Report on Raung (Indonesia) — January 2004

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 29, no. 1 (January 2004)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Raung (Indonesia) Aviation reports describe ash plumes during 1999 to 2002

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Raung (Indonesia). In: Wunderman, R (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 29:1. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200401-263340.

Volcano Profile |  Complete Bulletin


Raung

Indonesia

8.119°S, 114.056°E; summit elev. 3260 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Raung volcano was last discussed in BGVN 27:07, when a pilot reported ash plumes to 4.6 km altitude in early June 2002. That issue of theBulletin also noted a Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) comment that Raung had been erupting for at least a decade, with recent eruptions being events within a single, broader eruptive period.

The Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) subsequently received reports that on 12 August 2002 ash was visible drifting NW of Raung around the summit level. The summit was partially obscured by clouds and no ash was identified on satellite imagery. On 25 August 2002, based on pilot observations and satellite imagery, the VAAC reported a visible ash plume rising to about 9.2 km, drifting to the W at high levels and to the E at lower levels.

The Darwin VAAC has an archive of their reports available on their website. Those for Raung are summarized in table 1. The last set of reports (25 August 2002) discussed a plume becoming increasingly diffuse over a 16.5-hour interval.

Table 1. Dates and principal comments in Darwin VAAC reports concerning Raung, July 1999-February 2004. Dates and times are not local but instead refer to the Prime Meridian, for example 04/2240Z means the fourth day of the stated month at 2240 UMT. Similar or duplicate message are not shown. In general, ash cloud trajectory information has been omitted. In a few cases the VAAC delineated bounding area surrounding an observed ash cloud ("OBS ASH CLOUD"), delineated with a series of latitude and longitude coordinates (eg. S00700, E11000; which translates to 7 degrees S, 110 degrees E). In the original reports, altitudes were given in shorthand (eg. FL 100, which corresponds to 10,000 feet altitude; 3,048.0 m altitude, but typically not known to better than two significant figures and thus here rounded to ~ 3.0 km altitude). Courtesy of the Darwin VAAC.

Date Text from Volcanic Ash Advisory
30 Jul 1999 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP reported plume height to FL 150 [~4.6 km altitude] and drifting to SW.
ASH CLOUD: 30/1025UTC IR satellite imagery shows cloud in the area with possible extension to the SSW. Nature of this extension not discernable.
09 Jul 2000 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA123.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash cloud active with growing plume reported at 09/0920 UTC. Height unknown.
ASH CLOUD: Visible satellite imagery at 09/0830 UTC shows Mt. Raung surrounded by scattered low- level clouds with a possible low-level ash plume extending 25 kilometres to the northwest. No evidence is visible on subsequent imagery.
02 Jun 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QANTAS, GMS Satellite Imagery.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL150 [~4.6 km altitude] reported 02/0825Z, drifting south at 15 knots.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 02/0825Z.
OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud not identifiable from satellite data.
05 Jun 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: Satellite Imagery.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Possible ash cloud below FL150 [~4.6 km altitude] drifting south at 10/15 knots.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 04/2240Z.
OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud identifiable from satellite data.
07 Jun 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: Satellite Imagery.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Possible ash cloud below FL150 [~4.6 km altitude] drifting SW at 10/15 knots.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 06/2334Z.
OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud identifiable from satellite data extending SW from Ruang 10NM either side of a line S0800 E11400 S0850 E11360.
12 Aug 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29 via QANTAS OPERATIONS, GMS/NOAA satellite.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL120 [~3.7 km altitude] reported at 12/0920Z, drifting northwest.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 12/0920Z.
OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud not identifiable from satellite data. Summit partially obscured by cloud.
25 Aug 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29, NOAA16 SATELLITE.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300 [~9.1 km altitude] reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards the east.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 28/0611Z.
OBS ASH CLOUD: S0807 E11402 S0812 E11342 S0807 E11335 S0800 E11347 S0807 E11402.
25 Aug 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29, NOAA16 SATELLITE, GMS SATELLITE.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300 [~9.1 km altitude] reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards the east.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 25/1332Z
OBS ASH CLOUD: FL100/350 [~10.7 km altitude] S0735 E11122 S0817 E11119 S0805 E11017 S0731 E11031 S0735 E11122.
25 Aug 2002 ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300 [~9.1 km altitude] reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards the east.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 25/1932Z
OBS ASH CLOUD: FL100/350 [~10.7 km altitude] S0700 E11000 S0800 E11000 S0800 E10630 S0700E10630 S0700 E11000. Ash cloud getting more diffuse and difficult todefine with satellite imagery.
25 Aug 2002 INFORMATION SOURCE: AIREP QFA29. NOAA/GMS SATELLITE.
ERUPTION DETAILS: Ash plume to FL300 [~9.1 km altitude] reported 25/0734Z drifting west, low-level drift towards the east.
OBS ASH DATE/TIME: 26/0132Z
OBS ASH CLOUD: Ash cloud not visible on satellite imagery.

Geologic Background. Raung, one of Java's most active volcanoes, is a massive stratovolcano in easternmost Java that was constructed SW of the rim of Ijen caldera. The unvegetated summit is truncated by a dramatic steep-walled, 2-km-wide caldera that has been the site of frequent historical eruptions. A prehistoric collapse of Gunung Gadung on the W flank produced a large debris avalanche that traveled 79 km, reaching nearly to the Indian Ocean. Raung contains several centers constructed along a NE-SW line, with Gunung Suket and Gunung Gadung stratovolcanoes being located to the NE and W, respectively.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Nia Haerani, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).