Report on Poas (Costa Rica) — September 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 9 (September 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Poas (Costa Rica) Small explosions and gas emission from crater lake; continued seismicity
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Poas (Costa Rica). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:9. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199109-345040.
10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The level of crater lake water, bright yellow and 71°C, decreased in September, despite continuation of the rainy season. Phreatic explosions in the central part of the lake ejected water to a height of 2 m. Steam and gas rose nearly continuously, creating small plumes that were carried W and SW by wind. A strong sulfur smell and respiratory difficulties were reported by park rangers on 22-23 September. The gas plume rose vertically during calm conditions the morning of 23 September, and was visible >10 km away from the Central Valley.
A daily average of 262 low-frequency (<2.5 Hz) earthquakes was recorded in September, with the highest levels of activity on the 21st-22nd. Low- and medium-frequency tremor episodes were recorded, with maximum durations of 2 hours.
Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.
Information Contacts: J. Barquero, E. Fernández, V. Barboza, and J. Brenes, OVSICORI.