Report on Arenal (Costa Rica) — February 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 2 (February 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Arenal (Costa Rica) Explosions continue
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Arenal (Costa Rica). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199102-345033.
10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During February, explosive activity continued, with an average of three recorded explosions daily. Seismic activity was at low levels (figure 36). Strong emissions of water-rich gas were accompanied by prevalent volcanic tremor.
|Figure 36. Daily number of earthquakes at Arenal, February 1991. Courtesy of Rafael Barquero and Mario Fernández.|
Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.
Information Contacts: R. Barquero, ICE; M. Fernández, Univ de Costa Rica.