Report on Asamayama (Japan) — October 2004
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 29, no. 10 (October 2004)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.
Asamayama (Japan) Pumice and lithic samples from September eruption chemically similar to older lavas
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Asamayama (Japan). In: Wunderman, R. (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 29:10. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN200410-283110.
36.406°N, 138.523°E; summit elev. 2568 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
An explosive eruption occurred from the summit crater of Asama at 2002 on 1 September 2004 (BGVN 29:08). Most of the initial reporting was in Japanese, although many of those reports had segments in English. Setsuya Nakada and Yukio Hayakawa provided links to initially available reports. In initial assessments of the eruption, investigators identified several distinct suites of ejecta, including darker- and lighter-colored groups. The ERI report also discussed a breadcrust bomb sampled at Kromamegawara 3.5 km NE of Asama's crater, which contained a vitric outer film and vesicular interior. ERI compiled some initial major element compositions on the of products of the 1 September eruption, including those taken on both fresh pumices (bombs) and lithics. Both types of materials were chemically close to lavas erupted in the years 1783, 1973, and 1108.
Geologic Background. Asamayama, Honshu's most active volcano, overlooks the resort town of Karuizawa, 140 km NW of Tokyo. The volcano is located at the junction of the Izu-Marianas and NE Japan volcanic arcs. The modern Maekake cone forms the summit and is situated east of the horseshoe-shaped remnant of an older andesitic volcano, Kurofuyama, which was destroyed by a late-Pleistocene landslide about 20,000 years before present (BP). Growth of a dacitic shield volcano was accompanied by pumiceous pyroclastic flows, the largest of which occurred about 14,000-11,000 BP, and by growth of the Ko-Asama-yama lava dome on the east flank. Maekake, capped by the Kamayama pyroclastic cone that forms the present summit, is probably only a few thousand years old and has an historical record dating back at least to the 11th century CE. Maekake has had several major plinian eruptions, the last two of which occurred in 1108 (Asamayama's largest Holocene eruption) and 1783 CE.
Information Contacts: Geological Survey of Japan, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (GSJ AIST) (URL: http://www.aist.go.jp/); Yukio Hayakawa, Faculty of Education, Gunma University, Aramaki 4-2, Maebashi Gunma 371-8510, Japan (URL: http://www.hayakawayukio.jp/English.html); Setsuya Nakada, Volcano Research Center, Earthquake Research Institute (ERI), University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan (URL: http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/VRC/index_E.html).