Report on Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 5 (May 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) Large gas plume and numerous weak earthquakes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Ulawun (Papua New Guinea). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:5. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199105-252120.
Papua New Guinea
5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
"Activity remained at the low, non-erupting level displayed since January 1990, gently releasing a white vapour plume and generating an average of ~200 very small low-frequency earthquakes/day.
"An aerial inspection and ground deformation survey was carried out 14-16 May. The plume emitted by the crater, although of moderate volume, seemed rich in SO2 and could distinctly be seen stretching horizontally >40 km downwind. No significant changes were noted in summit crater morphology since the last inspection in May 1990, apart from a series of cracks on the terminal cone's upper W flank, suggesting a slight inward sagging of this side of the crater rim.
"EDM and dry tilt measurements suggest that no significant deformation has occurred over the last 12 months."
Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.
Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.