Report on Krafla (Iceland) — May 1977
Natural Science Event Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 5 (May 1977)
Managing Editor: David Squires.
Krafla (Iceland) Decline in seismicity following deflation event much less than after prior episodes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1977. Report on Krafla (Iceland). In: Squires, D (ed.), Natural Science Event Bulletin, 2:5. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.NSEB197705-373080.
65.715°N, 16.728°W; summit elev. 800 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Caldera floor inflation of about 1 cm/day resumed on 29 April, two days after the 27 April deflation event. Seismicity has declined to 400-1,000 events per day, in contrast to rapid declines after previous deflation episodes to less than 10 events/day (figure 3). Hydrothermal activity remained higher than before 27 April.
Geologic Background. The Krafla central volcano, located NE of Myvatn lake, is a topographically indistinct 10-km-wide caldera that is cut by a N-S-trending fissure system. Eruption of a rhyolitic welded tuff about 100,000 years ago was associated with formation of the caldera. Krafla has been the source of many rifting and eruptive events during the Holocene, including two in historical time, during 1724-29 and 1975-84. The prominent Hverfjall and Ludent tuff rings east of Myvatn were erupted along the 100-km-long fissure system, which extends as far as the north coast of Iceland. Iceland's renowned Myvatn lake formed during the eruption of the older Laxarhraun lava flow from the Ketildyngja shield volcano of the Fremrinamur volcanic system about 3800 years before present (BP); its present shape is constrained by the roughly 2000 years BP younger Laxarhraun lava flow from the Krafla volcanic system. The abundant pseudocraters that form a prominent part of the Myvatn landscape were created when the younger Laxarhraun lava flow entered the lake.
Information Contacts: G. Sigvaldason, NVI; P. Einarsson, Univ. of Iceland.