Report on Dukono (Indonesia) — June 2014

Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 39, no. 6 (June 2014)
Managing Editor: Richard Wunderman.

Dukono (Indonesia) Frequent minor ash plumes persist at least through July 2014

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Dukono (Indonesia). In: Wunderman, R (ed.), Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 39:6. Smithsonian Institution. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN201406-268010.

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Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Dukono, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, frequently ejects weak ash plumes, and our previous report summarized that activity through 13 September 2011 (BGVN 36:03). This report summarizes activity from that date through July 2014. Most of the data in this report come from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), which monitors activity through satellite remote sensing. The volcano has been in a state of near-continuous eruption since 1933. A map showing the location of Dukono can be found in BGVN 36:08.

Activity at Dukono through the reporting period was characterized by frequent weak explosions that ejected ash to altitudes usually in the range of 2.1-3 km (table 13, figure 5). Stronger explosions occurred occasionally, sending plumes to altitudes as high as 4.5 km. According to Darwin VAAC management reports, the VAAC issued 271 ash advisories for Dukono between July 2011-December 2012 and 116 advisories between January and November 2013.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5.Natural color photo taken on 28 April 2014 of an ash plume from Dukono. According to Darwin VAAC data presented in table 1, this plume was blown 65-280 km E. Image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite. Courtesy of NASA’s Earth Observatory (Jeff Schmaltz). 

MODVOLC thermal alerts for the reporting period are indicated in table 14. No alerts were issued between 14 September 2011 and 27 May 2012. The MODVOLC data indicate that the period 31 May-18 June 2012 was especially active. This is also partially reflected by the greater altitudes reached by the ash plumes during this period (table 13). The number of thermal alerts was also greater during 26 September-1 October 2012; however, the number of plumes or their heights during this period did not reflect greater volcanic activity.

Table 13. Ash plumes from Dukono based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data between 14 September 2011 and 17 July 2014. Each date or date range represents at least one plume. The table excludes data on numerous plumes between 30 June 2012 and 28 August 2013. Source data came aviation reports (VAAs) reported by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre.

Date Plume altitude (km) Plume drift
2011 Sep 27 2.1 75 km NW
2011 Oct 5-6, 8-9 2.1-2.4 75-83 km NE, SE
2011 Oct 22 3 110-185 km W
2011 Oct 27-Nov 1 2.1-2.7 35-110 km W, NW, NE
2011 Nov 3 2.1 75 km NE
2011 Nov 27-28 2.1 65-110 km NW
2011 Nov 29 2.1 65 km NW
2011 Dec 13-15 2.1 55-75 km SW
2012 Jan 30-31 2.7 220 km SW
2012 Feb 1-4 2.7 45-220 km SW
2012 May 8-9 3 75 km SE
2012 May 18 3 55 km E
2012 May 25 4.5 18 km SE
2012 May 27-28 4.5 93-130 km E, NE
2012 May 28-29 3 75 km NE
2012 Jun 18 3 110 km W
2012 Jun 19 3 85 km W
2012 Jun 28-29 3 75 NE, E
2012 Jun 30-2013 Aug 28 Frequent Various
2013 Aug 29, Aug 29-Sep 3 2.4-3 80-240 km W, NW
2013 Sep 17 3 45 km NE
2013 Sep 23 3 75 km NE
2013 Oct 18-23 2.1-2.7 35-150 km NE, E
2013 Dec 18 2.1 more than 35 km E
2013 Dec 24 3 55 km N
2013 Dec 25-27 3 35-75 km NNW, N, SE
2014 Jan 4-5 2.1 35-55 km SE
2014 Jan 13-14 3 110 km NE
2014 Jan 20-23 3 75-157 km NE
2014 Jan 28 4.3 140 km E
2014 Jan 29 3.7 75 km SE
2014 Jan 31-Feb 4 2.1 55-185 km S, SE, E
2014 Feb 5-6 2.1 55 km S, SW
2014 Feb 9-11 2.1-4.3 40-90 km NW, NE
2014 Feb 17 3.7 55 km SSW
2014 Feb 20, 22-23 2.1 55-150 km E, SE, SSE
2014 Mar 1-2 3.7 55-100 km E, SE
2014 Mar 11 2.1 75 km SE
2014 Mar 14 2.1 90-160 km NW
2014 Mar 16-17 2.4 130-150 km SW
2014 Mar 20-25 2.4-2.7 45-100 km SE, E, NE
2014 Mar 27-28 3 65-150 km W, NW
2014 Apr 10-13, 15-19, 21-22 1.8-2.4 65-280 km SE, E
2014 Apr 23-May 6 2.4-3 35-185 km E, SE, SW, W, ESE
2014 May 8-9, 12 2.4 75-110 km W, SW, WNW
2014 May 24 3.4 65 km W
2014 May 28 2.1 75 km NW
2014 May 29 3 65 km W
2014 Jun 3-4 2.1 55-150 km N, NW
2014 Jun 5 3.7 55 km NW
2014 Jun 9 1.5-1.8 25-30 km NW
2014 Jun 11 2.4 more than 35 km NE
2014 Jun 27-28 2.1 45-75 km NE, E
2014 Jul 12-15 2-3 NE
2014 Jul 17 1.8 55 km NE

Table 14. List of MODVOLC thermal alerts at Dukono recorded between 14 September 2011 and 31 July 2014. The first pixel recorded during this period was on 28 May 2012. Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology.

Date Alert Pixels
28 May 2012 1
31 May 2012 2
02 Jun 2012 2
09 Jun 2012 2
10 Jun 2012 2
14 Jun 2012 2
18 Jun 2012 2
15 Sep 2012 1
26 Sep 2012 2
01 Oct 2012 2
26 Mar 2013 1
13 May 2013 1
22 May 2013 1
28 Apr 2014 1
01 Jun 2014 1
13 Jun 2014 1

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/).