Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) — April 1990
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 15, no. 4 (April 1990)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Gamalama (Indonesia) Explosive eruption ejects thick reddish column
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1990. Report on Gamalama (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 15:4. Smithsonian Institution. https://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199004-268060.
0.8°N, 127.33°E; summit elev. 1715 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Press reports indicated that an eruption began at 1847 on 25 April, ejecting a thick reddish column ~ 1.5 km high. Authorities inspected areas believed to be at risk from lava flows, but did not immediately order evacuations.
Geologic Background. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.
Information Contacts: Jakarta Domestic Service.