Report on Asosan (Japan) — August 1995
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 20, no. 8 (August 1995)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Asosan (Japan) Continued mud and water ejections; increasing tremor episodes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1995. Report on Asosan (Japan). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 20:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199508-282110.
32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The bottom of Naka-dake Crater 1 remained covered with a pool of hot water throughout August. The central part of the lake was gray, changing to grayish white or green near the margins. Mud and water ejections were frequently observed; the highest rose 10 m. Isolated tremors increased late in the month (recorded 800 m W of the crater). Isolated tremor events totalled 2,613 during August, and five earthquakes were detected. Tremor events continued increasing in early September; by the 10th there had been >2,000 counted.
Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.
Information Contacts: Volcanological Division, Seismological and Volcanological Department, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Ote-machi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100 Japan.