  | 39.42°S, 71.93°W  | Elevation 2847 m

POVI reported that on 17 March sporadic Strombolian explosions at Villarrica ejected incandescent material about 25 m above the summit crater rim.

Source: Proyecto Observación Villarrica Internet (POVI)



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Agung  | Bali (Indonesia)  | 8.343°S, 115.508°E  | Elevation 2997 m

PVMBG reported that at 1827 on 15 March an explosive event at Agung was recorded for one minute and 23 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 1 km above the crater rim and drifted NNW. Minor ashfall was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. At 0803 on 17 March an event was recorded for 39 seconds and produced a dense gray ash plume that rose about 500 m above the crater rim and drifted E. A second event began at 1030 and lasted about one minute and 16 seconds; a dense gray ash plume rose about 600 m and drifted E. At 0736 on 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. Thermal satellite images continue to indicate hot areas in the crater on the previously-erupted lava surface especially near the flow margins. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) with the exclusion zone set at a 4-km radius.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Aira  | Kyushu (Japan)  | 31.593°N, 130.657°E  | Elevation 1117 m

JMA reported that incandescence from Minamidake crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was occasionally visible during 11-18 March. There were nine events and four explosions detected during 11-15 March ejecting material as far as 1.3 km. One of the events, recorded at 2323 on 14 March generated an ash plume that rose 3.5 km above the crater rim and ejected material as far as 1.1 km. During 16-18 March there were eight events and two explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2.7 km. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



Volcano index photo  Dukono  | Halmahera (Indonesia)  | 1.693°N, 127.894°E  | Elevation 1229 m

Based on satellite images, wind model data, and PVMBG observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-18 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 1.5-2.4 km (5,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S, SE, and SSE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and visitors were warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Ebeko  | Paramushir Island (Russia)  | 50.686°N, 156.014°E  | Elevation 1103 m

Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 8-10 March that sent ash plumes to 4 km (13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed the ash plume drifting about 30 km ENE. Ash fell in Severo-Kurilsk during 9-10 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kerinci  | Indonesia  | 1.697°S, 101.264°E  | Elevation 3800 m

The Darwin VAAC reported that on 13 March an ash plume from Kerinci rose to an altitude of 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S based on information from PVMBG. On 15 March an ash plume identified in satellite images rose to an altitude of 4.3 (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and tourists were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Krakatau  | Indonesia  | 6.102°S, 105.423°E  | Elevation 813 m

PVMBG reported that there were four explosive events at Anak Krakatau on 14 March, recorded at 0816, 1711, 1716, and 2126, producing white plumes that drifted S and SW. An event at 0953 on 16 March produced a white plume that rose 1 km and drifted N. White plumes from events at 0605 and 0905 on 18 March generated white plumes that rose 500 m and drifted N. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 5-km radius hazard zone from the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

PVMBG reported that the slow extrusion of a lava dome in Merapi’s summit crater continued during 11-17 March. The volume of the lava dome had not changed since the last measurement of 470,000 cubic meters estimated on 5 March. There were no apparent morphological changes; most of the extruded lava fell into the upper parts of the Gendol River drainage on the SE flank. Block-and-ash flows traveled as far as 1,500 m down the Gendol drainage on 12, 15, and 17 March. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and residents were warned to remain outside of the 3-km exclusion zone.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)



Volcano index photo  Poas  | Costa Rica  | 10.2°N, 84.233°W  | Elevation 2708 m

OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 18 March an event at Poás produced a plume with minor ash content that rose 200 m above the crater rim.

Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)



Volcano index photo  Popocatepetl  | Mexico  | 19.023°N, 98.622°W  | Elevation 5393 m

CENAPRED reported that each day during 13-19 March there were 43-175 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl, some of which contained ash. Crater incandescence was visible most nights. A short period of Strombolian activity commenced at 0500 on 13 March and lasted for 15 minutes, ejecting incandescent fragments onto the E and SE flanks. An explosion at 0510 generated an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected incandescent material 1.7 km away and onto the ESE flank. An ash plume from an explosion at 0730 rose 3.5 km and drifted NE. An explosion at 1430 on 14 March generated a dense ash plume that rose 5 km and drifted NNE. During an overflight of the crater on 15 March observers noted that lava dome #82 was gone, and that the inner crater was 300 m wide and 130 m deep. Explosions at 0255 and 0930 on 16 March produced ash plumes that rose 2-2.5 km and drifted NNE. Explosions were detected at 2206, 2321, and 2325. Gas, steam, and ash plumes from an event at 2138 on 18 March rose 4 km and drifted E. Incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5 km onto the flanks and set fire to some grasslands. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)



Volcano index photo  Reventador  | Ecuador  | 0.077°S, 77.656°W  | Elevation 3562 m

IG reported that during 13-19 March periodic seismic data from Reventador’s network indicated a high level of seismic activity, including explosions, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and signals indicating emissions. Steam, gas, and ash plumes sometimes rose higher than 1 km above the crater rim and drifted W and NW. Incandescent blocks were observed rolling 500-700 m down the flanks on a few of the days. Inclement weather sometimes prevented visual observations.

Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)



Volcano index photo  Sheveluch  | Central Kamchatka (Russia)  | 56.653°N, 161.36°E  | Elevation 3283 m

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch’s lava dome was identified daily in satellite images during 8-15 March. Explosions on 9 March generated ash plumes that rose to 11 km (36,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 375 km NNW, causing KVERT to temporarily raise the Aviation Color Code to Red. Forceful gas-and-steam emissions containing variable amounts of ash rose to 3.5-4 km (11,500-13,100 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E during 10-11 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

JMA reported that crater incandescence at Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater was visible at night during 8-15 March. Small events were occasionally recorded, generating plumes that rose as high as 400 m above the crater rim. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)



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 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

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Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

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RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)