Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua) — February 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 2 (February 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
San Cristobal (Nicaragua) Strong gas plume from San Cristóbal; fumarolic activity at Casita
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on San Cristobal (Nicaragua). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199102-344020.
12.702°N, 87.004°W; summit elev. 1745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
"The gas plume [from San Cristóbal] was continuously present and had not diminished since 1989. The plume could usually be traced up to 60 km from the volcano. Geologists visiting the crater [of Casita] reported fumarole temperatures of up to 98°C. Fumaroles in the S and E parts of the crater were H2O-rich and below 50°C."
Geologic Background. The San Cristóbal volcanic complex, consisting of five principal volcanic edifices, forms the NW end of the Marrabios Range. The symmetrical 1745-m-high youngest cone, named San Cristóbal (also known as El Viejo), is Nicaragua's highest volcano and is capped by a 500 x 600 m wide crater. El Chonco, with several flank lava domes, is located 4 km W of San Cristóbal; it and the eroded Moyotepe volcano, 4 km NE of San Cristóbal, are of Pleistocene age. Volcán Casita, containing an elongated summit crater, lies immediately east of San Cristóbal and was the site of a catastrophic landslide and lahar in 1998. The Plio-Pleistocene La Pelona caldera is located at the eastern end of the complex. Historical eruptions from San Cristóbal, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive activity, have been reported since the 16th century. Some other 16th-century eruptions attributed to Casita volcano are uncertain and may pertain to other Marrabios Range volcanoes.
Information Contacts: B. van Wyk de Vries, O. Castellón, A. Murales, and V. Tenorio, INETER.