Report on Dukono (Indonesia) — April 2004
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 29, no. 4 (April 2004)
Managing Editor: Edward Venzke.
Dukono (Indonesia) Continuously erupting volcano with occassional MODIS satellite thermal alerts
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Dukono (Indonesia). In: Venzke, E. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 29:4. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200404-268010.
1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Dukono, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, erupts nearly continually. Unfortunately, satellite-based thermal alerts from MODVOLC processing and NASA's Terra satellite have thus far only occasionally disclosed Dukono activity. MODVOLC data appear on a dedicated website maintained by the University of Hawaii HIGP MODIS Thermal Alerts team. Coppola and Rothery previously reported a significant thermal event on Dukono during 26 August-7 September 2002 (BGVN 28:03). This was the first sign of Dukono activity indicated by MODVOLC data since the remote-sensing system began data collection in May 2000. Reports from the Volcanological Survey of Indonesia and the Darwin VAAC (BGVN 28:06, 28:09, 28:11, and 28:12) documented ash eruptions during February and June 2003, with activity continuing to at least January 2004.
An updated analysis of MODVOLC data for the observational period August 2000-April 2004 included thermal alerts from NASA's Aqua satellite. Alerts were triggerd for 26 August and 6 and 7 September 2002. They confirmed the August-September 2002 event, but found very little sign of subsequent activity through the end of April 2004. After September 2002 the only thermal alerts were single pixel events only slightly above the MODVOLC detection threshold. They took place on 1 March and 10 November 2003. Inspection of raw MODIS data revealed an additional anomaly on 17 November 2003, but the alert ratio was slightly below the MODVOLC detection threshold.
For an explanation of MODVOLC anomalies see BGVN 28:01 or the MODVOLC website. The scarcity of thermal alerts at Dukono, despite the recurrent ash eruptions, indicates the general invisibility (or small size) of any hot feature(s) there. Small to moderate sized ash columns would be unlikely to trigger an alert since they occur in a narrow time window.
Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.
Information Contacts: MODIS Thermal Alerts team, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa (URL: http://modis.hgip.hawaii.edu/); David A . Rothery and Charlotte Saunders, Department of Earth Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, United Kingdom.