Report on Toya (Japan) — February 1979
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 4, no. 2 (February 1979)
Managing Editor: David Squires.
Toya (Japan) Cryptodome uplift rate continues decline; 2 year history summarized graphically
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1979. Report on Toya (Japan) (Squires, D., ed.). Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 4:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN197902-285030.
42.544°N, 140.839°E; summit elev. 733 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
No explosions occurred in January 1979. The average number of local earthquakes/day declined slightly, from 84 in December to 76 in January (figure 16), and the rate of cryptodome uplift also showed a small decrease. The ground deformation continued NW of the volcano, but stopped to the N, NE, and E (figure 17).
|Figure 17. Map of Usu and vicinity, with the area affected by severe ground deformation shaded. Courtesy of JMA.|
Geologic Background. Usuzan, one of Hokkaido's most well-known volcanoes, is a small stratovolcano located astride the southern topographic rim of the 110,000-year-old Toya caldera. The center of the 10-km-wide, lake-filled caldera contains Nakajima, a group of forested Pleistocene andesitic lava domes. The summit of the basaltic-to-andesitic edifice of Usu is cut by a somma formed about 20-30,000 years ago when collapse of the volcano produced a debris avalanche that reached the sea. Dacitic domes erupted along two NW-SE-trending lines fill and flank the summit caldera. Three of these domes, O-Usu, Ko-Usu and Showashinzan, along with seven crypto-domes, were erupted during historical time. The 1663 eruption of Usu was one of the largest in Hokkaido during historical time. The war-time growth of Showashinzan from 1943-45 was painstakingly documented by the local postmaster, who created the first detailed record of growth of a lava dome.
Information Contacts: JMA, Tokyo.