Report on Veniaminof (United States) — March 1994
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 3 (March 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Veniaminof (United States) Lava emissions from the active cone; short-lived ash bursts
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Veniaminof (United States). In: Wunderman, R (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:3. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199403-312070.
56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2507 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Low-level steam-and-ash plume emissions continued during mid-March along with possible eruptions of lava. Ground observers saw glow near the summit and "sparks" at the vent during the week of 11-18 March. Satellite infrared images (AVHRR NOAA-11, 12; 1.1 km resolution) indicated hot spots on the ground near the vent. These probably represent fresh lava erupting from the volcano's active cone. Ground observers reported short-lived ash-bursts from the caldera's cone on 18-25 March. Poor weather obscured Veniaminof from satellite and ground observers during the last week of March. Although clear weather prevailed . . . in the first half of April, no steam or ash over the volcano was noted by residents of Port Heiden . . . .
Geologic Background. Massive Veniaminof volcano, one of the highest and largest volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.
Information Contacts: AVO.