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Report on Aira (Japan) — December 1994

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 19, no. 12 (December 1994)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Aira (Japan) Explosive ash eruptions continue

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1994. Report on Aira (Japan). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 19:12. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199412-282080.

Volcano Profile |  Complete Bulletin


Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosive volcanism . . . continued during December with 64 eruptions, including 54 explosions; no damage occurred. The highest ash plume of the month rose > 2.5 km on 30 December. Volcanic swarms registered at a seismic station 2.3 km NW of Minamidake on 18-19 and 23 December. A total of 743 earthquakes were registered during the month. The ashfall measured at [KLMO] was 16 g/m3.

Volcanism at Sakura-jima in 1994 was generally moderate, with explosive activity during January-February and June-December. Explosions on 2 February broke windshields of two cars. The total number of eruptions in 1994 was 277, including 148 explosive ones.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA.