Report on Ontakesan (Japan) — June 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 6 (June 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Ontakesan (Japan) Seismicity declines slightly; steam plumes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Ontakesan (Japan). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:6. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199106-283040.
35.893°N, 137.48°E; summit elev. 3067 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Seismicity has remained at high levels since April, with nine tremor episodes and 234 small earthquakes recorded in June (figure 9), down from 28 and 313, respectively, in May. Similar seismicity +continued as of 18 July. White steam plumes . . . rose to 200 m height.
Geologic Background. The massive Ontakesan stratovolcano, the second highest volcano in Japan, lies at the southern end of the Northern Japan Alps. Ascending this volcano is one of the major objects of religious pilgrimage in central Japan. It is constructed within a largely buried 4 x 5 km caldera and occupies the southern end of the Norikura volcanic zone, which extends northward to Yakedake volcano. The older volcanic complex consisted of at least four major stratovolcanoes constructed from about 680,000 to about 420,000 years ago, after which Ontakesan was inactive for more than 300,000 years. The broad, elongated summit of the younger edifice is cut by a series of small explosion craters along a NNE-trending line. Several phreatic eruptions post-date the roughly 7300-year-old Akahoya tephra from Kikai caldera. The first historical eruption took place in 1979 from fissures near the summit. A non-eruptive landslide in 1984 produced a debris avalanche and lahar that swept down valleys south and east of the volcano. Very minor phreatic activity caused a dusting of ash near the summit in 1991 and 2007. A significant phreatic explosion in September 2014, when a large number of hikers were at or near the summit, resulted in many fatalities.
Information Contacts: JMA.